[Economic Survey Ch13] Human Development (Part 3 of 4): Women and Child Development, Saksham, Priyadarshini, Dhanlaxmi & yes ofcourse SABLA

SubscribeZ-Miscellaneous

Economic Survey
  1. Prologue Interval
    1. Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Suraksha Yojana (MGPSY)
    2. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya karyakram
    3. Saksham
  2. Women
    1. Schemes: Women n Girls
    2. Ahimsa messengers
    3. Beijing platform for action
    4. CEDAW
    5. CSWB
    6. Poorna Shakti Kendras
    7. Priyadarshini
    8. SABLA
    9. Saksham
    10. STEP
    11. Swadhar Greh
    12. Ujjawala
    13. Schemes: Mother-Child
    14. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya karyakram
    15. ICDS
    16. ICPS
    17. Dhanlakshmi
    18. Rajiv Gandhi National creche
    19. Child-Adoption
  3. UN convention on rights of children
  4. 12th FYP: Women: Vulnerable groups
    1. 12th FYP: reforming Women laws
    2. Women In Panchayats
    3. Women in Agriculture
    4. Women: land ownership
  5. 12th FYP: Women welfare: Ministries and Schemes
    1. Gender Budgeting (GB)
    2. Engendering Flagship Programmes
    3. National Rural Health Mission
    4. Education
    5. Housing
  6. 12th FYP Children
    1. 12th FYP: Child Development Targets
    2. Reforming laws
    3. Child Labour vs RTE
    4. Problems with existing Child labour act?
    5. IMS Act: Bottle feeding
    6. Food security
    7. Restructuring the ICDS:
    8. Improve Sex ratio
  7. Awards Women n Children
    1. Streee Shakti Puraskars
    2. Devi Ahilya Bai Holkar
    3. Kanngi
    4. Mata Jijabai
    5. Rani Gaidenlou Zeliang
    6. Rani Laxmibai
    7. Rani Rudramma Devi
    8. National Child award for exceptional achievement
    9. Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Award

Prologue Interval

Some corrections in the old articles

  1. In the COP18/Durban article: Green Climate Fund was launched at COP16/CMP6 Cancun, Mexico in 2010 (and not in Durban, 2011)
  2. In Economic Survey ch4 article: The CPI index was reformed in 2011 (and not in 2012)
  3. In Western Ghat/Gadgil article: Highest peak in Eastern ghats is Jindhagada peak Andhra. (old books say Deomali but this Jindhagada is few meters higher than it).

Back to the economic survey, I had thought 13th chapter would finish in 3 parts, but damn thing took four parts so here is the revised structure

Part 1 of 4 HDR basics, poverty lines
Part 2 of 4 SC, ST, OBC, Minorities
Part 3 of 4 Women and children
Part 4 of 4 PH, elderly, nomadic tribes, drug junkies and beggars.

Under 3rd and 4th party, I’ve also compiled the 12th FYP targets/ visions / strategies. Useful as fodder material for mains, but not that relevant for prelims though, so you may ignore such topics for the moment and read that portion later. But First take look at some new schemes launched in 2013 (and but not mentioned in the India 2013 yearbook).

Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Suraksha Yojana (MGPSY)

  • by Ministry of Overseas Indian
  • for the Overseas Indian workers having Emigration Check Required (ECR) passports.
  • feature is similar to Swavalamban: you subscribe to NPS-lite then Government will make some contribution in your account.
  • free life insurance as long as you work in ECR country.
  • Implemented via Bank of Baroda and LIC.

Rashtriya Bal Swasthya karyakram

  • This is new scheme Launched in 2013.
  • to provide comprehensive healthcare and improve the quality of life of children

focus on 4D

  1. defects at birth (cleft lip, down’s syndrome, Talipes etc.)
  2. diseases (dental, heart, asthama etc)
  3. deficiencies (Vit.A deficiency= Bitot spot)
  4. development delays including disability.

