[Freedom fighters] Subhas Chandra Bose- RTI denied, Muturamalinga Thevar & Dr. B.R.Ambedkar

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  1. Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945)
  2. RTI denied on Bose files
  3. Muthuramalinga Thevar (1903-1963)
  4. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar (1891-1956)
  5. Mock Questions

Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945)

  • Born in Orissa, studied at Cambridge, passed Indian Civil service (ICS) without coaching, but did not join it. Tagore gave him the title “Desh Nayak”.
  • 1920s: Upon Gandhi’s advice, Bose worked under mentorship of Chittaranjan Das, Participated in NCM and Khilafat and got arrested.
Timeline: Subhas Chandra Bose and India’s struggle for Independence
1922 When Gandhi stopped Non-Cooperation movement (NCM) after Chauri-Chaura incident, Bose called it a “National Calamity”.
  • Chittaranjan Das become Mayor of Calcutta and Bose the CEO of Calcutta Corporation.
  • But, Bose deported to Rangoon for alleged involvement with revolutionaries.
1927 Bose returns to India, but Bengal Congress fell into disarray after death of Chittaranjan Das. Bose contests election to become President of Bengal congress.
1920-34 Bose pens hisautobiography- “The Indian Struggle”, seeks help from European leaders but gets arrested.
  • Civil Disobedience movement gradually waned and Gandhi withdrew from active politics.
  • Bose called Gandhi a “Failed Political Leader”.
1938 Bose is the President of Congress session at Haripur.  National planning Committee was setup under Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Bose elected as president of Tripuri session by defeating Gandhi’s favorite candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya. But later, opposition from Gandhi-supporters forced him to resign from Congress.
  • Bose moved on to setup Forward bloc and Kisan Sabha.
  • Bose was placed under house arrest but escaped to Kabul and sought Soviet help to defeat British. But soviets joined the allied forces in WW2, so Bose’s plan failed.
  • Later, Bose sought the help of Nazis and Japanese, to fight against British empire.
  • Bose makes regular speeches from Nazi sponsored “Azad Hind radio”.
  • Captain Mohan forms Indian National Army (INA) with the help of Japanese, at Singapore.
1943 Bose revives Azad Hind Fauj (INA), with recruitment of 60,000 Indians from Burma, Malaya and other Southeast Asian countries.
  • INA marches along with Japanese soldiers and captures Kohima.
  • Captain Laxmi Sehgal commanded the ‘Rani Jhansi Regiment’. Later she joined CPI (Marxist), won Padma Vibhushan and died in 2012.
1945 Japan surrenders after Atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • 1945-46: Nationwide strikes for release of INA prisoners.
  • August, Bose boarded a plane to Tokyo but died a crash in Taiwan.
1956 Shah Nawaz Committee report says he died in a plane crash.
1970 Justice Khosla commission says the same.
2005 Justice Mukherjee commission report says Bose did not die in a plane crash, but he’d have died by now due to old age. Government rejected this report.

RTI denied on Bose files

One NGO files RTI, it is revealed that PMO has dozens of files on Bose, including:

  1. Bose’s letters to wife Emilie Schenkl and daughter Anita.
  2. Justice Mukherjee commission’s report on Bose’s death.
  3. Documents related to transfer of his ashes to India
  4. Files on the assets/treasures of INA (Indian National Army).
  5. file about Netaji’s mortals kept in Japan’s Rankoji temple.

Second NGO/website owner files RTI to get copy of Bose’s letters to his wife and daughter. PMO denies information under RTI section 8 (1)(a).

Section 8/1/a of RTI exempts information if it’ll negatively affect India’s

  • India’s relations with foreign states
  • India’s sovereignty and integrity
  • India’s scientific, security, strategic or economic interests.

Although PMO did not specifically say our relations will be hurt with which foreign country.

2015, January: Left parties ask Modi to declassify the files related to Bose, and declare his birthday- January 23 as “Desh Prem Diwas”.

