1. Prologue
  2. GSM1-Topicwise Questions since Pattern change in 2013
  3. [Block-1] History
  4. [Block-2] Social Science
  5. [Block-3] Geography


  • I recently published a video lecture on Mains Answer Writing ki Pipudi DAY#1 se बजानी है की नही? Misguided UPSC Aspirants’ FAQ#1
  • Before I release the next video in that series, I need to give reference to the previous years’ topicwise Mains papers of UPSC since 2013-19.(ताकि दूसरे विडियो मे, में जब बोलू की “ये पुराने प्रश्न आप टोपिकवाइज़ आप देख लेना”, तो देने के लिए पहेले से आर्टिकल का लिंक मांगता है!)
  • So, basically this article gives you the Question paper in Topicwise manner. If you want to download question papers in year-wise manner, then please visit official website of UPSC.

GSM1-Topicwise Questions since Pattern change in 2013

Category GS Mains Paper-1 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
History Culture 20 40 25 25 10 35 10
History Freedom struggle 30 30 25 37.5 65 10 50
History World History 40 30 25 12.5 10 15 15
History Post independence 50 0 0 0 0 0 0
Society Religion, Region, empowerment 10 10 37.5 37.5 50 35 35
Society Poverty, Population, Development 0 10 25 12.5 0 40 0
Society Globalization Impact 10 0 12.5 12.5 0 15 15
Society Women 10 30 12.5 0 0 15 35
Geography Climate 10 20 37.5 12.5 60 10 55
Geography Disaster 10 10 0 12.5 15 0 0
Geography Urbanization 10 0 25 25 15 15 15
Geography Physical 20 20 0 0 10 20 0
Geography Resources 20 20 25 62.5 0 10 10
Geography Industrial Location 10 30 0 0 15 30 10
Total   250 250 250 250 250 250 250

In 2013, UPSC changed the syllabus-pattern of Mains examination and the number of general studies papers were increased from two to four. Out of them, GS Paper-I deals with History, Culture, Society and Geography. Overall breakup looks like this

[Block-1] History

Analysis for UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1 History

  • ?‍?Watch my FREE Lecture video, I’ve given detailed analysis, model answers & common mistakes of the History-Culture section of GSM1-2019 Paper, & roadmap/strategy for Mains-2020. Please go through it. Overall scene is:
  • Keep a habit of solving the previous papers (since 2013) because sometimes the same question themes get repeated. e.g. “foreign influence on Gandhara art: asked in 2014 and again asked 2019.”
  • ??Culture: Traditional prep sources (like Nitin Singhania, NCERT) are giving mixed utility. But if you go for higher end books (A.L. Bhasham etc.) = poor Cost:Benefit.
  • ??Freedom Struggle: Plassey to Partition book (also available in Hindi) MUST be read. Because, since the last 3 years, verbatim themes have been lifted from there (e.g Fragmented polity in the later Mughal Era, Women Issues that gained prominence in 19th century freedom struggle etc). So if you use any other book like Bipan or Spectrum you’ll not be able to assemble the answer in the tone/way in which UPSC examiner has framed the question. For Mains Freedom struggle, You may even ignore Bipan Chandra’s book, as long as doing Plassey to partition the book is done thoroughly.
  • ??World History: Hardly one question from this part in recent years. Recommended sources
  • Post independent India: No questions in recent years, including 2019’s paper. But at least land reform, economic angles, and individual Prime Minister’s foreign policy should  be prepared  due to their relevance in GSM2 and GSM3 as well. Source: Bipan Chandra’s India since independence. But read only selected chapters. Not the entire book.