Saksham

  • This is a recent scheme. By ministry of women and child Development
  • Made due to rising demand for gender sensitisation among boys after the Delhi gang-rape incident.
  • It’ll give training/moral education to adolescent boys (11-18 age) to respect women.
  • Official name will be “Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent boys.” (Just like SABLA’s official name is Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls).

Women

time line of various acts:

 Year Act
1956 Immoral Traffic
1961 Dowry Prohibition
1976 Equal remuneration ActBonded labour (Abolition) Act
1986 Indecent Representation
1987 Sati
1990 National Commission For Women
1992 Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles, Food
1997 SC lays down guidelines for preventing sexual harassment. (Visakha vs Rajsthan case)
2000 Juvenile Justice
2005 Domestic Violence
2005 Commission For Protection Of Child Rights
2006 Child Marriage
2009 Right to education act
2010 The Protection of Women Against Sexual Harassment at Work Place BillLok Sabha : passed. Rajya Sabha passed it in Feb 2013.
2012 Protection of children from sexual offenses.bill passed in both houses. brief summary given on prsindia.org click me

Policies

1974 national policy for children
2001 national policy for women
2004 national Charter for children
2012 national Youth Policy (in draft stage).

Schemes: Women n Girls

Ahimsa messengers

  • Scheme of Ministry of women and child development
  • These people work for prevention of violence against women, dowry etc.
  • Includes Women Panchayati Raj Members, Youth, NGOs etc.
  • Help victim file FIRs, visit police stations and seek legal aid.

Beijing platform for action

  • outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in ‘95
  • for accelerating pace of women empowerment.
  • India has adopted this also.

CEDAW

  • Convention on the elimination of discrimination against women
  • by UN
  • India has ratified it.

CSWB

  • Central social welfare board
  • to implement welfare programs for women and children via NGOs, family counselling, awareness generation etc.
  • originally+ setup by resolution of Government , later became a charitable company.
  • falls under Ministry of Women and child Development.

Poorna Shakti Kendras

  • Created under National Mission for empowerment of women
  • one stop information centres.
  • help women get benefit from various govt. schemes.

Priyadarshini

  • Women empowerment and livelihood program in mid-Gangetic plain. (UP and Bihar)
  • Women form self-help groups, NABARD gives loans, and jholachhap NGOs get commission.

SABLA

Yes, any economic chapter is incomplete without dragging Rajiv Gandhi or Sabla in it hehehe.

  • Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls
  • To provide nutrition for growing adolescent girls by provision of food grains.
  • All girls will be given a kishori card which will be updated with details of the girl’s growth and provision of the food grains.
  • SABLA implemented by Ministry of Women and Child Development. (not by HRD ministry or social welfare ministry)
  • SABLA is created by merging earlier two schemes : Nutrition program for adolescent girls + Kishori Shkati Yojana.
  • Target: girls aged 11-18
  • 100 gms of foodgrain per day per girl for 300 days in a year.

Saksham

  • This is a recent scheme. By ministry of women and child Development
  • Made due to rising demand for gender sensitisation among boys after the Delhi gang-rape incident.
  • It’ll give training/moral education to adolescent boys (11-18 age) to respect women.
  • Official name will be “Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent boys.” (Just like SABLA’s official name is Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls).

STEP

Support to Training and Employment program for Women.Provides skill training.

Swadhar Greh

  • Created by merging previous two schemes Swadhar + Short stay home schemes
  • under 12th FYP
  • for women/girls living in difficult circumstances who are without any social and economic support.
  • Free shelter, food, medical care, counseling, vocational training.

Ujjawala

  • For women/girls trafficked into prostitution.
  • Includes Rescue, Rehabilitation, Re-Integration and Repatriation for the victims.

By the way, rehabilitation of alcoholics and drug addicts, old age people =under Ministry of Social justice and empowerment (and not under Health ministry).

Committees after Delhi rape

Chief Why?
Justice JS Verma to review existing laws and examine levels of punishment in cases of aggravated sexual assault and it has submitted its recommendations.
Justice Usha Mehra to identify lapses on the part of public authorities and suggest measures to improve the safety and security of women in the capital.

