[Download] UPSC Mains-2014: GS1- Culture, History, Geography and Social issues

Question-Papers164 Comments

Ad Online Taiyari
  1. Analysis
  2. Instructions
  3. Culture (40m)
  4. Indian History (30m)
  5. World History (30m)
  6. Social issues (50m)
  7. Geography (100m)
    1. Industrial Location (30m)
    2. Physical Geography (20m)
    3. Climatology (30m)
    4. Resource distribution (20m)
  8. Mains-2014 GS1 Question Paper: Linear format
  9. Bogus Marketing Propaganda

Analysis of Mains-2014 GS1 Paper

Analysis-Mains-2014-GS1

  1. Word limit reduced but complexity & vagueness increased. साला इतना डिटेल में कोन प्रिपेर करता है? (Who prepares everything in this much detail?)
  2. It seems Mains exam has become a competition, not to select “best among good answers” but rather “less bad among the worst answers”. Because it’s impossible to write 25/25 in honest manner even with sincere preparation.
  3. Easy to give arm-chair commentaries like “UPSC is testing candidate’s emotional aptitude, and for xyz question- Hindu, old-NCERT or some random optional subject book has given 1-2 points, so candidate ought to have web-researched backwards and prepared a decent 200 words notes on everything under the Sun”….Plain waste of demographic dividend, electricity and bandwidth it is.
  4. But positive side: Paper doesn’t put those without coaching, at disadvantage. Even for Mains-2015 exam, if coaching-walla try to revamp their material from scratch, perhaps UPSC will come up with yet another Back-Breaking MoveTM.
  5. More can be said after analyzing the paper and preparing its Answerkey in peace.
20132014
10 marks = 200 wordsNo five-marker questions this time. 10 mark = 150 words. Word limit reduced. Seems UPSC examiner realized it’s difficult to assemble 200 words for every topic under the Sun.
Culture difficult.More difficult, and weightage doubled from 20 to direct 40 marks.
Modern Indian History: Lord Dalhousie asked. (1850s)Rewind the tape even further (1760s). Panipat asked.
  1. World history: slightly easier than 2013. Straightforward questions like Suez crisis, factors motivating anti-colonial struggle in India.
  2. But nothing about fall of Berlin wall, despite 25th Anniversary.
Freedom struggle complicated- like role of foreigners who made India their homeland. Women freedom fighters.
  • Freedom struggle relatively easier – British Policies, naval mutiny, because they’re available in Bipan and Spectrum.
  • But no question on Ghadhar, Komagata Maru incident, Gandhi in South Africa, Shurawady-Sarat Bose, Sardar Patel, Nehru (except indirect about Lenin) etc. topics which were in Hindu and Frontline.
Less questions of this format.Question with interlinking between two syllabus topics Example

  1. Influence of Lenin’s Policy (1921) on Indian policies after independence. (World History’s communism + Post Independent India)
  2. Harappa and Present day urbanization (Culture + Urbanization)
  3. Green revolution bypassed Eastern region (Agro-location + Post-Independence)
  4. India’s place in African resources (Geography + Diplomacy)
Globalization topic askedNot asked.
Geography 70 marks.
  • Both marks and difficulty level increased further. e.g. British tea planters, thousand islands in Indonesia etc.
  • But at the same time, some straight forward questions like El-Nino, Ocean resources etc.
sociology vague (increase male membership in women organization)Slightly less vague because there is ample opportunities to ‘invent’ answers in joint family-economic factors, patriarchy and working women.

Anyways, let’s check the paper:

Instructions for General Studies Paper1

  1. There are TWENTY-FIVE (25) questions printed both in HINDI and ENGLISH.
  2. All the questions are compulsory.
  3. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.
  4. Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  5. Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
  6. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.
  7. Answer the questions in NOT MORE THAN 150 words each. Contents of the answer is more important than its length. All questions carry equal marks.

Culture (40m)

Syllabus Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

  1. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.
  2. Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.
  3. Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss.
  4. Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu / Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.

Indian History (30m)

  1. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?
  2. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence.
  3. In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?

World History (30m)

Syllabus Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

  1. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
  2. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
  3. The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.

Social issues (50m)

Role Of Women
  1. How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?
Population Issues
  1. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.
Population Issues
  1. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss.
Role Of Women / Poverty-Development
  1. Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.
Secularism
  1. How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West?