Answer writing for UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1: History

History: Art & Culture

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Salient aspects of Art, Architecture, literature from Ancient to Modern Times

Highlight the Central Asian and Greco -Bactrian elements in Gandhara art. (गांधाराई कला में मध्य एशियाई एवं यूनानी-बैक्ट्रियाई तत्वों को उजागर कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Discuss. 2018
Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. 2018
The Bhakti movement received a remarkable re-orientation with the advent of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Discuss. 2018
How do you justify the view that the level of excellence of Gupta numismatic art is not at all noticeable in later times? 2017
Early Buddhist Stupa-art, while depicting folk motifs and narratives successfully expounds Buddhist ideals. Elucidate. 2016
Krishnadeva Raya, the King of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss. 2016
The ancient civilization in Indian sub-continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without a breakdown to the present day. Comment. 2015
Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a tine aesthetic sense comparable to modem painting. Critically evaluate this comment. 2015
To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss. 2014
Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain. 2014
Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss. 2014
Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu / Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment. 2014
Though not very useful from the point of view of a connected political history of South India, the Sangam literature portrays the social and economic conditions of its time with remarkable vividness. Comment. 2013
Discuss the Tandava dance as recorded in the early Indian inscriptions. 2013
Chola architecture represents a high watermark in the evolution of temple architecture. Discuss. 2013

History: India before Independence

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Mid-18th century – Present (significant events, personalities, issues); Freedom Struggle (various stages, important contributors from different parts of the country)

The 1857 Uprising was the culmination the recurrent big and small local rebellions that had occurred in the preceding hundred years of British rule. Elucidate. (1857 का विप्लव ब्रिटिश शासन के पुर्ववर्ती सौ वर्षों में बार-बार घटित छोटे एवं बड़े स्थानीय विद्रोहों का चरमोत्कर्ष था | सुस्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
Examine the linkages between 19th centuries ‘Indian Renaissance’ and the emergence of national identity. (उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के ‘भारतीय पुनर्जागरण’ और राष्ट्रीय पहचान के मध्य सहलग्नताओं का परिक्षण कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
Many voices had strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement during the Gandhian phase. Elaborate. (गांधीवादी प्रावस्था के दौरान विभिन्न स्वरों ने रास्ट्रवादी आंदोलन को सुदृढ़ एवं समृद्ध बनाया था | विस्तारपूर्वक स्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (15m,250 words) 2019
Assess the role of British imperial power in complicating the process of transfer of power during the 1940s. (1940 के दशक के दौरान सत्ता हस्तान्तरण की प्रक्रिया को जटिल बनाने में ब्रिटिश साम्राज्यिक सत्ता की भूमिका का आकलन कीजिए | ) (15m,250 words) 2019
Throw light on the significance of the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi in the present times. 2018
Clarify how mid-eighteenth century India was beset with the spectre of a fragmented polity. 2017
Why did the ‘Moderates’ fail to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed ideology and political goals by the end of the nineteenth century? 2017
Examine how the decline of traditional artisanal industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy. 2017
The women’s questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What were the major issues and debates concerning women in that period? 2017
Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since twenties of the last century. 2017
Explain how the Uprising of 1857 constitutes an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India. 2016
Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase. 2016
Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. 2016
How different would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss. 2015
It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years but for the experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss. 2015
The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat? 2014
Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence. 2014
In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India? 2014
Defying the barriers of age, gender and religion, the Indian women became the torch bearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. 2013
Several foreigners made India their homeland and participated in various movements. Analyze their role in the Indian struggle for freedom. 2013
In many ways, Lord Dalhousie was the founder of modern India. Elaborate. 2013

History: India After independence

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Post-Independence (consolidation and reorganisation within country)

Critically discuss the objectives of Bhoodan and Gramdan movements initiated by Acharya Vinoba Bhave and their success. 2013
Write a critical note on the evolution and significance of the slogan “Jai Jawana Jai Kisan”. 2013
Discuss the contribution of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to pre-and post-independent India. 2013
Analyze the circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement. 2013
Critically examine the compulsions which prompted India to play a decisive roles in the emergence of Bangladesh. 2013

History: world

GS1 Syllabus Topic: 18th century events (e.g. Industrial revolution, WWs, redrawn boundaries, colonisation, decolonisation); Political philosophies (e.g. communism, capitalism, socialism) and their effect on society