Schemes: Mother-Child

lot of schemes like Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog, JSY etc. ignored because they were covered in earlier Covered in public health compilation article click me.

Rashtriya Bal Swasthya karyakram

  • This is new scheme Launched in 2013.
  • to provide comprehensive healthcare and improve the quality of life of children

focus on 4D

  1. defects at birth (cleft lip, down’s syndrome, Talipes etc.)
  2. diseases (dental, heart, asthama etc)
  3. deficiencies (Vit.A deficiency= Bitot spot)
  4. development delays including disability.

ICDS

integrated Child development servicestarted in ‘75

beneficiary

  1. children below the age of six
  2. lactating mothers
  3. pregnant mothers

provides for

  • nutritional and health status.
  • immunization
  • health checkups
  • preschool and non-formal education

has convergence with reproductive and child health (RCH) program under National rural health Mission

ICPS

  • integrated child protection scheme
  • for children in difficult circumstances (neglected, abandoned, trafficked etc.)
  • Toll free childline: 1098

Dhanlakshmi

conditional cash transfer For girl child, for fulfilling following conditions like

  • birth and registration of birth
  • immunization
  • enrolment and retention in school

For this scheme, 12th FYP wants conditional transfer of assets (like home via IAY) instead of cash transfer.

Rajiv Gandhi National creche

  • scheme provides for day-care facilities to 0-6 year-old children
  • of working mothers by opening crèches and development services
  • Requirement: combined monthly income of both the parents should not exceed Rs.12,000 for availing of the facilities.

Child-Adoption

CARA

Central adoption resource authorityautonomous body under Ministry of women and Child development

deals with Hague Convention on inter-country adoption

CARINGS

child adoption resource information and guidance systemit is an IT application for greater transparency in adoption system, under CARA

UN convention on rights of children

1989 UN general assembly adopted this.
1992 India accedes to the convention.
2005 India ratifies two optional protocals under the convention viz.

  1. Involvement of children in armed conflict
  2. sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Similar to Kyoto, here also America has continued its total awesomeness. (They haven’t ratified UN convention on rights of children).

now let’s focus on 12th FYP

12th FYP: Women: Vulnerable groups

Women group What does 12th FYP want?

SC

  • PDS shops in SC bastis/areas should be operated by local SC women.
  • Better implementation of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.

ST

  • Generate awareness among tribal women about policies, programmes, schemes and legislations meant for them.
  • Representation of tribal women on Committees formed for fixation of Minimum Support Prices for Minor Forest Produce (MFP)

Minorities

  • give collective transportation facilities (not just bicycles) to Muslim girls.
  • give Alternative training  Women artisans from religious minorities who desire occupational diversification.

PH

  • early detection of children with different abilities in schools.
  • vocational training and assured employment for them

Widows

  • Age criteria in widow’s pension scheme should be extended to cover more beneficiaries.
  • Index the pension to inflation

Single women

  • A separate quota under Indira Awas Yojana and Rajiv Awas Yojana
  • special job cards under MGNREGA
  • Separate entrepreneurship and leadership development schemes for single women
  • legal aid to single women

Elderly

  • focus on osteoporosis, breast cancer and cervical cancer and Mental health
  • cost of medical procedures for single/poor senior citizens will be subsidised.
  • remove income criteria for old age pension to women above 75 years living in rural/urban slums.
  • pension fund will be made for elderly women in the unorganised sector rendered jobless and without any savings when unable to work.

HIV positive

  • facilities for HIV+ve women deserted by their family, have lost their husbands, and are without any social or economic support.
  • Caregivers of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) and AIDS will be trained in all aspects of the disease.

Migrant

  • portability of entitlements such as ration cards
  • registration-monitering system to protect migrant domestic workers from exploitation.
  • Migrant Resource Centres/Assistance centres provide information counselling for migrants

AFSPA

  • initiate review of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) using a gender lens- for better living conditions for women living in disturbed areas.
  • special attention in areas like health care measures, schools, free legal aid and so on.
  • Gender sensitisation programs for defense and paramilitary personnel deployed in the disturbed areas.

Prostitution

India has ratified following:

  1. United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (UNCTOC)
  2. ^+ its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons especially trafficking in Women and Children.
  3. SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking of Women and Children for Prostitution.

12th FYP wants to break the vicious cycle of second generation prostitution and brothel related livelihood. To achieve this, children of sex workers will be mainstreamed with proper education + skill training

Women in prison

  • 4 per cent of prison population is female
  • Problems: overcrowding, prolonged detention of undertrial individuals, poor living conditions, and allegations of physical, sexual and mental abuse
  • need for a comprehensive revision of the prison laws.

Transgender

  • A separate column in all Government and non-Government records to include the third gender.
  • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment along with the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation will determine the number of transgendered persons in India and their socio-economic status.
  • then a new law will be created  to protect interests of the community
  • +education, housing, access to healthcare, skill development, employment opportunities and financial assistance.

12th FYP: reforming Women laws

Act What does 12th FYP Aim?

PC-PNDT Act

  • Use Decoy and sting operations to catch the doctors/clinics.
  • ban on sex detection and sex selection advertisements must be strictly enforced.
  • Increase penalties.
  • Strict Registration/Regulation of sonography machines.

Maternity benefit act

  • increase the length of leave women employed in factories, mines, plantations, shops

PWDVA (domestic violence)

  • separate protection officers + Family Counselling Centres
  • Training and capacity building of law enforcement agencies and the Judiciary

Dowry prohibition

  • full time Dowry Prohibition Officers to enforce the Act
  • One Stop Crisis Centres for providing shelter, police desk, legal, medical and counseling services and Women’s Helpline.

ITPA

  • The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA), needs to be amended
  • to clearly define trafficking and sexual exploitation, recognizing different aspects of the same.

Women In Panchayats

  • Village level women committees must be formed including female workers (teachers, Anganwadi, ASHA) + female panchayat members to collectively discuss and formulate work plans
  • increase role of Panchayats in enforcing registration of births, deaths, marriages and migration
  • pre-election preparation of women candidates and voters,
  • give intensive training to elected panchayat women representatives
  • Gender budgeting and gender audit in rural and urban local bodies.
  • citizen report cards with focus on meeting women’s needs in urban services such as water and sanitation, widows’ pensions and so on.
  • Initiatives to reduce alcoholism among poor men.

Women in Agriculture

  • Kisan Credit Cards should be issued to women farmers
  • increase awareness about the growing feminisation of agriculture
  • Challenge the gender stereotype that farming is solely a male activity.
  • Women must also be included in land and water management, pani panchayats, preservation of soil fertility and nutrition management, sustainable use of soil, water, livestock and fishery resources
  • A quota for women will be incorporated in agro schemes like Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
  • implement technology to reduce drudgery of rural women.
Women in What does 12th FYP aim?

Manufacturing sector

  • propaganda to change attitudes towards gender stereotyping of skills
  • Removal of prejudice against caste-based activities and worker communities.
  • find potential women entrepreneurs and give them assistance

Service sector

  • Training of women as BPO employees, electronic technicians, electricians, plumbers, sales persons, auto drivers, taxi drivers, masons, etc. under skill development programmes.
  • Skill development would be seen as a vehicle to improve lives and not just livelihoods of women.

Unorganized sector

  • complaints committee for sexual harassment.
  • addressing issues of leave, wages, work conditions, pension, housing, childcare, health benefits, maternity benefits, safety and occupational health

Women: land ownership

There are three main sources of land for women:

Mode 12th FYP

1.direct government transfers

  • Where new land is being distributed or regularized, individual titles in women’s names only rather than joint titles with husbands.

2.purchase or lease from the market

  • Low interest loans for women to purchase land in groups for group cultivation.