Geography (100m)

Industrial Location (30m)

  1. Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.
  2. Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.
  3. Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water?

Physical Geography (20m)

  1. Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.
  2. Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of Fold Mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.

Climatology (30m)

  1. Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why?
  2. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?
  3. Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub-continent.

Resource distribution (20m)

  1. Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world.
  2. How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa?


  1. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.
  2. Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.
  3. Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss.
  4. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?
  5. Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu / Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.
  6. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence.
  7. In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?
  8. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
  9. What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
  10. The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
  11. How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?
  12. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.
  13. Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.
  14. Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water?
  15. The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss.
  16. Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.
  17. How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West?
  18. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?
  19. Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of fold mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.
  20. Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.
  21. Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why?
  22. Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub-continent.
  23. Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.
  24. Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world.
  25. How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa?

Bogus Marketing Propaganda

There is not much to propagandize, because just two questions where Mrunal.org had sufficient content:

Questionutility out of 10 marks
  1. El Nino (link)
10/10
  1. Iron-Steel industry (link1: Iron industry; link2: Steel Industry)
10/10
World history questions- good amount of points in old NCERTs uploaded at Mrunal.org/history0 because I didnot write old NCERT.
Darjeeling Tea.5/10. Because the said article only talks about why Darjeeling was suitable. But doesn’t talk about why Britishers couldn’t move beyond that. Those points had to be ‘invented’.
Total Aukaat25/250

visit Mrunal.org/download for more papers.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha


So far 164 Comments posted

  1. arun

    hi anyone giving wbcs mains exam 2014. Not being able to download admit card . link not working. can someone plesae suggest from where can I download?

    1. rat

      the reason for choosing panipat for all three battles is asked.
      1. All defenders of delhi seemed to have a psychological need to take the battle away from delhi but close to their supply lines.Supply of foodgrain,material was a continous process which was totally unplanned and hence supply lines had to be protected ;from all accounts indian armies of those days were truly gigantic numbering in lakhs, hence supply had to be continous.
      2.all messages were compulsorily carried by horse, panipat was well connected to both punjab and north west frontier, as well as to the doab…also, water. north india had in those days shahi nehars or royal ponds for water, in various places, but they were concentrated along the ‘royal road’ leading away from delhi
      3but there is another simple and powerful reason, understand that ARTILLERY was used in all three battles. in fact in the 1st battle that artillery proved to be decisivein 2nd not so much so but arrows and muskets were used to devastating effect by the mughals in third also both marathas and abdali both were packing lots of artillery,(light for abdali and heavy for marathas)
      Now artillery is used on open ground not in forests ditto for muskets like jezail which all afgans carried
      .

  2. sayandeep

    Sir,I ‘m a regular follower of ur blog

  3. Sanket

    1. The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?

    Answer: – The central asian invaders(babur and durrani) as well as Akbar had a captured Punjab(Present day Pakistan+Punjab+Haryana) and establish a resource base.

    They wanted to capture Delhi because it is very important strategic location as it facilitates expansion into the doab which is an excellent resource base for manpower, revenues and food supply and also as it was the seat of political power since the Delhi Sultanate.

    Since panipat is between Punjab and Delhi and also as it is a flat ground suitable for cavalry movement, hence it was the site for many empire shaking battles.

    1. sree

      its also the gateway to india.one should first cross punjab[panipat],so it its the meeting point of 2 different powers leading to war.it also shows the weak presence of forces at the order area

    2. Kuku_Dhakkan

      bhaai exact yahi likh kr aaye ho??

      1. Sanket

        I did not give this years mains. However Mrunal Sir told has advised us to attempt the questions and post comments. Besides if somebody knows the correct answer, he can correct me.

        1. Kuku_Dhakkan

          good one hai dost…keep doing writing practice.. tumhare baaki answers bhi dekhe ..!
          a long way to go… 🙂 all d best .. 🙂

    3. Vaibhav Sharma

      Also Maratha’s knew that if they wish to rule over India then they need to do power assertion near Delhi. Hence, if they win a battle in Panipat that will open up the gates for them to overcome Delhi’s thrown and thereby could expand their rule all over India.

      (What you all feel about this?)