Explain how the foundations of the modern world were laid by the American and French revolution. (स्पष्ट कीजिए की अमरीकी एवं फ्रांसीसी क्रांतियों ने आधुनिक विश्व की आधारशिलाएं किस प्रकार निर्मित की थीं |) (15m,250 words) 2019
Why indentured labour was taken by the British from India to other colonies? Have they been able to preserve their cultural identity over there? 2018
What problems were germane to the decolonization process of Malay Peninsula. 2017
The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine. 2016
Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present? 2015
To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically 2015
What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India? 2014
What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power? 2014
The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate. 2014
“Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what west had experience. 2013
Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse. 2013
American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate. 2013
What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression? 2013

[Block-2] Social Science

Analysis for UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1 Globalization

  • ?‍?Watch my FREE Lecture video, I’ve given detailed analysis, model answers & common mistakes of  the Social-Science section of GSM1-2019 Paper, & roadmap/strategy for Mains-2020. Please go through it. Overall scene is:
  • As such direct answers were not available for most of the social science questions asked in GSM-2019. But you could use following resources for preparing fodder material:
  • (?Free download) NCERT 11-12 Sociology and Political Science textbooks. Do not worry about its complex theories and thinkers just read it as story book,
  • (?Free download) IGNOU MPS-003 material book1 and 2.
  • Majid Hussain’s book on Indian Geography (हिन्दी मे भी उपलब्ध):  Ch13- Cultural settings Census and data about religious, linguistic, ethnic groups
  • Past Economic Surveys (e.g. Son-meta preference, demographic dividend, etc You can quote in the answer as and when required.)
  • Yojana-Kurukshetra magazine issues related to women and health (population)
  • Newspaper Columns.
  • Here also, solve previous papers from 2013 onwards. questions / themes get repeated.
  • Book Companies have published titles on this subject of “Poverty and communalism and women issues” (just to milk cash on the new syllabus of UPSC) but they’re just copypasted stuff from wikipedia & census, offering very little value addition to above (mostly free) material. So, I am not recommending a separate book for the subject.

Answer writing for UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1 Women Issues

Social Science: Caste, Religion, Region, Globalization

GS1 Syllabus Topic:

  • Communalism, Regionalism, Secularism; Social Empowerment
  • Salient features of Indian Society; Diversity of India;
“Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, caste system cannot be eradicated in India.” Comment. 2018
How the Indian concept of secularism is different from the western model of secularism? Discuss. 2018
‘Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation. Argue by giving suitable illustrations. 2018
The spirit tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate. 2017
Distinguish between religiousness/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former has got transformed into the latter in independent India. 2017
In the context of diversity of India, can it be said that the regions form cultural units rather than the States? Give reasons with examples for your viewpoint. 2017
What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence, addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? 2017
Has the formation of linguistic States strengthened the cause of Indian Unity? 2016
Why are the tribals in India referred to as the Scheduled Tribes? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment. 2016
What is the basis of regionalism? Is it that unequal distribution of benefits of development on regional basis eventually promotes regionalism? Substantiate your answer. 2016
Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, despite having divergent approaches and strategies, had a common goal of amelioration of the downtrodden. Elucidate. 2015
Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity. 2015
Debate the issue of whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity work towards annihilation of caste. 2015
How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West? 2014
Growing feeling of regionalism is an important factor in the generation of demand for a separate state. Discuss. 2013

Social Science: Poverty, Population, Globalization

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Poverty, Population; Development and associated issues

What makes Indian society unique in sustaining its culture? Discuss. (क्या बात है जो भारतीय समाज को अपनी संस्कृति को जीवित रखने में अद्वितीय बना देती है ? चर्चा कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
What are the challenges to our cultural practices in the name of secularism. (धर्मनिरपेक्षता के नाम पर हमारी सांस्कृतिक प्रथाओं के सामने क्या-क्या चुनौतियां हैं ?) (10m,150 words) 2019
Do we have cultural pockets of small India all over the nation? Elaborate with examples. (क्या हमारे राष्ट्र में सर्वत्र लघु भारत के सांस्कृतिक क्षेत्र हैं ? उदाहरणों के साथ सविस्तार स्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (15m,250 words) 2019
‘Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing.’ Explain by giving reasons. 2018
Discuss whether formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India. 2018
Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India and explain the nature of convergence, collaboration and competition for its success. 2018
“An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples 2016
Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty OR poverty is the main cause of population increase in India. 2015
Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades. 2015
The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss. 2014