Muthuramalinga Thevar (1903-1963)

  • Topic in news because Dr. Subramanian Swamy asked Civil aviation ministry to name Madurai airport after this freedom fighter.
  • Muthuramalinga Thevar too had left Congress to create Forward bloc, along with Subhash Chandra Bose. (So according to Swamy- Congress gave step-motherly treatment to Thevar, just like Subhash Bose and Sardar Patel.)
  • Thevar had spearheaded trade union movement in Madras presidency, and served as a member of parliament thrice.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar (1891-1956)

  • He was born at Mahu, Madhya Pradesh, went to Baroda, Columbia and London for higher education.
  • Dr. Ambedkar was a recipient of the Bharat Ratna, educationist, Constitutional expert, legal luminary, social reformer and political leader.
Sector Dr.Ambedkar’s work
Federal distribution of Taxes
  • PhD thesis “The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India (1923)
  • This paper gave academic basis for the Finance Commission of India
  • Helped the Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance in 1925
  • Wrote a book “The Problem of the Rupee- Its Problems and Its Solution”
  • Those ideas were incorporated in RBI act, 1934
Labour welfare
  • Labor minister in Viceroy’s council
  • Reduced factory working hours from 12 to 8 (1942)
  • Gave the idea setting up of employment Exchange
  • Helped setting up Central Technical Power Board
  • Later evolved into National Power Grid System
Irrigation Pivotal role in setting up

  • Central Water Irrigation and Navigation Commission.
  • Damodar Valley project, Hirakud project and Sone river project.
  • Chairman of Constitution Drafting Committee
  • Saw Indian Constitution as a powerful instrument of socio-economic transformation.
  • Hence added the provisions for full accountability of the Government, checks and balances, protection of fundamental rights, independent institutions.
  • As Law minister in free India, he Introduced Hindu Code bill to apply Hindu laws uniformly throughout India.
  1. Mook Nayak (Marathi)
  2. Bahishkrit Bharat
  3. Prabhuddha Bharat
  1. Annihilation of Caste (1936)
  2. Thoughts on Pakistan
  3. Mr. Gandhi and emancipation of untouchables
  1. Bahishkrit Hitkarni sabha (1924)
  2. Siddhartha college in Mumbai
  3. People’s Education Society (1945)
  • Independent labour party (1936)
  • Republican Party (1956)

Mock Questions

Q1. Consider following statements

  1. Subhash Chandra Bose supported Gandhi’s decision to stop NCM after Chauri Chaura.
  2. Bose was defeated by Gandhi’s candidate P.Sitaramayya at Haripur session.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B

Q2. Who among the following were closely associated with Bose?

  1. Captain Laxmi Sehgal
  2. Captain Mohan
  3. Chittaranjan Das
  4. Muthuramalinga Thevar

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 1, 2 and 3
  3. Only 1,2 and 4
  4. All of them

Q3. Bose was elected as president of Congress sessions at ____ and ____

  1. Haripur, Tripura
  2. Tripura, Calcutta
  3. Haripur, Tripuri
  4. Calcutta, Cuttak

Q4. The title of S.C.Bose’s autobiography is

  1. Indian freedom struggle
  2. India’s struggle for independence
  3. Freedom struggle of India
  4. The Indian struggle.

Q5. Which of the following were setup by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar ?

  1. Independent Labour party
  2. Republican party
  3. Forward Bloc

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. All of them

Q6. Subhash Chandra Bose was born in ____ and given title of ____ by Tagore.

  1. Kolkata, Desh Nayak
  2. Kolkata, Jan Nayak
  3. Odisha, Jan Nayak
  4. Odisha, Desh Nayak

Mains General Studies Paper 1

  1. Critically evaluate the contribution of Dr.B.R Ambedkar in pre and post independent India.
  2. Discuss in brief the Subhachandra Bose’s struggle for Indian independence.

Visit Mrunal.org/HISTORY for entire Archive of History-Culture related articles published so far.

Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

19 Comments on “[Freedom fighters] Subhas Chandra Bose- RTI denied, Muturamalinga Thevar & Dr. B.R.Ambedkar”

  1. Thanks Mrunalji for enlisting the contributions of Dr. B.R Ambedkar for this country. Who otherwise is only know as a dalit icon.

  2. does any one here have joined synergy or vajiram or gs score test series.
    I have joined vision both pre n mains so can’t afford any other test series.
    we can exchange or share cost

  3. To add,Captain Laxmi Sehgal remained a social activist in independent India .She fought President election against APJ Kalam unsuccessfully.

