[Economic Survey Ch12] Sustainable Development, Climate Change (Part 2 of 3): SVA-GRIHA, Bachat Lamp Yojana, SEEP

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Unacademy Plus Mrunal Economy for Prelims and Mains UPSC!
  1. Industries
    1. Eco-industrial parks (EIP)
    2. Steel
    3. Cement
    4. Thermal Power
    5. Vs Solar power?
    6. Coal gasification
  2. Transport
    1. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Programme
    2. Rail freight
    3. Water-Borne Freight
    4. Public transport
  3. Green Building Codes
    1. Energy Conservation Building Code
    2. ADARSH
    3. GRIHA
    4. Sva-GRIHA
  4. Electrical appliances
    1. Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY)
    2. Super-Efficient Equipment Program (SEEP)
    3. CFL vs LED

Industries

Eco-industrial parks (EIP)

  • eco-industrial park (EIP) or estate is a community of manufacturing and service businesses
  • They’re located together on a common property.
  • Goal is to improve the economic performance of the participating companies while minimizing their environmental impacts
  • An EIP also seeks benefits for neighbouring communities to assure the net impact of its development is positive.
  • In particular, we should consider converting our Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and townships along the Mumbai–Delhi Industrial Corridor into Eco-industrial hubs.

Steel

  • India is the largest producer of DRI steel in the world.
  • Some of the existing process of steel production
    • COREX–BOF : The Corex process followed by basic oxygen furnace for conversion of iron into steel. (this is a steel production method).
    • BF–BOF: The blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace route (another steel production method).
  • But there is need for shift towards more clean and energy efficient processes for steel production.

Cement

  • India = 2nd largest cement producer in the world (1st is China).
  • Three main types of cements are produced in India
  • In the descending order of their total production  (highest to lowest)
  1. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
  2. Ordinary Portland Cement
  3. Portland Slag Cement

Blended cement

  • Another variety of cement.
  • It consumes less energy and is less emissions-intensive than ordinary Portland cement.
  • Market share of blended cement in India is much higher than the US, China and Japan.
  • But there is a problem:
  • Bureau of Indian Standards permit cement companies to mix upto 35 per cent fly ash (for production of blended cement). But most cement plants use fly ash to the extent of 20–30 per cent.
  • So there is need to increase percentage of blending material.

Thermal Power

  • Power sector is the highest contributor to India’s GHG emissions.
  • In the business-as-usual scenario India would rely heavily on coal based thermal plants hence GHG emissions would rise even further.
Type of powerplant Efficiency
Sub-critical
  • 34%
Super-critical (SC)
  • 40%
  • is only marginally more expensive than sub-critical power plants.
Ultra Super Critical(USC)
  • 46%
  • first USC plant, is expected to be operational in 2017

Vs Solar power?

  • Faster adoption of super-critical and ultra-Super critical technology can save as much coal as would be saved by installation of ten times the solar power capacity.
  • Thus, with an USC or SC plant, we can substantially reduce coal consumption + CO2 emission.
  • Therefore 12th FYP puts emphasis on upgrading from Sub-critical coal plants to super critical plants.

Coal gasification

  • This technology helps in utilization of deep coal deposits, which cannot be mined using conventional means or because they are located in environmentally fragile regions.
  • Coal gasification also allows the possibility of in situ carbon capture.
  • Problem: Indian coal has very high ash content and initial results suggest that efficiency gain over sub-critical units is only marginal.
  • Solution: Government should pump some money in R&D, start a few pilot projects.

Transport

Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Programme

  • BEE has introduced labelling scheme for electrical appliances such as AC and refrigerators.
  • Similarly, vehicles should carry fuel efficiency labels (e.g. in litres/100 km)
  • BEE has already proposed a fuel efficiency scheme for passenger cars, and sought feedback on the scheme at a public consultation held on 1 November 2011.
  • Two wheelers account for about 70 per cent of the vehicle sales as well as vehicle fleet in the country. Therefore, norms must soon be defined for them also.

Rail freight

  • Transport goods via railways is significantly more energy-efficient than road freight.
  • But India transports more than 50% the total goods by road (instead of railways) = more reliance on petrol and diesel => more GHG emissions + more Current Account deficit.
  • Hence there is need to increase movement of goods through railways.

Water-Borne Freight

  • Freight carriage by waterways—both inland and coastal—is the most energy efficient form of freight transport. (Compared to railways and roads).
  • India has a long coastline and about 15000 km of inland waterways. But still the share of water in freight transport is barely 0.3 per cent. In contrast, in Europe, water transport occupies about 6 per cent of the freight share.

Public transport

  • Improving Urban Public and Non-Motorized Transport
  • Funding via Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM)

Green Building Codes

Residential and commercial buildings can be made more energy efficient by using architectural designs that reduce the need for lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning.

Energy Conservation Building Code

  • By Power ministry.
  • Specifies the energy performance requirements of commercial buildings in India.
  • ECBC has been developed by the BEE under the provisions of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001
  • Applicable to all commercial buildings having a connected electrical load of 100 kW or more (or a contract demand of 120kVA or more).
  • At present voluntary.
  • But expected to become mandatory during the Twelfth Plan.

ADARSH

  • ADaRSH= Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats, is an independent society
  • for scientific and administrative issues related to sustainable habitats in India.
  • ADaRSH promotes GRIHA.

GRIHA

  • Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment .
  • is the national rating system for green building in India.
  • Players: TERI + developed jointly with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.

Sva-GRIHA

  • Small, Versatile, Affordable GRIHA
  • less complicated green rating system for projects less than 2500 sqm. in area.
  • Officially Launched in 2012
  • By The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) + Ministry of new and renewable energy ministry
  • First you’ve to register with ADARSH- then evaluator will come and give rating.

Green habitat: What next (under 12th FYP)?

  • Green Building Codes across the country
  • Under revamped JNNURM, those these codes will be made one of the important conditions.
  • For urban local bodies, financial devolution should be linked to their implementation of Green Building Codes within their jurisdiction.

Electrical appliances

BEE has tightened the labelling norms for refrigerators and air conditioners w.e.f. 1 January 2012

Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY)

  • Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY), is registered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • This scheme is developed by BEE under the aegis of the Ministry of Power.
  • to promote energy efficient lighting in India.
  • It provides an innovative business model to sell CFLs to households at the same price as incandescent bulbs, the balance being recovered as carbon credits. (under Kyoto protocol’s CDM: clean development mechanism).

Super-Efficient Equipment Program (SEEP)

  • By Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under Power ministry
  • This program would offer manufacturers incentives to produce super-efficient appliances (fans, lights) that are 30-50% more efficient than the most efficient ones available in the market such as the five star labeled appliances.

CFL vs LED

CFL

LED

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) Light Emitting Diode (LED)
  • contain mercury vapor+ noble gas  (argon)
  • electricity causes ionization of gases thus it produces invisible ultraviolet (UV) light.
  • The white coating inside the bulb contains phosphorus.
  • This phosphorus absorbs invisible UV light and produces visible (normal) light. (Florescence).
  • Contains semiconductor material.
  • Electricity causes movement of electrons through a semiconductor material.
  • Thus light is produced. (electro-luminescence)
  • They consume less electricity than as incandescent bulbs.
  • They use only half as much electricity as fluorescent devices (CFLs and tube lights)

Mock Questions @the end of part 3 of 3.

Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak