- COP Conferences under CBD
- India and CBD
- COP11(HYDCBD): Outcomes/ Agreements
- #1: CASH
- #2: Ocean
- #3 Online forum
- #4: Bushmeat
- #5: Champions and their pledges
- #6: Nagoya Ratification
- When it comes to environment protection, climate change, wildlife protection, there are multiple conventions and each convention has “parties”.
- Those parties hold conferences at regular interval.
- such conferences are called “conference of Parties” COP.
- In a single calendar year there can be more than on COP (because these are different conventions).
|COP-11||Oct 2012||Hyderabad, India||Biodiversity (CBD)|
|COP-18||Nov-Dec 2012||Doha, Qatar||Climate change (UNFCC)|
|COP-16||March 2013||Bangkok, Thailand||illegal trade of endangered species (CITES)|
let’s focus on COP related to CBD (Convention on biological diversity)
COP Conferences under CBD
|2014||12||PyeongChang, S.Korea (theme = Biodiversity forSustainable Development)|
India and CBD
- The Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) has near universal membership with 193 countries. The USA is the only major country that is not a Party.
- India has ratified the CBD.
- India also enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002 and notified the Rules in 2004 to give effect to the provisions of the CBD.
- Now India has got presidency of CBD for two years. (2012-14). previously it was with Japan.
- Total 170 countries participated in the conference.
- Current decade (2011-2020) has been declared as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity and United Nations Decade for Deserts and the Fight against Desertification.
- COP11-HYDCBD is the first conference during above special ‘decades’.
- Just few days before the official COP11, Hyderabad also hosted the 6th meeting of parties to Cartagena protocol on biosafety (under CBD). This is known as COP-MOP-6.
- Was developed by National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad for the Government of India. This logo symbolises the cycle of life with a tiger, a dolphin, a bird and a women with grains depicting linkage of biodiversity with livelihoods.
- On top is the slogan in Sanskrit with English translation ‘Nature Protects if She is Protected’
COP11(HYDCBD): Outcomes/ Agreements
- “HYDCBD” is not the official name. Just visualize Eleven cops (policemen) hiding kabaad (trash)= 11th COP was held in Hyderabad for Convention on Biodiversity.
- The Previous COP (#10) was held @ Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan in 2010.
Anyways, let’s check the outcome of COP-11(HYDCBD)
|Who?||What did they say?|
|Developed countries (EU/US)|
- We’ll double (2x) the funding to help developing states to meet Aichi Biodiversity Targets, by 2015.
- roughly it means, developing countries will get about 30 billion USD=~Rs. 1,50,000 crore over the next 8 years.
- For the first time, developing countries at COP 11, including India and several African states, pledged additional cash above and beyond their core funding towards CBD
- India committed over US$ 50 million.
- By 2015, We’ll prepare national financial plans for biodiversity and increase domestic Expenditure for it.
- COP-11(HYDCBD) gave much focus to Ocean, marine biodiversity.
- Countries agreed to pay more attention to Sargasso Sea, the Tonga archipelago and key corals sites off the coast of Brazil.
- middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.
- South Pacific Ocean.
- Tonga is a sovereign state.
- We’ll factor biodiversity into environmental impact assessments (EIA) for infra/development projects in costal areas.
- We call upon the fisheries management bodies to play a stronger role in protecting biodiversity.
#2a: Ocean: Protected Planet 2012
- Protected planet 2012=it is name of the report released by UNEP.
- This report says
- Half of the world’s richest biodiversity zones remain entirely unprotected.
- If you want to meet the Aichi Biodiversity targets, then you’ve declare an additional 8 million square kilometers of marine and coastal areas as protected.
- We, the COP11(HYDCBD) players, will show these results to UN General assembly and ask them amend United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea accordingly + international agreement for biodiversity conservation in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction.
#2b: Ocean: Research
We’ll do more research into adverse effect of
- underwater noise from ships on marine biodiversity, and
- Marine litter*
- Climate change impacts on coral reefs,
What is Marine Litter?
These are items / materials that
- People deliberately discard/throw into the sea or rivers or on beaches.
- indirectly brought to sea via rivers, sewage, storm water or winds;
- Lost at sea in accident/bad weather.
#3 Online forum
- National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans Forum (NBSAP Forum) was launched at COP11 (HYDCBD)
- This online forum will provide easy-to-access, targeted information such as best practices, guidelines and learning tools for countries.