  4. Great
    but aspirants may augment the topic on Dr.B.R.Ambedkar by adding his contributions for WOMEN, which are equally important.

  5. sir after reading your post all questions are answerable but some times there confusion
    , so it will be great , if you post answers of these questions.

  6. Unknown Facts about “Founding Father Of Modern India” – REVOLUTIONARY DR.BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR:

    *) Prof. Amartya Sen, 6th Indian to get Prestigious Nobel Prize winning economist claimed, “Dr. Ambedkar is my Father in Economics.”

    *) Hindu Code Bill: Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar resigned from the post of the first Law Minister of India when his noble ‘Hindu Code Bill’ a women’s Rights for Indian Women dropped by then Prime Minister Nehru. But None of the women’s organisation talks about it. The contribution of Dr.Babasaheb for women empowerment in India is totally ignored and hiding. For three years, he fought to get the Bill passed. It was the greatest ever social reform in India. It is nothing but declaration of women rights. It spoke of giving back dignity to Indian women and giving equal rights to boys and girls. They are Rights to property, Order of succesion to property, marriage, divorce, guardianship. It was by any time a revolutionary measure and first step towards the recognition and empowerment of women in India. By these a women will have property in her own right and able to dispose of her property. The orthodoxy in the ruling party led by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee didn’t allow this bill to be passed. Even the women member Sarojani against for these women rights.

    *) As a Labour Member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council between 1942 and 1946, Dr.Babasaheb framed many laws for women labours in India. They are,
    a. Mines Maternity Benefit Act,
    b. Women Labour welfare fund,
    c. Women and Child, Labour Protection Act,
    d. Maternity Benefit for women Labour,
    e. Restoration of Ban on Employment of Women on Underground work in Coal Mines,
    f. Indian Factory Act.

    *) Adult franchise: Now all Indians have right to vote without bias in gender or caste or class or literacy or religion. It was Revolutionary Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar who voiced as the first person in India for the ‘Universal Adult Franchise’ before the Southborough Commission. Later he voiced before the Simon Commission for all Indians without bias in gender, Caste, Class, literacy and religion. I don’t know how many Indians know, it was because of Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar who conferred the fundamentals of democratic principle ‘Adult franchise’ in the Indian social reality i,e right to vote to every Indian without any discrimination through the Indian Constitution. For this, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar faced the radical problem from Mr. Vallabhai Patel. Today Our constitution granted voting rights to all Indian women as a right because of him. But before Independent India, it is not easy task for everyone ‘right to vote’ even men also. Mostly the Right to vote was given only to those the rich, the landed and the tax payers.

    *) The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), formed in 1934, was based on the ideas that Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.

    *) All Finance Commission Reports:
    The original source of reference for all the Finance Commission reports, in a way, are based on Dr.Babasaheb’s P.hd thesis, “The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India”, written in 1923. The man who started the provision for finance commission every 5 years in the Indian Constitution was none other than Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.

    *) Thoughts on Linguistic States: Dr.Babsaheb had recommended to the States Reorganisation Commission in 1955 for the division of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharastra and Uttar Pradesh. He envisaged the division of Madhya Pradesh into northern and southern states. He had suggested division of Bihar split into two, with Patna and Ranchi as the capitals way back in 1955 for the better development of states. Also he recommended of the States Reorganisation Commission in 1955 for the creation of Hyderabad State consisting of Telangana region. Further, he envisaged the division of Uttar Pradesh into three States (Western, Central and Eastern); and Maharashtra into three (Western,Central and Eastern). After almost 45 years both states Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand were formed in the year 2000. Now Telangana state in 2014.

    *) India’s 1st Law Minister.

    *) Only an Indian whose photo in London Museum along with Karl Marx.

    *) He incorporated The wheel of Dhamma chakra also known as Ashoka Chakra in the Indian national flag and the Lions from an Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath was adopted as National Emblem.

    *) Chief Architect of Indian Constitution.

    *) Revolutionary and a Revivalist for Our Indian Orgin BUDDHISM in India again.

    *) 1st Indian who graduated DSc in Economics.

    *) 1st Ph.D in Economics and 1st double doctorate in Economics in South Asia.

