- Thiruvalluvar (30 BC)
- T.Chennaiah (1912-1985)
- C. Iyodhee Thass Pandithar (1845-1914)
- Ayyankali (1863-1941)
- Chinnaswami Subramanya Bharathi (1882-1921)
- Mock Questions
- Tiruvallaur was a Tamil weaver by profession and Poet-Saint-Philosopher by heart.
- He wrote “Tirukkural (Sacred Couplets)” on human thoughts and ethics. It is considered a masterpiece similar to John Milton’s Paradise Lost.
- In this book, He classified problems of life under 3 parts: (1) Virtue (2) Wealth (3) Love and wrote 133 chapters on them.
- And yes, one chapter is entirely dedicated to evils of desi liquor alone.
Notable Quotes from Tirukkural:
- The wounds made by fire will heal, But the wound made by tongue will never heal. (Curiosly, UPSC asked essay on similar theme in Mains-2014!)
- Before badgering a weak person, imagine yourself before a more powerful man.
- Real kindness seeks no return; What return can the world make to rain clouds?
- Even the ignorant may appear very worthy, If they keep silent before the learned.
- Determined efforts result in prosperity; Idleness brings nothing.
- Learning is the true imperishable wealth.
- Let thoughts be always great and grant.
Why is Thiruvalluvar in news?
- HRD ministry Smriti Irani says she’ll introduce Tirukkural in school syllabus and essay competition on his birthday in 2015.
- January 15th – His birthday is a public holiday in Tamilnadu and Puducherry
- His statue is to be installed in Moscow, Russia. We’ll reciprocate by installing statue of Russian Poet Aleksandr Pushkin in Chennai.
- While setting up Niti Ayog, Government said It’ll be guided by principles of Thiruvalluvar, Ambedkar, Vivekanand et al.
Why in news: 16th November 2012 was his 100th Birthday. But government took no initiative to celebrate. So His followers decided to observe the birth centenary in 2014.
- T.Chennaiah was a Dalit freedom fighter from Kolar region, Karnataka
- He was member of Constituent assembly, Worked closely with Gandhi and Ambedkar.
- He was part of the Vidurashwattha protest- infamously called “Jalianwallabagh of the South” because 9 people were killed in police firing.
- Chennaiah actively campaigned for Goa Liberation, Karnataka unification
- He served as a minister in Mysore Government; later Rajya Sabha MP.
- Worked for Kolar region Development- irrigation reforms, hostels for poor students etc.
Why in News? 100th Death Anniversary in 2014.
- C.Iyodhee Pandithar was a dalit Social reformer of Tamilnadu. He ran a weekly – “Tamilan”, and supported Theosophical society’s founder Colonel H.S. Olcott.
- Pandithar reinterpreted Indian history and believed that Dalits were originally Buddhists, but Brahmins stigmatised them as ‘untouchables’ by after those Buddhists denounced caste system.
- He called them “Adi Dravidars”- original Dravidans and began “Dravid Buddha Sangam”.
- He criticized Indian National Congress as “Brahmin Congress”. Later Dr. Ambedkar and E.V. Ramasamy Periyar too had similar stand.
Topic in news because 152nd Birth Anniversary and Modi gave speech.
- Ayyankali belonged to Pulaya agricultural labor community of Kerala
- Was a labour leader and social reformer.
- Fought for dalit rights in Tranvacore kingdom.
- But never allowed bitterness to creep into the social fabric.
- Ayyankali formed Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham and Kayal Sammelan.
- Gandhi was impressed with his work, and came to meet him.
||No, Ayaankali did not form that organization. It was KP Kurrupan.|
Q.write a 100 words note on the contribution of Chinnaswami Bharathi,in india’s struggle for independence.
- Freedom fighter, Poet, social reformer from Tamilnadu.
- 1907: During “Surat split” he joined the extremist wing led by Tilak and Aurobindo. (in other words, did not like the moderates’ ideas of prayer and petition)
- Through his poem, he advocated women empowerment, caste reforms, social equity and equality.
- 1908: French gave him political asylum in Puducherry (1908-1918). Composed patriotic songs and revolutionary poems for Aurobindo’s journals.
- Also called “Mahakavi Bharathiyar”
- Person in news because BJP wants his Varanasi house to be converted into a national monument.
Q1. Who was Thiruvalluvar?
- He co-authored “Manimekhlai” along with Tolkappiyam.
- He wrote a treaties on ancient astrology and medicine, titled “Tirrukal”.
- Both A and B
- Neither A nor B
Q2. Which of the following pairs are matched correctly?
- T.Chennaiah: Tamilnadu
- Iyodhee Thass Pandithar: Kolar region
- Both A and B
- Neither A nor B
Q3. Which of the following had joined the Extremist group of Congress after Surat Split?
- Iyodhee Pandithar
- Chinnaswami Bharati
- (GS4) Discuss in brief, relevance of Thiruvalluvar’s teachings for ethics in Modern India.
- (GS1) Write a note on notable Dalit freedom fighters to South India.
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