3.Inheritance

  • increase in legal awareness and legal support for women’s inheritance rights.
  • Hindu Succession Amendment Act (HSAA), 2005 brings all agricultural land on par with other property. Meaning women’s land inheritance rights are legally equal to men’s across states, overriding any inconsistent State laws.
  • 12th FYP wants speedy and intense implementation of this amendment.

Health

  • A separate target for lowering female IMR will be added under NRHM.
  • impact assessment of Janani Suraksha Yojana, Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh and other activities under the NRHM will also be undertaken
  • Dovetailing of IGMSY (a pilot conditional maternity benefit scheme), National Food Security Bill (NFSB) and related State schemes with NRHM EDUCATION for an effective convergence of programmes relating to pregnant and lactating mothers.

SANITATION

  • gender impact assessment of the Total Sanitation Campaign to assess whether it has reduced women’s workload, provided security, improved hygiene and reproductive health of women, decreased school dropout rates
  • Provide toilets with water in all schools and anganwadi centres
  • active involvement of women in determining the location of sanitation facilities.
  • Difficulties in the usage of toilets will be addressed (eg. need for lighting, inappropriate location, and so on).
  • eco-sanitation, non-flushing, self-composting toilets

Transport

  • Gender Audit of transport terminals
  • Personal security risks at parking lots, buses, bus stops, airports, highways
  • Design improvements in bus and trains e.g. lower height of entry steps, length of straps,install handrails, ramps etc.

Energy

  • Women’s groups to start making charcoal, briquette making, gassifiers and other smaller power production units and energy-based enterprises.
  • Special trainings to women in renewable energy sector, including the repair of solar lanterns, improved cooking stoves, pumpsets.

Urban planning

  • Resettlement schemes must be evaluated by the affected communities, with a gendered assessment of repercussions on livelihoods of the evictees.
  • safe shelter homes, women friendly public toilets, public crèche facilities,

Climate Change

  • While National and State level Action Plans on Climate Change are being formulated, the Twelfth Plan will ensure a gender assessment.

Media

  • Recognition will be given to programmes that air messages critical to the empowerment of women.?
  • engendering the different channels of the media including local media like Nukkad Nataks (Street Plays), Community Radio and so on.

Insurance

  • Medical Insurance policies will be modified to recognise needs of women headed and single women households
  • Policies on Pensions and Post-retirement benefits will be engendered to reflect the needs of single women and women headed households

12th FYP: Women welfare: Ministries and Schemes

Increase funding for following schemes

  1. Support to Training and Employment Program (STEP) for skill development and income generation,
  2. Priyadarshini for improving sustainable livelihood opportunities
  3. Swayamsiddha Phase II for ensure holistic empowerment of women in a sustainable manner through SHGs
  4. Working Women Hostels
  5. Ujjawala, a comprehensive scheme for helping sex workers
  6. Swadhar Greh Scheme, for women in distress.
  7. New scheme for providing restorative justice to victims of rape through financial assistance as well as support services.

Gender Budgeting Scheme which assesses gender differential impact of the budget will be continued in the Twelfth Plan Period

Ministry/Department /org What?
Sci-Tech Apply Sci-tech for weaker sections, women and other disadvantaged sections of society.
Department of Biotech participation of employed/unemployed women scientists
IT e-literacy for women
Labour vocational training to women
Youth Affairs Skills Development Programmes for women in J&K and border areas.
Panchayati Raj Increase reservation and leadership ip quality for women in PRIs.
HRD increasing enrolment in KGBVsmore girls hostels for secondary schools.
Health and Family Welfare Decrease MMR
Rural Development gender disaggregated targets for employment generated under MNREGA.
NCW Coordination between the National Commission for women and State Commissions will be strengthened.

Gender Budgeting (GB)

  • It is a methodology to assist government in integrating gender perspective into the budget.
  • First Gender budget statement appeared in 2005’s budget.
  • under 12th FYP following will be done
    • strengthening and empowering the Gender Budget Cells (GBCs) in each ministry
    • Gender Audit as an integral part of Gender Budgeting will be promoted.