    *) As a Labour Member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council between 1942 and 1946, Dr.Babasaheb framed many laws for labours in India. They are,

    1. Reduction in Factory Working Hours (8 hours duty):
    Today the working hours in India per day is about 8 hours. Really I do not know how many Indians know, Dr.Babasaheb was the Saviour of Labours in India. He brought 8 hours duty in India and change the working time from 14 hours to 8 hours became a light for workers in India. He brought it on the 7th session of Indian Labour Conference in New Delhi, November 27, 1942.

    2. National Employment Agency (Employment Exchange):
    Dr.Babasaheb was instrumental in bringing the establishment of employment exchanges. He created employment exchanges in India as the labour member in Provincial government in British India after the end of 2nd world, so also the tripartite mechanism of settling labour issues through trade unions, labours and the government representatives and introducing skill development initiative in the government sector. Due to his rentless efforts ‘National Employment Agency’ was created.

    3. Employees State Insurance (ESI):
    ESI helps the workers with medical care, medical leave, physically disabled during working injuries as compensation Insurance for providing various facilities. Dr.Babasaheb enacted and brought it for the benefit of workers. Actually India only brought ‘Insurance Act’ as the first nation among the East Asian countries. Credit goes to Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar.

    4. Foundation for Water resources and Electricity development in India :
    Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar laid the foundation for water resources and electricity development, the two sectors which are so crucial for the development of India when he was Member, Labour, Irrigation and Electric Power Department in the Executive Council of the Viceroy during 1942- 46. His major achievement was the establishment of two technical organizations, presently known as ‘Central Water Commission’ and ‘Central Electricity Authority’, that have contributed for the development of irrigation and power in the country. He only created the Central Technical Power Board (CTPB) on 8th November 1944 for power system development, hydro power station sites, hydro-electric surveys, analysing problems of electricity generation and thermal power station investigation. He suggested interlinking of major south Indian rivers. Dr.Babasaheb emphasised on the significance and need for the “Grid System”, which is still working successfully even today. If today power engineers are going abroad for training, the credit goes to Dr.Babasaheb again, who formulated policy to train the best engineers-overseas.

    5. Coal and Mica Mines Provident Fund:
    * At the time, Coal Industry played a vital role in our country’s economy. Due to this, Dr.Babasaheb enacted the Coal Mines Safety (Stowing) Amendment Bill for the benefit of the workers on January 31st, 1944.
    * On 8th April 1946, he brought the Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund which helped the workers with housing, water supply, education, entertainment, co-operative arrangements.

    6. Labour Welfare Funds:
    Dr.Babasaheb set up an Advisory Committee to advise on matters arising out of the Labour Welfare under B.P. Agarkar. Later he promulgated it on January, 1944.

    7. Indian Statistical Law:
    In 1942, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar passed the Indian Statistical Act. Later DK.Paisendry ( Former Deputy Principal, Information Officer, Government of India) said in his book, without Dr.Babasaheb’s Indian Statistical Act he could not formulated the Labor conditions , their wage rates , other Income , Inflation , debt , housing , employment , deposits and other funds , labour disputes.

    8. Post War Economic Planning:
    When 2nd World war ended, there were many challenges for India, such as re-establishing the economy; including improvement in agriculture, development of industries, rehabilitation and re-deployment of defense services etc. For this, the Reconstruction Committee of Council (RCC) was established. Dr.Babasaheb was a member of RCC and was assigned the role of the President of “Policy Committee for Irrigation and Power”. Of great significance but less well known among Dr.Babasaheb’s contribution to the nation was his direct participation in the formulation of objective and strategy of post-war economic plan and planned development of water and electric power resources in the country. Dr.Babasaheb was directly involved in framing of the objective and strategy of economic planning and water and electric power policy though he made a substantial contribution to the economic planning and water and electric power resource development in this position, surprisingly, this aspect of his contribution has hardly been studied. [ For more about ‘Post War Economic Planning’ Refer: Dr.Ambedkar’s Role in Economic Planning Water and Power Policy by Sukhadeo Thorat ]

    9. The Indian Trade Unions (Amendment) Bill:
    Indian Labour Act was enacted in 1926 . This helped only to register the trade unions . But it did not approved by the government. On 8 November, 1943 he brought the Indian Trade Unions (Amendment) Bill for Compulsory recognition of trade unions.