Social Science: Globalization

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Globalisation (effects on Indian society)

Are we losing our local identity for the global identity? Discuss. (क्या हम वैश्विक पहचान के लिए अपनी स्थानीय पहचान को खोते जा रहे हैं ? चर्चा कीजिए | ) (15m,250 words) 2019
‘Globalization is generally said to promote cultural homogenization but due to this cultural specificities appear to be strengthened in the Indian Society. Elucidate. 2018
Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India. (2013, Asked about Globalization effect on Elderly) 2015
To what extent globalization has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain. 2016
Critically examine the effects of globalization on the aged population in India. 2013

Social Science: Women

  • GS1 Syllabus Topic: Role of women and women’s organisation;
  • Although some of the following questions fall under populationglobalization categories, but if a person cultivates habit of noting down women related topics under one head, it’ll benefit in both GS1, GS2 and Essay.
“Empowering women is the key to control population growth”. Discuss (“महिला सशक्तिकरण जनसंख्या संवृद्धि को नियंत्रित करने की कुंजी है |” चर्चा कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
What are the continued challenges for women in India against time and space? (भारत में महिलाओं के समक्ष समय और स्थान संबंधित निरंतर चुनोतियाँ क्या-क्या है ?) (15m,250 words) 2019
‘Women’s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata. Substantiate your view. 2018
How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes? 2015
How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India? 2014
Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India. 2014
Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments. 2014
Male membership needs to be encouraged in order to make women’s organization free from gender bias. Comment. 2013

[Block-3] Geography

Analysis for UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1

  • ?‍?Watch my FREE Lecture video containing my detailed analysis, model answers & common mistakes of the Geography’s Climate-change section in GSM-2019 Paper, & roadmap/strategy for Mains-2020. Overall scene is:
  • ?‍? Rajtanil’s Youtube video lecture series on Geography
  • ⛅️Physical Geography:
    • First priority Class 11-12 NCERTs (?Free download).
    • Afterwards, selective reading of Goh Cheng Leong’s Book (All of its chapters not important for Mains. E.g. erosion, landform etc.)
    • Further, If you start solving 2013-19’s answers, nature of question is either:
    • 1) Sometimes NCERT is sufficient and only in rare cases, there have been cases where Goh Cheng Leong has helped in enrichment of answers.
    • 2) Sometimes Questions from such obscure areas, which are neither given in NCERT or Goh Cheng. Here, theoretical understanding while helpful but not always enough to fill the word limit. E.g. Water-mass question in GSM1-2019. But, beyond a point the cost:benefit = poor. Besides, you’re not expected to write the best answer. You just have to write ‘less bad’ answers than other candidates.
  • ? Indian Geography: Majid Hussain’s book on Indian Geography (हिन्दी मे भी उपलब्ध). Do selective study of chapters related to economic and resources geography. All chapters are not equally important for Mains.
  • ?World Geography: glancing over NCERT and some internet resources should suffice. World Geography Books available in the market = not proven very useful in  this real questions which were asked in portion in 2013-19. So, I don’t recommend a separate book on World Geography at present.
  • ? Environment Theory & Contemporary issues:
  • ? ?Disaster  Management angles:
    • Selective study of IGNOU MA (PubAD) Material (Free download)
    • Current Affairs PDFs,
    • Newspaper columns.

Answer writing for UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1 Geography

Geography: Physical

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Salient Features of World Physical Geography; Important Geophysical phenomena (earthquakes, tsunami, volcanoes, cyclones); Geographical features and location;

Why is Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation? 2018
Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics. 2018
How does the Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of the Earth? 2017
“The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides.” Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation. 2016
Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos. 2014
Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of Fold Mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes. 2014
What do you understand by the theory of continental drift? Discuss the prominent evidences in its support. 2013
There is no formation of deltas by rivers of the Western Ghat. Why? 2013
Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents. Why? 2013
Bring out the causes for more frequent landslides in the Himalayas than in Western Ghats 2013

Geography: Climate, Disaster related

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Critical geographical features, flora, fauna (changes and effects thereof)

