1. 3 COPS under UNFCC
  2. 17th COP, Durban (2011)?
  3. 18th COP Doha (2012) Outcomes?
    1. Kyoto extended
    2. Agreement for 2020
    3. Misc outcomes in DOHACOP11
    4. 1.Gender balance, 2.Vulnerable junta
    5. 3.LDCs, 4.Web registry
    6. 5.PR, 6.Forestry
    7. 7.Capture n Store, 8.Tech transfer
    8. 9.Fallout
  4. Problem/Challenges @DohaCOP18
    1. No Money, No Compensation
    2. Agriculture kept out, too little too late
    3. Civil society ignored
    4. more nations to leave the game
    5. Problem: AAU surplus selling
    6. Mock Questions
3 COPS under UNFCC.
Year COP# CMP*# Where?
2011 17 7 Durban, S.Africa
2012 18 8 Doha, Qatar
2013 19 9 Warsaw, Poland

*CMP= Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (and Kyoto is under UNFCC).

*CoP: Conference of Parties

Before looking @18th COP (Doha, Qatar), let’s get an overview of what happened during.

17th COP, Durban (2011): Key Outcomes
  • It established a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, which will begin on January 1, 2013 and end either on December 2017 or December 2020.
  • Japan, Russia and Canada refused to join the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • post 2020 arrangements would be finalized by 2015 and implemented from 2020.
  • quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives (QELROs) for developed country Kyoto Protocol Parties will be determined during 2012.
Durban Platform
  • To discuss the post 2020 arrangements for global climate change regime.
Web registry
  • web-based registry was also agreed upon to be set up under the management of the UNFCCC Secretariat.
  • This registry will serve as a platform for the developing countries to upload their Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs).
Green Climate Fund
  • to support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing nations.
  • The Fund will start operating from 2013
  • developed nations will provide money in this fund

18th COP Doha (2012): Outcomes?

  • 18th session of the COP to the UNFCCC, was held @Doha, Qatar.
  • It has resulted in a set of decisions (clubbed together as ‘Doha Climate Gateway’)

Kyoto extended

  • The first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol was ending on 31 December 2012.
  • In 17th COP (Durban, S.Africa, 2011) we had agreed that Kyoto’s extension will be either upto on December 2017 or December 2020.
  • But here @18th COP (Doha, Qatar, 2012), we agree that second period of Kyoto protocol
    • Will start from 1 January 2013 and
    • End @31st Dec 2020.
    • =Kyoto extended for total 8 years.
Players What is their stand?
  1. China
  2. India
Lolz, as developing countries, we are not legally required to cut down our emissions, so we’ve nothing to lose here. (Actually more cash to gain via Green climate fund!)
  1. Russia
  2. New Zealand
  3. Japan
  4. Canada
WAIT! This stupid protocol doesn’t bind China or India cut their emissions! The whole concept of “CBDR” (Common But Differentiated Responsibility) is a big joke. Why should we be the sacrificial lambs?We don’t want to be in this second commitment period of Kyoto.
USA hahaha, be it first commitment or second commitment, I had never ratified the Kyoto protocol. So, adios suckers.

Kyoto Mechanism Continue

  • We’ll will also extend Protocol’s Market Mechanisms – the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and International Emissions Trading (IET).
  • (although there is a problem / challenge with trading of surplus AAUs. Explained @bottom of this article).

Agreement for 2020

  • We’ll speedily work toward a climate change agreement applicable to all countries from 2020, to be adopted by 2015.
  • We’ll scale up our efforts before 2020 to meet the gap in global ambition for emissions reduction.


  • We’ll launch a robust process to review the long-term temperature goal.
  • This will start in 2013 and conclude by 2015. This review will be is a reality check on how big the climate change threat is and what further action is needed to prevent it.
Money and funding issues
Developed countries
  • They’ve reiterated commitment to mobilize US$100 billion to developing countries by 2020.
  • But they didnot give any specific targets for mid-term financing (between 2013-2017).
Germany, UK, France, Denmark, Sweden and EU
  • they made Finance pledges worth total $6 billion for period upto 2015
Green Climate Fund
  • (Its office) will be hosted in the Songdo district in Incheon city of South Korea.
  • Most likely to start operation in 2014.

By the way,
What is Green Climate Fund?