    10. Instrumental in creating the Multi Purpose River Valley Projects and Large Dam Technologies in India:
    Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar who was the Instrumental in creating the Multi Purpose River Valley Projects and Large Dam Technologies in India. If there any person who played the most central role in introducing large dam technologies and Multi Purpose Projects into India, the person was none other than Revolutionary Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar. According to Petty minded Indians, Dr.Babasaheb is mostly related only with two things. One is ‘Architect of Indian Constitution’ and other as the leader of some particular section. But “Founding Father of Modern India” who contributed in the various field to our nation is totally ignored and hiding.

    After all how many Indians know Dr.Babasaheb was instrumental in creating and outlined the projects like,
    1) Damodar Valley project ( the first multipurpose river valley project in India ) in 1944 on the lines of Tennessee Valley Authority,
    2) Bhakra-Nangal dam ( India’s biggest multipurpose river valley project, Highest gravity dam in India ),
    3) The Sone River Valley projects and
    4) Hirakud dam ( Longest dam in India )

    In 1945, the plan outlined under the chairmanship of Dr.Babasaheb, it was decided to invest in the potential benefits of controlling Odisha rivers particularly Mahanadi for the multipurpose use to conserve water, serve irrigation, generating electric power etc., Mr.B.K. Gokhale, Adviser, the then H. E. the Governor of Orissa, welcoming the plan outlined by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar to invest in the potential benefits of controlling Odisha rivers particularly Mahanadi for the multipurpose use to conserve water, serve irrigation, generating electric power etc., and said: ” Orissa is perhaps the most backward part of India and no single project is likely to do more to improve the conditions of the people than the multipurpose development which we have under contemplation. He outlined the history of Orissa up to modern times. Orissa expected that the thought which had been given to planning and regional development would start her on an era of happiness and prosperity.”

    11. Dearness Allowance ( DA) to Workers.
    12. Leave Benefit to Piece Workers.
    13. Revision of Scale of Pay for Employees.
    14. Health Insurance Scheme.
    15. Provident Fund Act.
    16. Labour Disputes Act.
    17. Minimum wage.
    18. Legal Strike.

    *) 1st person who passed 10th Matriculation from deppressed Class in India. He just scored 382 out of 750 marks in 1908.
    *) B.A – (Politics and Economics) Bombay university in 1912.
    *) M.A – (Economics) For thesis on ‘Ancient Indian Commerce’ at Columbia University, America in 1915.
    *) Ph.D – (Economics) Thesis entitled ‘National Divided for India – A Historic and Analytical Study’ at Columbia University in 1917.
    *) D.Sc – (Economics) For the thesis ‘Problem of the Rupee’ at London School of Economics and Political Science in 1920.
    *) M.Sc – (Economics) Thesis ‘Provincial De-Centralization of Imperial in British India’ at the University of London in 1921.
    *) Bar-at-Law from Gray’s Inn in London (1923).
    *) P.hd – (Economics) For thesis on ‘The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India’ at Columbia University, America in 1925.
    *) LLD – (Honoris) Columbia University, New York. For his achievements, Leadership and authoring the constitution of India.
    *) D.Litt – (Honoris) Osmania university. For his achievements, Leadership and writing the constitution of India.
    *) Political Economics – Germany.
    *) 1st Indian who graduated D.Sc in Economics.
    *) 1st Ph.d in Economics and 1st double doctorate in Economics in South Asia.

    Great constitutionalist, Greatest Revolutionary, Bodhisattva, a parliamentarian, Economist, Sociologist, Great politician, Indian Jurist, Buddhist activist, Philosopher, Thinker, Anthropologist, Historian, Orator, Prolific writer, Social reformer.

    Unfortunately he is neglected by the INDIANS and always branded him only as a leader of particular sect. His contribution in the various field to our nation is totally ignored and hiding.

    With regards,
    Tamil Nadu.

    1. Your post is awesome Mr. Ambeth. You had torn the planned disclosure by the Indian Politicians regarding the achievements and reforms in various fields and to all the sections of people in our country by our forefather Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

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