Engendering Flagship Programmes

  • gender analysis of all flagship programmes will be undertaken at the design stage.
  • Ministry of Women and Child Development/The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation will monitor the gender dimensions of the flagship programmes.
Land acquisition
  • Any new land arrangements (=compensatory land given to displaced persons) must be in the joint names of the man and the woman or exclusively in the name of the woman.
  • Women’s participation in site selection will be ensured
PMGSY
  • PRADHAN MANTRI GRAM SADAK YOJANA
  • convergence between PMGSY and MGNREGA will be strengthened.
NRML/Ajeevika
  • To help women work on a larger scale, Government  will promote more clusters and federations of women SHGs .
MNREGA
  • One day per month will be allocated as sensitisation day.
  • On this day workers will be given wages but instead of working, they’ll be given awareness about Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, PC-PNDT Act, and Dowry Prohibition Act etc.
  • Women’s Groups will be included as implementing agencies of MGNREGS works.
  • setting up crèches in collaboration with ICDS Anganwadis
  • wages under MGNREGS will not be calculated on a piece-rate basis because it often works to the detriment of women.
RGGVY
  • RAJIV GANDHI GRAMEEN VIDYUTIKARAN YOJANA (RGGVY)
  • regular flow of electricity to homesteads.
  • This will help women in accessing drinking water, studies of children and other household requirements.
JNNURM
  • safety audits in city planning.
  • market spaces for women hawkers,
  • Women water users groups, women councillors, a mohalla committee with women members will be included in decision making.
  • Skill training for women so more women can be employed under JNNURM projects.

National Rural Health Mission

  • Focus will be post-menopausal problems, osteoporosis and breast and cervical cancer
  • Dovetailing of NRHM with IGMSY (conditional cash transfer for maternity benefit) and National Food Security Bill (NFSB) will be undertaken
  • Training Anganwadi and ASHA workers on issues relating to nutrition, counselling, child rights and gender discrimination
  • work of ASHAs/AWWs, will be valued and recognised.

Education

  • Increase # of lady teachers under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), especially in rural schools and remote, inaccessible areas
  • Upgrade Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas to secondary school level
  • address sexual stereotyping via Gender sensitive educational system and syllabus.
  • Change the attitudes and perceptions of school teachers.

Housing

IAY Special provisions for housing for vulnerable women, especially single women and female headed households.
Rajiv Awas Yojana work sheds for women in Rajiv Awas Yojana settlements.This will promote economic opportunities for women in urban slum areas.

12th FYP Children

11th FYP: Achievements

Legal front
  • National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was setup independent statutory commission. (act was made in 2005 but actual Commission setup in 2007).
  • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 enacted.
  • Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act was passed by Parliament in May 2012. highlights available on prsindia click me
New schemes
  1. Indira Gandhi Matritava Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY)
  2. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (SABLA)
  3. Integrated Child Protection Scheme’ (ICPS)
  4. Introduction of the joint (mother + child) card by ICDS and NRHM.

12th FYP: Child Development Targets

  • Improve the Child Sex Ratio from 914 in 2011 to 950 by 2017
  • Prevent and Reduce Child Under nutrition (percentage of underweight prevalence in children 0–3 years) by half (50 per cent)
  • Reduce anemia in girls and women by half (50 per cent)
  • Ensure that 80 per cent or more Panchayat, districts and cities progressively become child friendly.
  • A Child Development Index on the lines of ‘Women Development Index.
  • Review and Update the National Policy for Children 1974

Reforming laws

  • provide uniformity in the definition of “children,” in all laws.
  • Child sensitive and child friendly Jurisprudence.
  • Develop a comprehensive Children’s Code to harmonise different legal provisions for children.
  • mandatory for all State Governments to setup State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCRs)

Child Labour vs RTE

  • RTE= every child between the ages of 6 and 14 has right to free (and compulsory) elementary education
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 makes a distinction between hazardous and non-hazardous categories of work for children under 14 years.

Problems with existing Child labour act?

