1. Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945)
  2. RTI denied on Bose files
  3. Muthuramalinga Thevar (1903-1963)
  4. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar (1891-1956)
  5. Mock Questions

Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945)

  • Born in Orissa, studied at Cambridge, passed Indian Civil service (ICS) without coaching, but did not join it. Tagore gave him the title “Desh Nayak”.
  • 1920s: Upon Gandhi’s advice, Bose worked under mentorship of Chittaranjan Das, Participated in NCM and Khilafat and got arrested.
Timeline: Subhas Chandra Bose and India’s struggle for Independence
1922 When Gandhi stopped Non-Cooperation movement (NCM) after Chauri-Chaura incident, Bose called it a “National Calamity”.
  • Chittaranjan Das become Mayor of Calcutta and Bose the CEO of Calcutta Corporation.
  • But, Bose deported to Rangoon for alleged involvement with revolutionaries.
1927 Bose returns to India, but Bengal Congress fell into disarray after death of Chittaranjan Das. Bose contests election to become President of Bengal congress.
1920-34 Bose pens hisautobiography- “The Indian Struggle”, seeks help from European leaders but gets arrested.
  • Civil Disobedience movement gradually waned and Gandhi withdrew from active politics.
  • Bose called Gandhi a “Failed Political Leader”.
1938 Bose is the President of Congress session at Haripur.  National planning Committee was setup under Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Bose elected as president of Tripuri session by defeating Gandhi’s favorite candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya. But later, opposition from Gandhi-supporters forced him to resign from Congress.
  • Bose moved on to setup Forward bloc and Kisan Sabha.
  • Bose was placed under house arrest but escaped to Kabul and sought Soviet help to defeat British. But soviets joined the allied forces in WW2, so Bose’s plan failed.
  • Later, Bose sought the help of Nazis and Japanese, to fight against British empire.
  • Bose makes regular speeches from Nazi sponsored “Azad Hind radio”.
  • Captain Mohan forms Indian National Army (INA) with the help of Japanese, at Singapore.
1943 Bose revives Azad Hind Fauj (INA), with recruitment of 60,000 Indians from Burma, Malaya and other Southeast Asian countries.
  • INA marches along with Japanese soldiers and captures Kohima.
  • Captain Laxmi Sehgal commanded the ‘Rani Jhansi Regiment’. Later she joined CPI (Marxist), won Padma Vibhushan and died in 2012.
1945 Japan surrenders after Atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • 1945-46: Nationwide strikes for release of INA prisoners.
  • August, Bose boarded a plane to Tokyo but died a crash in Taiwan.
1956 Shah Nawaz Committee report says he died in a plane crash.
1970 Justice Khosla commission says the same.
2005 Justice Mukherjee commission report says Bose did not die in a plane crash, but he’d have died by now due to old age. Government rejected this report.

RTI denied on Bose files

One NGO files RTI, it is revealed that PMO has dozens of files on Bose, including:

  1. Bose’s letters to wife Emilie Schenkl and daughter Anita.
  2. Justice Mukherjee commission’s report on Bose’s death.
  3. Documents related to transfer of his ashes to India
  4. Files on the assets/treasures of INA (Indian National Army).
  5. file about Netaji’s mortals kept in Japan’s Rankoji temple.

Second NGO/website owner files RTI to get copy of Bose’s letters to his wife and daughter. PMO denies information under RTI section 8 (1)(a).

Section 8/1/a of RTI exempts information if it’ll negatively affect India’s

  • India’s relations with foreign states
  • India’s sovereignty and integrity
  • India’s scientific, security, strategic or economic interests.

Although PMO did not specifically say our relations will be hurt with which foreign country.

2015, January: Left parties ask Modi to declassify the files related to Bose, and declare his birthday- January 23 as “Desh Prem Diwas”.

Muthuramalinga Thevar (1903-1963)

  • Topic in news because Dr. Subramanian Swamy asked Civil aviation ministry to name Madurai airport after this freedom fighter.
  • Muthuramalinga Thevar too had left Congress to create Forward bloc, along with Subhash Chandra Bose. (So according to Swamy- Congress gave step-motherly treatment to Thevar, just like Subhash Bose and Sardar Patel.)
  • Thevar had spearheaded trade union movement in Madras presidency, and served as a member of parliament thrice.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar (1891-1956)

  • He was born at Mahu, Madhya Pradesh, went to Baroda, Columbia and London for higher education.
  • Dr. Ambedkar was a recipient of the Bharat Ratna, educationist, Constitutional expert, legal luminary, social reformer and political leader.
Sector Dr.Ambedkar’s work
Federal distribution of Taxes
  • PhD thesis “The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India (1923)
  • This paper gave academic basis for the Finance Commission of India
  • Helped the Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance in 1925
  • Wrote a book “The Problem of the Rupee- Its Problems and Its Solution”
  • Those ideas were incorporated in RBI act, 1934
Labour welfare
  • Labor minister in Viceroy’s council
  • Reduced factory working hours from 12 to 8 (1942)
  • Gave the idea setting up of employment Exchange
  • Helped setting up Central Technical Power Board
  • Later evolved into National Power Grid System
Irrigation Pivotal role in setting up

  • Central Water Irrigation and Navigation Commission.
  • Damodar Valley project, Hirakud project and Sone river project.
  • Chairman of Constitution Drafting Committee
  • Saw Indian Constitution as a powerful instrument of socio-economic transformation.
  • Hence added the provisions for full accountability of the Government, checks and balances, protection of fundamental rights, independent institutions.
  • As Law minister in free India, he Introduced Hindu Code bill to apply Hindu laws uniformly throughout India.
  1. Mook Nayak (Marathi)
  2. Bahishkrit Bharat
  3. Prabhuddha Bharat
  1. Annihilation of Caste (1936)
  2. Thoughts on Pakistan
  3. Mr. Gandhi and emancipation of untouchables
  1. Bahishkrit Hitkarni sabha (1924)
  2. Siddhartha college in Mumbai
  3. People’s Education Society (1945)
  • Independent labour party (1936)
  • Republican Party (1956)

Mock Questions

Q1. Consider following statements

  1. Subhash Chandra Bose supported Gandhi’s decision to stop NCM after Chauri Chaura.
  2. Bose was defeated by Gandhi’s candidate P.Sitaramayya at Haripur session.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B

Q2. Who among the following were closely associated with Bose?

  1. Captain Laxmi Sehgal
  2. Captain Mohan
  3. Chittaranjan Das
  4. Muthuramalinga Thevar

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 1, 2 and 3
  3. Only 1,2 and 4
  4. All of them

Q3. Bose was elected as president of Congress sessions at ____ and ____

  1. Haripur, Tripura
  2. Tripura, Calcutta
  3. Haripur, Tripuri
  4. Calcutta, Cuttak

Q4. The title of S.C.Bose’s autobiography is

  1. Indian freedom struggle
  2. India’s struggle for independence
  3. Freedom struggle of India
  4. The Indian struggle.

Q5. Which of the following were setup by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar ?

  1. Independent Labour party
  2. Republican party
  3. Forward Bloc

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. All of them

Q6. Subhash Chandra Bose was born in ____ and given title of ____ by Tagore.

  1. Kolkata, Desh Nayak
  2. Kolkata, Jan Nayak
  3. Odisha, Jan Nayak
  4. Odisha, Desh Nayak

Mains General Studies Paper 1

  1. Critically evaluate the contribution of Dr.B.R Ambedkar in pre and post independent India.
  2. Discuss in brief the Subhachandra Bose’s struggle for Indian independence.

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