      1. Sanket

        Thank you for reviewing my answer

        The Maratha confederacy had already established themselves over large parts of North India. Hence they were already the dominant power.

        Accordingly to a pact made earlier between the Mughal Emperor and Marathas, they came to defend Delhi from Abdali’s threat. However Abdali managed to isolate them diplomatically. When the campaign started, Abdali successfully cut of the food supplies of the Marathas. The Marathas preferred to die fighting rather than die of starvation, hence they were forced to attack Abdali who was well entreched in Panipat.

        Thus the battle site of Panipat was chosen by Abdali and not the Marathas. Also the Maratha attack in Panipat was an act of desperation and not a assertion of power.

        1. Vaibhav Sharma

          Thank you for the explanation. I accept your answer.

    4. Achin

      best answer so far.

  4. Sanket

    Question. To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.

    Ans. 1. Planning: – The Harrappan civilization was well planed as can be seen from the drainage system whereas the present Indian cities are growing in an extremely unplanned and haphazard manner

    2. Water Management: – The Harappan cities like Dholavira which faced scarcity of water made efforts to store water as can be seen from a tank in Dholavira.

    Question. Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu / Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.

    Ans. Although the Sufis and other mystics opposed various practices like inequality, rituals etc… however they were never able to modify the structure or practices of the society because: –

    1. Unlike Hinduism and Islam which were directly linked to the state via land grants in the case of Hindus and Shara in the case of Islam, Sufis and other mystics never directly involved with the state.

    2. They were not widespread due to opposition from the orthodox elements.

    1. Vaibhav Sharma

      Dear Sanket

      The question says how Harappan Civilization “PROVIDED inputs” i.e. we need to write about the already implemented techniques originating in the Harappan Civilization and your answer is what presently we can do accepting the inputs from the civilization.

      Hence, we can write about ‘Chandigarh’ as it has been designed based on the
      1. Town planning of Harappan Civilization: The whole Chandigarh city is divided into sectors which is one of the most efficient ways of town planning even the modern civilized world.

      2. Drainage System of Harappan Civilization: The development of drainage system requires accurate knowledge of the gradient at which the roads need to be built. Hence, while developing Chandigarh’s drainage system the research in the Hadappan Civilization played a very crucial role.

      Also covered drains were the part of Indus Valley Civilization. And there were old known flush toilets. (Read here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation_of_the_Indus_Valley_Civilization)

      3. Roads: The roads in the Indus Valley Civilization were designed to meet at right angles. And Only smaller roads would lead to the households i.e. houses were not situated on the main roads of the town. Based on this input many modern architects have designed the modern cities like Chandigarh.

      4. Water Management: Every house in the Indus Valley Civilization was provided with sufficient access to water and drainage facilities.

      5. Egalitarian Society: The archaeological findings show that in this civilization everyone had an equal status. Hence, the modern governments have an aim to achieve such a society and Indus Valley Civilization played an important role in revealing that in olden times civilizations were indeed based on the principle of equality.

      1. Sanket

        Thank you for reviewing my answer.

        The answer you suggested is excellent especially the way you compared Chandigarh with Harappa.

        However I do not agree with point no: 5. I do not feel the Harappa was egalitarian due to the differences between the citadel and lower town.

        1. Tanuj

          The Harappan civilization showed presence of citadel and place of commons. Excavations show presence of “The Great Bath”, restricted worship places, varied burial practices(showing belief in afterlife/rebirth), though there is no evidence of religion and caste but, it is well known that harappans worshiped the forces of nature. so, the presence of social equality is questionable.

      2. Puskar Pushp

        other things to be mentioned are:-
        Planning:-

        * double (multi) storeyed houses.
        * sewers with slabs.
        * spacious dwellings for workmen.
        * use of burnt bricks.
        * higher storage places for protection of crops from perishing.
        * The planning of cities was continued and developed till many centuries. It shows constructive administration and collective planning.
        * The houses were similar, there were no windows towards the road which suggests the safety measures taken by them against theft.

        Culture:-

        * Although hierarchy of some sort is clearly evident, still the studies show that the living conditions of workmen was satisfactory.
        * The cities in this civilization took care of their needs through trade of various agricultural and ornamental goods.
        * Toys, jewelleries and statutes were also manufactured and consumed.

