1. What is nuclear security?
  2. Why Nuclear Security Summit?
  3. Seoul Communiqué
    1. Goodbye HEU and welcome LEU
    2. More talking
    3. More funding
    4. More Policing
    5. More cleaning
  4. India’s commitment to Nuke Security

What is nuclear security?

Nuclear security is a series of preemptive measures to

  1. Prevent nuclear crime (smuggling of nuke materials, nuke-terrorism)
  2. Prevent nuclear accidents (at Nuke power plants such as Chernobyl and Fukushima)

Why Nuclear Security Summit?

  • Nuclear terrorism cannot be addressed by a single nation- international cooperation is necessary.
  • First Nuclear Security Summit, was held in Washington in 2010.
  • Second Nuke security Summit was held in Seoul (South Korea) in 2012.
    • 53 countries including the P5 nations (nuclear weapons states) and states not party to the NPT, such as India, Pakistan, and Israel.
    • UN, IAEA, and EU
  • Third Nuke Security summit will be held in Netherlands in 2014.

Seoul Communiqué

After the second nuke summit @Seoul in 2012, the participants agreed to do this- total 11 things.

Here are the important ones

Goodbye HEU and welcome LEU

  • Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used in nuke reactors and medical field but it can be used for making nuke bombs.
  • Therefore, every nation should switch to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel.

More talking

  • We’ll encourage the participation of industry, academia, the media, NGOs and other civil actors in the discussions on nuclear security.
  • We’ll host the next Nuclear Security Summit in the Netherlands

More funding

  • We’ll make voluntary contributions to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund.
  • This money will be spent to help the poor countries to upgrade their HEU plants into LEU plants and improve their security.
  • Mohan said I’ll give 1 million dollars in it.

More Policing

  • We’ll increase the physical protection of nuclear facilities
  • We’ll increase the protection of nuclear materials and radioactive sources during transport
  • We’ll prevent the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials
  • We’ll enhance the emergency response capabilities in the case of radiological accidents
  • We’ll share information on persons involved in nuke smuggling via INTERPOL
  • We’ll Build nuclear forensics capacity to identify the source of illicitly trafficked nuclear materials
  • We’ll enhance cyber security at nuclear facilities and Increase the protection of sensitive nuclear security-related information

More cleaning

  • We’ll improve the management of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes.
  • Radioactive materials are widely used in industrial, medical, research, agricultural purpose — their security is just as important to prevent and recover lost, stolen or orphaned sources.
  • Otherwise, even the decayed and discarded nuke material can be used to make “dirty bombs.”

India’s commitment to Nuke Security

Nuclear Security Summit

  1. We’ve donated one million US dollars to the Nuclear Security Fund of International Atomic Energy Agency.
  2. We are a member of the IAEA Commission on Nuclear Safety Standards
  3. We are participant in the IAEA’s Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB), it disseminates information on confirmed reports about illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities and events involving nuclear material.
  4. We also cooperate with the Interpol’s Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Unit and the World Customs Organization.
  5. We enacted the Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005
  6. We are taking steps to minimize of use of HEU and upgrading our nuke plants accordingly. We have recently developed an Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) that uses LEU fuel.
  7. We aim to establish an independent Nuclear Safety Regulatory Authority which will enhance oversight of nuclear security in India. (bill in parliament)
  8. We are party to
    1. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
    2. Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material