- This online forum is joint initiative by
- GEF Global Environment Facility
- In Africa, forest is often called ‘bush’, so meat from jungle= bushmeat.
- Large scale hunting of monkeys, elephants, wild-buffalos etc. for ‘bushmeat’ = led to Empty forest syndrome.
Empty forest syndrome?
- You already know that protection of jungle and wildlife=both important.
- Empty forest syndrome = jungles are still visible but animals gone.
In other words, Empty forest syndrome is a situation in which animals disappear at a much faster rate than their habitats. WHY? Because
- Bushmeat (as explained above)
- Trading of Skin, Hides, tusks etc. for making jewelry, trophies etc.
- Making Traditional medicine from animal-bones etc. (and it can even cure AIDS and Cancer!)
- Trading of exotic pets endangered birds, orangutan etc.)
- Climate change
Anyways back to the main topic (outcome of COP11)
- In Central Africa, gorillas, chimpanzees and many more wild animals are hunted as bush meat is the only cheap source of protein and food security for the poor communities.
- The players @COP11 (HYDCBD) adoped “Hyderabad bushmeat recommendations” for ‘sustainable’ use and Management of bushmeat species to prevent the empty forest syndrome.
#5: Champions and their pledges
- COP-11 invited parties and partner organizations to make pledges to support one or more Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
- Under this
who pledged what?
|India||Pledged to give 50 million USD|
|Maldives||pledged to make their entire country a Biosphere Reserve.|
Maldives: Biosphere reserve “nation”
- In support of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (of CBD), the Republic of Maldives has pledged to become the first nation where the entire country and its Exclusive Economic Zone will be a Biosphere Reserve.
- First they’ll implement biodiversity protection plans in their different atolls in a stepwise fashion, till the end 2017,
- Then they’ll apply to UNSECO to declare Maldives as a Biosphere Reserve. (under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program.)
#6: Nagoya Ratification
- Nagoya Protocol=under CBD,
- For sharing benefits from genetic resources.
- Official name= Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS).
- India has already ratified Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit sharing.
- Now that we’ve got 2 years’ presidency for CBD, India will work tirelessly to get the Protocol ratified by 50 countries so that it comes into force during the Presidency of India.
- We’ll ask main economic sectors, such as business and development organizations, to integrate biodiversity objectives in their plans and programmes.
- We’ll enhance collaboration between the CBD and UN climate change initiatives including Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).
- CBD Secretariat to monitor and control trade, movement of invasive alien species.
- encourage parties to expand the use of biofuel, although with precautions
- Encourage parties to adopt Addis ababa principles (on sustainable use of biodiversity), in their national planning.
Science Express Biodiversity Special
- A train to generate awareness about biodiversity conservation. (actually this started way before the actual COP11 (HYDCBD) took place. But the train was stationed @Hyderabad during the conference.)
- Collaborative initiative of Ministry of Environment & Forests + Department of Science and Technology.
- will cover over 100 stations in two years.
- Has total Of the 16 coaches
- 8 of them are solely dedicated to showcasing the biodiversity spread across all the bio-geographical zones of India.
Museum in Hyd
- Government already established a a commemorative Pylon and a Biodiversity Garden in Hyderabad for CBD.
- Now they’re also planning to establish a Biodiversity Museum on that site.
Rajiv Gandhi award
Indian Government has proposed to institute Rajiv Gandhi International Award for Harnessing Biodiversity for Livelihood.
- Correct statements about Maldives
- It is world’s first nation to hold underwater cabinet meeting.
- It plans to be world’s first nation where entire country and its EEZ is declared a ‘biosphere reserve’.
- Who among the following grants “biosphere reserve” status to a given site?
- None of above
- Which of the following is not related of Hyderabad Summit of CBD?
- Developed countries will double their funding.
- Adoption of recommendations for sustainable use and management of bushmeat species.
- Decision to commence second phase of Kyoto protocol from 1 January 2013.
- None of above.
- Which of the following is not used for bushmeat?
- Wild buffalos
- Domesticated Swine
- All of above
- Correct statements about 12th COP under CBD
- It’ll be held in Bangkok in 2013
- Theme is “biodiversity for sustainable Development”
- From North to South, which is the correct order?
- Sargasso Sea, Labrador Sea, Tasmanian Sea,
- Labrador Sea, Tasmanian Sea, Sargasso Sea
- Labrador Sea, Sargasso Sea, Tasmanian Sea
- None of above