    2. Ajit

      Thanks Sanket for sharing your views. Its good to have writing practice but unfortunately you couldn’t comprehend the question related to “Indus Valley Civilization” properly.

  5. KSHTaRIYA

    Mrunal sir, whenever i open some link in your page, it gets loaded in that page only.pls fix it so that it open in other page…hope u do it

    1. Mrunal

      Kshtriya- hold down ctrl button and then click on any link on any website. it’ll open in a new tab.

  6. vinoth

    i dont know whether my two months of study leave from work was worth..i would have wrote the same if i had come and written from office………………

    1. harsh

      hahaha…. upsc is getting tougher and tougher every year….. from does it ask questions from… what are the sources… i just cant figure out…

  7. Vairamani Thangasamy

    The answer for, Why British did not move beyond darjeeling ?

    Reason:

    Beyond Darjeeling, Arunachal Himalayas exist. in Arunachal Himalayas Shiwalik formations are not exist, which are essential for tree

    plantations. so British did not go beyond Darjeeling

    1. V Kumar

      Doesn’t it mention already that they developed estates till Assam too? And Assam is beyond Darjeeling if we’re interpreting it that way. I saw it as : “Why were the tea estates not very successful in areas other than Darjeeling, despite being established?”

      1. pratik

        tea estates were very succesfull in assam ie beyond darjelling..it wasnt succesfull with camellia sinesis breed of tea but from 1861 and camellia assamica breed…it was very succesfull …

        1. pratik

          and beyond darjelling ie between tista and brahmaputra lies assam himalayas and then purvanchal himalayas trm arunachal

  8. vejay

    After looking into these questions, I am happy that spending 3hrs a day in a newspaper is not waste of time. I can attempt most of the questions ,except culture questions by just reading newspapers in both horizontal and vertical reading. Thanks a lot mrunal.

    1. shiv

      please explain what do you mean by horizontal & vertical reading

  9. truth_seeker

    like for honest comment – ”0 because I didnot write old NCERT”

  10. MANJEET

    Mrunal Sir,

    Please let us know in how many days we will see the answers of this year Mains Exam so as to see the depth of questions asked. It will help us to arrange the references of the text books especially for the culture portion asked.

  11. MANJEET

    It is a well inferred fact coming out of the analysis of this year Mains Exams that we need to give time to thinking while studying for the next year, UPSC is not like the UGC which has made our brain prompting to rote learning and passing the exam year by year. Guys it does not matter you could write all the answers or not. Cos the instructions on the question Paper stated that, ” content is more important than words”, so if you were writing less answers it should have been solid analysis part, means your linking of thoughts , that you evolved while learning. Guys we must learn from this paper. It is again a warning, a road- map , a suggestion by the UPSC that don’t follow the things. And Mrunal’s content can only give us guide ! It is the best support for us, we are thankful to him. At one instance while reading the analysis of Mrunal I found my self quite nervous. But later on reading it again I found 80% of the questions can be done ( or just take 70% for the reason of exam room situations i.e pressure ) , but when we give 100% in attempting these questions really we will feel satisfied. Cos you are being judged by the content , that is your only analysis, one can attempt these questions without hue and cry if studied peacefully. Guys we are the judge of our self , it will happen again , next year , rather than mugging up the things one should go for slowly – slowly while developing its thinking part. Thinking stays in mind forever and mugging up the facts last for few days and then you have revise that cram again. So its better to prepare for the next year while not committing the mistakes again .

    1. priya

      mains chck ur analysing habit,requires time to develop.u cant force it on u in 3hrs during the exam. impossible bye the way.. my opinion..may be some one would have done without it.

    2. Karan Jain

      I believe that mains is just a step for the job that we are up for ?
      and it is just the test of patience and effort to face such pressure….

      Only those who can write by the backbone(Spontaneously) can score…

      True, Manjeet its all about Analysis… Even if we write pointers and small explanation we can score !!

    3. Karan Jain

      I believe that mains is just a step for the job that we are up for
      and it is just the test of patience and effort to face such pressure….

      Only those who can write by the backbone(Spontaneously) can score…

      True, Manjeet its all about Analysis… Even if we write pointers and small explanation we can score !!

      1. pavan

        very true brother

  12. JAWA

    @MANJEET, excellent analysis.

