- What is sustainable development?
- India and GHG
- India and Sustainable development
- National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
- Hill areas: challenges and solutions
- Sustainable Agriculture Development
- Coastal Zone Management
- Forest and Tree Cover
This three article series contains gist of Economic survey ch.12 + 12th FYP’s chapter on Sustainable development. (MINUS RIO+20, COP18-Doha and COP11-Hyderabad, because they were already covered and available on Mrunal.org/enb
|Part 1 of 3||Basics + 8 missions of NAPCC|
|Part 2 of 3||Industries, Housing, transport|
|Part 3 of 3||Financing the climate change and some challanges in clean energy|
- When a local mafia cultivates sugarcane using bio-fertilizer, bio-insecticides and drip-irrigation, runs his distillery on solar or wind power, uses earthen-pots instead of polythene bags for distributing his final-product, then we can say he is brewing desi liquor in a sustainable manner.
- Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
- This definition was given by Brundtland Commission in 1987.
- Official name of Brundtland Commission = World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)
- Name of their report = “Our Common Future”
- India has signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)
- India has acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, although as a developing country, India (or China) doesn’t have compulsory targets for emission reduction.
- But still, India has given voluntary commitment that “by 2020 we’ll reduce the GHG emission intensity of our GDP by 20-25% of 2005 level.”
- Globally, India’s policy to achieve sustain-able development is guided by the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibility’ (CBDR). India is one of the countries that prefer an ‘aspirational’ rather than a mandatory or ‘prescriptive’ approach for emission reduction.
- It is estimated that India’s per capita emission in 2031 will still be lower than the global per capita emission in 2005
- 2005: global =4.22tonnes of CO2 equivalent
- 2031: India = under 4 tonnes
- India is part of 94 Multilaterals Environmental Agreements including
- Ramsar Convention on Wetlands,
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES),
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- Environmental protection is even provided in the Constitution
- environment protection is enshrined in our Constitution
- DPSP: Article 48A
- Fundamental duties: 51A
- Concurrent list: forest; protection of wild animals and birds.
Where is Sustainable angle?
|12th Five Year plan (2012-17)||Theme: faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth.|
|National Environmental Policy (NEP)||It says, The development which respects ecological constraints and the imperatives of social justice, is sustainable development.|
|National Agricultural Policy (NAP)||Use of country’s natural resources should be
|National Electricity Policy (NEP)||Underscores the use of renewable sources of energy.|
|National Urban Sanitation Policy||
^This list is not exhaustive, it has become a fashion to plug “sustainable development” everywhere so in almost every government policy you’ll find them talking about sustainable development.
|2008||PM launched NAPCC.|
|2009||PM requested state govt. to prepare SAPCC. (State Action plan on climate change).So far, 21 state governments have prepared such plans.|
|(Jawaharlal Nehru) National solar mission. To achieve following things by 2022
Himalayan Eco System
- acts as a giant carbon ‘sink’.
- forms a considerably large part of identified Himalayan Biodiversity global hotspot.
|States covered entirely||name|
|Partially (2)||The hill districts of Assam and West Bengal|
Now let’s see what 12th FYP has to say
- Sustainable Management of Himalayan Ecosystem and Western Ghats
- Continue following programs in 12th FYP
- Hill Area Development Programme (HADP)
- Western Ghats Development Programme (WGDP)
- An Indian Alpine Initiative should also be started for tracking the dynamics of alpine biomes in the context of climate change.
- most of the hill areas lack infrastructure, particularly roads, power, educational institutions and health care centres.
- These areas deserve high priority under the flagship programmes, particularly Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and the National Health Mission (NHM).
- many nation-wide programmes are not suitable for hilly areas, for example, wages should be higher than the wages pre-scribed under MNREGA.
- Bill to include the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council Area in the Sixth Schedule needs to be expeditiously considered.
- Pricing water and electricity appropriately will help recharge the depleting aquifers.
- Shift urea to a nutrient-based subsidy regime.
- improve the welfare of farmers and agricultural labour, and help eradicate rural poverty
Coastal areas are currently classified into four categories (CZ 1 to 4) with different levels of permissions for development activities.
|1||ecologically sensitive areas|
|2||permit construction activities based on vulnerability|
Swaminathan Committee (on coastal zone regulation) has recommended that local circumstances and vulnerabilities should be the basis of coastal zone management and regulations.
- There is already a Green India mission under NAPCC.
- But The business-as-usual scenario will however, not suffice.
- The 12th FYP wants green India mission to be re-organized into a more comprehensive ‘National Mission for a Green India’.
- Mission is still being finalized, but the realistic aim would to double the present reforestation and afforestation efforts to about 2 mha of forest and tree cover annually.
Mock Questions given @end of part 3 of 3.