Assess the impact of global warming on coral life system with examples. (वैश्विक तापन का प्रवाल जीवन तंत्र पर प्रभाव का, उदाहरणों के साथ, आकलन कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
How do ocean currents and water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and the coastal environment? Give suitable examples? (महासागर धाराएँ और जल राशियाँ समुद्री जीवन और तटीय पर्यावरण पर अपने प्रभावों में किस-किस प्रकार परस्पर भिन्न हैं ? उपयुक्त उदहारण दीजिए | ) (15m,250 words) 2019
Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology. (मैंग्रोवों के रिक्तीकरण के कारणों पर चर्चा कीजिए और तटीय पारिस्थितिकी का अनुरक्षण करने में इनके महत्व को स्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism? (पर्वत पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र को विकास पहलों और पर्यटन के ऋणात्मक प्रभाव से किस प्रकार पूण:स्थापित किया जा सकता है ? ) (15m,250 words) 2019
What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India? (जल प्रतिबल (वाटर स्ट्रैस) का क्या मतलब है ? भारत में यह किस प्रकार और किस कारन प्रादेशिकत: भिन्न-भिन्न है ?) (15m,250 words) 2019
What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystem? 2018
In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development.” Discuss. 2017
Mention the advantages of the cultivation of pulse because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the United Nations. 2017
How does the cryosphere affect global climate? 2017
Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multi-dimensional effects. 2017
In what way can flood be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India? 2017
What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the won population residing in Monsoon Asia? 2017
Discuss the concept of air mass and explain its role in macro-climatic changes. 2016
Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing and navigation? 2015
How far do you agree that the behavior of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes? Discuss. 2015
Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why? 2014
Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree? 2014
Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub-continent. 2014
The recent cyclone on the east coast of India was called “Phailin”. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world? 2013
Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world. 2013
What do you understand by the phenomenon of temperature inversion in meteorology? How does it affect the weather and the habitants of the place? 2013

Geography: Resources Distribution

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Distribution of key Natural Resources (world, S. Asia, Indian subcontinent)

Can the strategy of regional-resource based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India? (क्या प्रादेशिक संसाधन-आधारित विनिर्माण की रणनीति भारत में रोज़गार की प्रोन्नति करने में सहायक हो सकती है ?) (10m,150 words) 2019
Why is India taking keen interest in resources of Arctic Region? 2018
The effective management of land and water resources will drastically reduce the human miseries. Explain 2016
South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment. 2016
Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations. 2016
Enumerate the problems and prospects of inland water transport in India. 2016
In what way micro-watershed Development projects help in water conservation in drought prone and semi-arid regions of India. 2016
What are the economic significances of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences? 2015
India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity. 2015
The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand reaching the limits of their ecological carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate. 2015
Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world. 2014
How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa? 2014
With growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world. 2013
It is said the India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needs of country for quarter century. However, tapping of the resources doesn’t appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved. 2013

Geography: factors affecting industrial locations

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Factors responsible for location of Industries (primary, secondary, tertiary; India, world)

Discuss the factors for localization of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India. (उत्तर-पश्चिमी भारत के कृषि-आधारित खाद्य प्रक्रमण उद्योगों के स्थाणुयकरण के कारकों पर चर्चा कीजिए | ) (10m,150 words) 2019
Define blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India. 2018
What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identify industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics. 2018
Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications. 2017
Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain. 2014
Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world. 2014
Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water? 2014
Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in the Southern states of India? Discuss with justification 2013
Analyze the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India 2013

Geography: Urbanization

GS1 Syllabus Topic: Urbanization: problems and remedies

How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid economic development of India? (दक्ष और किफायती (अफोर्डेबल) शहरी सार्वजनिक परिवहन किस प्रकार भारत के द्रुत आर्थिक विकास की कुंजी है ?) (15m,250 words) 2019
“The ideal solution of depleting ground water resources in India is water harvesting system.” How can it be made effective in urban areas? 2018
The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues employment but has also created new problems. Substantiate this statement with examples. Urbanization 2017
With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the ‘Smart City Programme’. 2016
Major cities of India are becoming more vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss. 2016
Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so? 2015
Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart villages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration. 2015
Discussion the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanization in India. 2013

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