  • financial mechanism of the UNFCCC
  • to transfer money from the developed to the developing world, so they can counter climate change
2010 16th Cancun COP launched Green climate fund
2012 18th COP decided that Green climate fund will be hosted in S.Korea


Misc outcomes in DOHACOP11
1.Gender balance
  • We’ll strive for gender balance in our countries negotiating teams.
2.Vulnerable junta
  • for vulnerable population (e.g. those living in costal areas that’ll get submerged in future).
  • We’ll create concrete institutional arrangements to help them
  • parties agreed for ways to implement National Adaptation Plans for least developed countries (LDCs)
  • also funding and other support for LDCs
4.Web registry
  • Recall that in 17th COP (Durban,Africa, 2011) this web registry was launched.
  • Now the parties have completed a registry to record for developing country that seek recognition or financial support for their mitigation programs.
  • climate change education and training
  • create public awareness
  • enable the public to participate in climate change decision-making
  • enhance the efforts to fight deforestation.
7.Capture n Store
  • under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism
  • we’ll work on projects to capture and store carbon emissions
8.Tech transfer
  • developed countries will help transfer (secret james bond) technology to the developing countries so they can curb their GHG emissions.
9.-ve fallout
  • In some cases, if one country tries to reduce emissions, it could result in negative economic or social consequences for other countries.
  • In Doha, governments discussed measures to address such consequences in a special forum.


Problem/Challenges @DohaCOP18
No funding Just like RIO+20. Here too, the developed nations didn’t give firm time table for money transfer. With more and more players exiting the game, the promose of raising 100 billion USD at the end of 2020, seems like a “mission impossible”.
No Compensation Vulnerable countries vociferously demanded compensation mechanism for loss and damage resulting from climate change. But no agreement was reached.
Agro kept out
  • Agriculture is responsible for 14% of the global emissions.
  • But there was no agreement among parties to cut down emission from this sector. (because developing countries like India don’t want any “haste” in this matter.)
Others first
  • EU says will raise its target of cutting emissions by 20 percent by 2020 to 30 percent only if other countries showed sufficient commitment.
too late
  • There is a provision in the agreement for countries to tighten their emissions targets in 2014
  • but many developing countries think that by the time any review is instigated it may already be too late to keep temperature rises below 2°C.
Civil society
  • although COP18 itself was held @Doha Qatar but lot of meetings between parties were done in various countries.
  • It is easier for big MNCs to lobby at so many places.
  • But for an NGO/Civil society it is not easy to participate / travel in so many places and voice their concerns due to lack of money/funding. Thus UNFCC itself restricts participation of people.
more nations to leave the game
  • Belarus has hinted that it may withdraw from Kyoto.
  • Kazakhstan and Ukraine also in same mood.

Problem: AAU surplus selling

What is AAU?

  • AAU=Assigned amount units
  • AAUs are tradable emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Observe the words:
  • Tradable= can be sold from one country to another. Countries whose emissions are above their emissions reduction target, can purchase AAUs from other countries that have surpluses.
  • Emission permits= One AAU (permit) allows a country to emit 1 metric tonne of CO2.
  • By the way “Hot air”= term used to describe surplus AAUs held by Russia, Ukraine and other former soviet bloc countries.

AAU carryover

  • @DOHACOP18, Parties agreed that if any country had accumulated surplus AAU (permits) during 1st period of Kyoto then those permits will be valid for second period also.
  • 1st Problem= Russia has left the game, so those permits are useless for them.
  • Russia wants to sell away those AAU surplus to other players who’re still in the game for second period of Kyoto protocol (2013-2020).
  • This leads us to second problem

AAU Selling:
@DOHACOP, parties agreed that

  • Surplus AAUs (from 1st period) can be sold and purchased during 2nd period of Kyoto.
  • BUT condition: the selling party must be in the game for 2nd period (2013-2020)

2nd problem: Russia has lot of surplus AAUs. But Russia has withdrawn itself from second commitment period of Kyoto. Therefore, Russia cannot sell its surplus AAU permits to other players who are still in the game e.g. Germany or France.

Mock Questions


  1. Correct Statement
    1. The next COP under UNFCC will be held in Seoul, South Korea.
    2. The next COP under CBD will be held in Warsaw, Poland.
    3. Both
    4. None
  2. As per the COP18 under UNFCC, Kyoto Protocol is extend to 31st December ____
    1. 2015
    2. 2017
    3. 2020
    4. None of above
  3. Which of the following country has withdrawn itself from second commitment period of Kyoto?
    1. UK
    2. France
    3. New Zealand
    4. Germany
  4. Correct Statements about Green Climate fund
    1. It was launched during the recent COP held @Doha, Qatar.
    2. Fund will be hosted in Warsaw, Poland
    3. It aims to transfer money from developed countries to developing countries to achieve Aichi targets.
    4. None of above.
  5. Correct Statements about AAUs
    1. AAUs are tradable emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol.
    2. One AAU is equivalent to 100 metric tonnes of CO2.
    3. Both
    4. None
  6. From north to south, correct order?
    1. Kuwait, Bagdad, Doha
    2. Doha, Kuwait, Bagdad
    3. Bagdad, Kuwait, Doha
    4. None of Above
  7. Incorrect statement about Poland
    1. It shares border with Germany and Ukraine.
    2. It is a landlocked country
    3. It’ll host next conference of parties under UNFCC.
    4. All of above.