1. Instructions
  2. Philosophy Paper I: Section A
  3. Philosophy Paper 1: Section B
  4. Philosophy Paper 2: Section A
  5. Philosophy Paper II: SectionB


  1. There are EIGHT questions divided in two SECTIONS. Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.
  2. Questions no. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each section.
  3. The number of marks carried by a question /part is indicated against it.
  4. Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  5. Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
  6. Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.
  7. 250 marks | 3 hours for each paper.

Philosophy Paper I: Section A

Q1 Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each :x5=50

  1. Explain and evaluate Strawson’s arguments for his conception of the nature of a person.
  2. Explain Wittgenstein’s arguments against the possibility of private language.
  3. Distinguish necessary from empirical propositions. How is a necessary proposition justified ? Explain.
  4. Discuss how by refuting the different concepts of substances Aristotle establishes his own theory of substance.
  5. What is an antinomy ? Describe the major antinomies discussed by Kant.

Q2. Four questions x 12.5 marks each x 200 words each

  1. Explain Plato’s ontological theory of Forms. Is knowledge’ one of the Forms ? Give reasons.
  2. State Kant’s view of causality. How far is Kant able to answer Hume’s objection that causal relation lacks logical necessity ?
  3. Distinguish between atomic and general propositions. Show how they are justified true.
  4. Write a short critical essay on Spinoza’s conception of freedom of the individual.

Q3. Four questions x 12.5 marks each x 200 words each

  1. Explain Descartes’ method of doubt. Can this method be used to justify his belief in the existence of God ? Argue your case.
  2. Comment : ‘Movement is contradiction itself.’ Examine, in this context, Hegel’s dialectical method.
  3. Examine John Locke’s theory of substance.
  4. Examine Sartre’s distinction between Being-for-itself and Being-in-itself.

Q4. Four questions x 12.5 marks each x 200 words each

  1. Comment : Moore’s defence of common sense essentially is defence of ordinary language.’
  2. Analyse Kierkegaard’s concept of choice. Can there be, in his view, correct or incorrect choice ? Discuss.
  3. Give a critical account of Leibnitz’s principle of the identity of indiscernible.
  4. Give a critical account of Hume’s theory of the Self.

Philosophy Paper 1: Section B

Q5. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each 10×5=50

  1. Analyse the relation between the theory of saptabhanginaya and anekantavada.
  2. Explain the Buddhists’ position of ‘Impermanence’ and show how the idea of Impermanence leads to the theory of momentariness of reality.
  3. How is the pramanya (validity/truth) of a statement determined ? Examine, in this context, the theory of paratah-pramanyavada.
  4. Explain the possibility of jivanmukti. Critically compare it with the Yoga account of kaivalya.
  5. Explain Sri Aurobindo’s conception of cosmic salvation through spiritual evolution of the individual.

Q6. Four questions x 12.5 marks each x 200 words each

  1. Describe the five types of differences (panchavidhabheda). Bring out their philosophical significance for Madhva’s theory.
  2. What is samavaya ? What are the grounds for accepting samavaya as a distinct padartha ? Discuss.
  3. Evaluate the relation, if any, between purusa and prakrti.
  4. How can isavara (God) be distinguished from Brahman (Absolute) ?      Which of the two concepts are philosophically better ?

Q7. Four questions x 12.5 marks each x 200 words each

  1. Analyse the Nyaya concept of vyapti and examine its relation to tarka.
  2. Evaluate Prabhakara Mimamsaka’s arguments for accepting sruti as pramana.
  3. Examine the Nyaya-Vaisesika arguments for the existence of jivatma(soul).
  4. Distinguish between Svarupa laksana and Tatastha laksana of Brahman after ankara.

Q8. Four questions x 12.5 marks each x 200 words each

  1. Comment : ‘Accepting sunyavada makes one indifferent to the pursuit of dharma.’ Examine, in this context, Nagarjuna’s arguments for sunyavada.
  2. ‘Not karma, but knowledge alone leads to moksa.’ (Samkara). Do you agree ? Justify your nswer.
  3. Evaluate Ramanuja’s critique of Samkara’s theory of maya.
  4. Give a critical account of the concept of cittravrtti in Yoga philosophy.

Philosophy Paper 2: Section A

Q1. Answer all the five parts below critically in not more than 150 words each: 10×5=50

  1. Does corruption have not only a moral dimension but also an economic dimension?
  2. What is the significance of including duties of citizens in the Indian Constitution?
  3. Does the idea of equal respect to all religions provide a consistent and viable state policy?
  4. Does the combination of democracy and socialism lead to a more equitable society?
  5. Is there any impact of caste discrimination on democracy in Indian context?

Q2. 15+15+20 (250 words each)

  1. What is meant by ‘democracy’? What are the various forms of democratic governments?
  2. Is a democratic government able to represent the interests of minority groups?
  3. Is a democratic government better than a benevolent dictatorship? Give reasons for your answer.

Q3. 15+15+20 (250 words each)

  1. What do you understand by ‘gender equality’ and why is it important?
  2. Is economic independence essential for equality between men and women?
  3. Why is adequate representation of women in political institutions important in this context?

Q4. 15+15+20 (250 words each)

  1. Explain and evaluate Aristotle’s conception of justice.
  2. What is meant by justice as fairness’? Explain the basic tenets of Rawls’ theory of justice.
  3. How is Amartya Sen’s approach to justice different from that of Rawls?

Philosophy Paper II: SectionB

Q5. Discuss the following critically in not more than 150 words each :x5=50

  1. Is God indispensable for religion?
  2. Is religious morality consistent with individual freedom?
  3. Is there anything else other than human efforts which may be conducive to attainment of liberation?
  4. Do theists succeed in explaining the natural evil in the world as a necessary counterpart to good?
  5. Is religious faith opposed to reason?

Q6. 15+15+20 (250 words each)

  1. State and elucidate the cosmological argument for the existence of God in Western and Indian philosophy.
  2. Discuss two main objections against this argument. Are theists able to answer these satisfactorily?
  3. Critically evaluate three major objections against the argument from design for the existence of God.

Q7. 15+15+20 (250 words each)

  1. What is the nature of mystical experience?
  2. Is mystical experience open to different interpretations?
  3. Can mystical experience be regarded as a valid source of knowledge?

Q8. 15+15+20 (250 words each)

  1. What is meant by saying that religious language is non-cognitive?
  2. Can religious language be said to be verifiable?
  3. Do cognitivists provide a cogent answer to the objection based on falsifiability?