  13. Singh

    Mrunal – you have repeatedly proved to be an utter failure! You waste a lot of precious aspirant time. Please improve by trying to identify and focus on only essential stuff, rather than flooding the websites with banalities and confusing the aspirants.
    Thanks.

    1. bharath g

      Singh- civils is not like boards exam no one can guess it dont blame mrunal Bhai…… He is the God for rural aspirants though questions didnt come directly but if you follow this website you can develop answer writing skills which is essantial for mains

    2. abhi

      Mr. singh…how will you guess which question is coming in exam…you can only try to understand and prepare the topics which are making news (from news papers and magazine)… this is excellently and off course freely dome by this website..even a book or any source material only explain you the concept not predict questions..and insterestingly if this website starts doing the accurate prediction than also it will be of no help as there are thousands of followers of the website so…everyone will prepare accordingly and so no competitive edge…..

  14. rajan

    hello friens i am rajan…agar aap free recharge chahte ho to http://mcent.com/r/PFJYH2 is link pe click karke mcent download kare ya computer par register kare.apko apps download karne ke pese milenge and har ek friend ko invite karne ke 100 rs…agar aap sidha playstore se download karenge to apko sirf 50 rs milenge share karne ke..yeh app fake nhi hai aap google par v check kar sakte ho…aap ek bar trust karke app download kare aap niraash nhi honge trust me agar app fake nikli to chaye jitni marji galian nikalna…muje koi btane wala nhi tha isliye mai aap sabko bata raha hu apko kabhi recharge karne ki jarurat nhi padegi……happy new year may god bless you

  15. satish

    mrunal please write one question’s answer illustrating difference between discuss, examine, critically examine, evaluate, illucidate, etc. it has become a headache.

  16. vikash

    I want to know that the study material of which coaching is best. And any sstudy material available in soft copy material.
    I want consize material because I am working professional outside Delhi I do not find much time to read many papers magazines and different sources. So suggest me compact study material of any coaching
    Should I try different topic from various institute

  17. Piyush

    The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, between the forces of the Maratha Empire and the invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali. The reason why so many battle fought in Panipat were:

    The belligerents ended up fighting in the general area of Haryana due to two reasons:

    1.One of the parties almost always came from the North/Northwest.
    2.Both parties wanted Delhi, because it is smack in the middle of two of the most agriculturally productive regions of the world. The Plains of the Indus and the Ganga. Whoever controls Delhi, controls North India.
    This was the reason even far-flung kingdoms, based in Kabul, or Pune chose to send huge armies to Delhi, because they thought the investment was worth it. Conflicts that could have been long drawn-out wars (like the Mughal campaign in the Deccan) often became watershed battles in the North, because Delhi/Agra were big time seats of power and the stakes were always high

  18. NN

    Making a question is much easier than solving it. Even if the question setter had been given such questions he probably won’t able to write a decent answer. So don’t worry guys, its only about writing whatever u know.. no need to panic, Even i can set such “analytical” ” logical (blah blah “)type of questions to test a student’s integrity, cognizance ability blah blah… Simply choose a topic and start mulling over..thats it

  19. rivu

    piyush I think your answer suggest purpose why both parties choose panipath for battle

  20. Piyush

    @Rivu

    Yes this is what UPSC has enquired about and Battles are always fought for a purpose

    UPSC: The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?

  21. Harikrishnan D

    Easy in comparison to last year. (I didn’t write last year but still). 25 questions. No surprises. Just enough time to finish. Word limit reduction to 150 impractical as one cannot squeeze answers below 200 limit by any measure. Handwriting suffered a lot. But in all satisfied.

  22. chintan

    my approach to society part in exam…

    Q-11: dual burden of work(office and home), care for child and older age overburden, her money = not full sovereignity, ultimate divide will go to his boy not to eqully girl etc.

    Q-12: more money they used for sex selection and abortion(haryana punjab gujrat etc), prosporous = women not much in working=not eco emporered= ultimate decision to family and her husband, here social prestige direct propotional mony inverse girl etc

    Q-13:more person less labourer from outside in agriculture,family business etc = more eco intrest than values of older age person, boy outside for job in urban areas and ultimate breaking,etc

    Q-14:migration of males,fragmentation of lands,male dominance,rise in wages etc

    Q-15:role of state, diversity factors= more issues, more focus on religion then diversion, traditional roots of religion from rigvedic and beyond etc.

    1. rama

      Feminisation of agriculture is from 12the human geography
      “Female participation in farming activity in rural areas is fairly high”
      Reasons given are shortage of housing, high cost of living,paucity of job opportunities and lack of security in cities, discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas

  23. chintan

    my approach to geographic part in exam…

    Q-16 : agreed and explained el nino and types linkages with monsoon harricanes cyclones and seasonal fluctuations, concluded adhoc mechanisms like cloud burst heat waves etc could not be explained.

    Q-17: convegence boundry ,intense pressure built ups, isostatics and asthenosphere deformations=fold mountais of great heights,himalaya and eq, andes and ring of fire.

    Q-18: ring of fire=volcanic base, tropical=coral reefs, big island part of pangia.

    Q-19: reasons for cyclone fornation like heat source from water,ITCZ near to equtor=corrilio force , humidity in atmosphere etc.

    Q-20: floodings= water flow change, monsoon fluctuations= temp change,extreme cold and heat etc.

    Q-21: temp low, rainfall=snow mostly, soil not appropriate, some terrain issues etc.

    Q-22: GR=cropping patterns wheat and rice based but east part jute dominant, political issues, punjab haryana problems difference from eastern states like industry setups etc.

    Q-23: starting of IR= britain, spreading of IR= france us germany italy japan and ussr etc, neo colonial structure= china and india .

    Q-24: very big amount, large range and across world like minerals metals oils and organic lime geothermal fish etc but problems of disputes technology etc.

    Q-25: INDIA= leader of LDCs= most african country=good relations of mutualism,problems of political crisis, ethnic issues, indigenous rights and competition with china etc.

  24. Shiva

    Thank you mrunal..

  25. madhuranjan kumar

    Please sir discuss all question in GS 1 which book asked by upsc 2014 same you had discussed in 2013

  26. farukh khan

    WHEN WILL YOU GIVE DETAILED ANALYSIS OF MAINS GS-1, GS-2, GS-3, 2014..??….. SOURCES WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR THIS YEAR’S QUESTIONS…. PLEASE GIVE SOURCES FOR FUTURE MAINS EXAM, BASED ON THIS YEARS PATTERN…..

  27. sneh saiwal

    what is trend of questions of mains ICS of GS of 2014 exams

  28. Rani

    can anyone suggest few points, how the patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India ???

    1. Shashank

      patriarchy = male head of family
      Working woman = outside + inside at home (means as house wife those productivity consider zero in middle class)
      1.women are always adhere to families esteem that shows working or non working men adverse status in society.
      2.number of all working women in middle class is too much low.
      3.payment/salary of woman does not consider their own.if goes to head of the family in all respect.
      4.all decision of family taken by patriarch so working woman also not come in front.
      5.girl child birth consider as negative empact on society for a middle class family as compare to boy child.it always go on whole life of a woman whether working or non woking.means a socio finomina

      1. Neha

        subordination of women to men is prevalent in large parts of the world. there are experiences which shows that women are subject
        to not only subordination but also discrimination, humiliation, exploitation, voilence, oprression etc.

        patriarchy, which is a socio-ideological construct considers superiority of men over women, means rule of the father in a male dominated society. patriarchy is based on system of power relations which is hierarchical and unequal where men control women’s

        production ,reproduction and sexuality.in patriarchal society birth of the male child is preferred to that of female. females from birth are considered “praya dhan” that is why the gender biases starts right from the birth of the female.

        in india there are 31.4 mln households, are in the category of middle class. this shows a large group of the whole population,
        working women in these middle classes have to face many social, economic, political and cultural biases, whether they earn enough to run the family smoothly or marginally. they are not expected to take important decisions inside the family.

        moreover they have to bear the dual responsibility of household shores and the workplace. before marriage our patriarchal society puts all restrictions on females , and after marriage women have to bear the responsibility of the 2 familly’s dignity.

        in our patriarchal society women are forced to get married in early ages so that she can’t realise their full potential. working women are forced to get sex selective tests and sex selective abotions. even if a woman raise her voice against this kind of

        voilence she is not helped by her own family because of society. her work at home is never cosidered work. there is a high time to change our mindset towards this gender biases. both men and wmen have their seperate spheres and roles to play.and both are necessary to continue life at earth….

      2. Neha

        hii shashank…. i hv given sm points to the qutn on patriarchal impact on working women of middle classes…. if there is smthng

        missing plz let me 9….. m prprng for hcs mains…..

    2. Shashank

      Hi Rani i have given answer to your question are u admit this answer or want to adds up some more point.it will be also helpful for me.

  29. rajesh shinde

    mrunal sir m leaving in village n also preapring from village due to some problems…this was d my first experience of writing mains 2014 of upsc…dnt know what happens…bt really thnks to ur lots of informations

  30. Razak

    can anyone please tell me how write good answer

  31. rajesh

    Mrunal sir you are doing greate job
    Actually I have some doubts to attending civils
    I am completed B.Sc with English medium
    Except B.Sc all the pre education complitions with Telugu medium then what medium (T/E) is situable for me
    I am compartable to Wright in Telugu medium.
    Is there any chance?
    Please help me mrunal sir

  32. kamalakr

    sir please give source of previous pub ad answers

  33. Praveen_R

    Hi Mrunal,
    With only 30 marks from Indian History, that too just one direct question, shall I just stick to the Spectrum and take a miss at the Bipan Chandra ?

    Can you please share the analysis for the 2014 Mains and strategy for 2015 Mains.

  34. Rohit Yadav

    Can anyone help me in my starting of preparation of civils. I am undergraduate sir

  35. Anish

    Though the IVC exhibited a high degree of urban planning and culture and if we compare it with present day settlements, we can’t say it clearly to be inspired by it. The world had began to modernize after 18th century with the advent of industrial revolution, whereas the excavation at IVC started in 1921. Hence most of the town we see today doesn’t have any features at the evolution level. But if we consider some recently developed settlements like chandigarh, industrial townships, etc. we can see a lot of features which can be said to be inspired by IVC.
    some of these features are :
    -towns were divided into sectors and grid system was followed in a similar manner as in IVC.
    -Roads at right angles.but road way construction has many other physical constraints like land inclination, waterbodies,minimum distance,existence of temples and mosques at arbitrary locations, etc.
    -the present day drainage system has still much to learn from IVC.

    In the excavations at many IVC sites toys and graineries were found indicating it to be a surplus economy in terms of resources and people had a lot of quality time to think about these. hence we can say IVC had provided many inputs to present day civillization but whether our modern our cities had developed on its lines or not is not clear.

  36. Anish

    Britain, being the biggest imperial power once, were fully aware of the significance of the role played by its navy in colonial expansion. moreover, in world wars some of the decisive fronts were claimed by the navy.After the Royal Indian Navy revolt in 1946,the britishers understood that they cant universally rely on the navy for support in the event of crisis, and it has the capacity to generate the spark for similar revolts in armed forces too. one of the biggest reason why britishers survived the revolt of 1857 was the armies of many princely states who helped them against the rebels.Hence this navy mutiny provided a severe blow to the future colonial aspects of britishers in india.The fact became clear to british minds that from here, they can’t rule India for long.Hence it provided the last nail to the coffin of british colonial aspirations in india.

  37. Anish

    Q.12

    Ans. reasons:
    -migration of male population from surrounding backward areas to developed regions leaving their families at home.
    -available modern medical facilities like ultrasound in developed regions leading to male child preference.
    -“one male child policy” becoming popular among rich classes.

  38. mule anand

    Sir I request to English subject compalsari other not

  39. AJAY SIDDHARTHA

    Upsc ke question level kaise hote hai

  40. Shashikala Chauhan

    Dear Sir,

    Mein UPSC ka exam Hindi Medium Se Prepare Kar rahi hu, so please GS-1,GS-2,GS-3 and GS-4 ke papers mujhe hindi me chahiye.

    so please sir unke PDF available karvaiye.

  41. Paras

    Hey. Can u say your source of reading these topics. ?
    As this is not conventional questions that we find in any books.
    It will b helpful.
    Thanks.

  42. DADASAHEB PRAKASH SOLWANDE

    Sir how can I prepare for .. All GS to current link . An which metirial benefited

  43. brandy angelina

    Interesting commentary , I am thankful for the information . Does anyone know if my business could grab a template CA QR7 version to fill in ?

Write your message!