  • children under the age of 14 years are prohibited from employment only in hazardous industry.
  • In other words, Child labour Act permitted children under the age of 14 to work in “non-hazardous industries” including some agricultural work.
  • Thus, right to education act and Child labour act are conflicting: Children cannot be both working and in school at the same time!
  • + Teens between 14-18 years can be employement in hazardous industry (because act talks about upto 14 age).
  • Therefore 12th FYP wants amendment in the Child labour act to abolish all forms of child labour.
  • following this, in 2012, cabinet gave approval to amend the Child labour act.
  • new Bill seeks to prohibit employment of children below 14 years in all occupations except where the child helps his family after school hours.
  • Children between 14 and 18 have now been termed in the amendment as “adolescents” and can only be employed in non-hazardous industries.

IMS Act: Bottle feeding

  • Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles And Infant Foods (Regulation Of Production, Supply And Distribution) Act 1992
  • as per its amendment in 2003, direct advertisement of infant milk substitutes(IMS) and bottle-feeding is prohibited.
  • However, commercial interference with infant and young child feeding practices and growth related claims still continue surreptitiously.
  • 12th FYP wants strict enforcement regarding such ads.

Food security

  • 12th FYP wants Government  to make sure that draft National Food Security Bill does not dilute earlier provisions for all six services of ICDS, mandated by earlier Supreme Court directives and also provides support for maternity protection.

Restructuring the ICDS:

  • focus on the critical age group—pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and children under three years
  • Panchayat led models: decentralisation, with flexibility in implementation.
  • Baal Vikas Kendra owned by women
  • revised nutrition and feeding norms: freshly cooked, culturally appropriate meal, (morning) snack and Take Home Rations in harmony with Supreme Court directive.
  • SNEHA SHIVIRS for severely undernourished children
  • Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Joyful early learning approaches will be promoted— for children 3–6 years of age (e.g. Chilli Pilli program of Karnataka government)
  • Ensuring convergence with related sectors such as NRHM, TSC, NRDWP, SSA, MGNREGA

Improve Sex ratio

Dhanalakshmi

Instead of giving cash, provide conditional ownership of assets e.g. house under Indira Awas Yojna.

Enforcement

  • Child Marriage Prohibition Act,
  • Dowry Prohibition Act (DPA)
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act.
  • PC-PDNT act

Award

  • Rashtriya Gaurav Gram Sabha Awards
  • planned by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj
  • to award panchayats that improve the child sex ratio and enhance care and protection of the girl child

Misc

Child Web Portal

with comprehensive data base on child survival, development, protection etc.

Baal Panchayats

  • where children’s voices will be heard in assessing how their panchayat fares
  • Those Panchayats and ULBs who creat child friendly panchayats and urban local bodies, will be given recognition and awards along the line of Nirmal Gram Puruskar.

Awards Women n Children

Streee Shakti Puraskars

  • on International Women’s Day 8th of March, the Government of India presents this award
  • to individual women in the field of social development
  • 6 awards given, in the name of following eminent women from Indian history
Devi Ahilya Bai Holkar Queen of the Maratha ruled Malwa kingdom, India. Second half of 1700s.
Kanngi
  • Kannagi is the central character of the South Indian epic Silapathikaram (100-300 CE).
  • King of Madurai had got her husband killed for false accusation of theft.
  • She took revenge by burning the Madurai city with a curse.
  • Now Worshipped as Goddess.
Mata Jijabai Shivaji’s mother.
Rani Gaidenlou Zeliang
  • Naga woman leader.
  • Ran movement against Brithshers in Manipur.
  • Nehru called her Rani of Nagas.
Rani Laxmibai
  • Lord Dalhousie took away her kingdom under Doctrine of Lapse.
  • Fought and died in the Mutiny of 1857.
Rani Rudramma Devi
  • Queen of Kakatiya dynasty in the Deccan Plateau
  • Second half of 1200s.

Award children related

National Child award for exceptional achievement  given to children aged between 4 to 15 yearsfor outstanding achievement in various fields including academics, arts, culture, sports etc.
Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Award
  • given to 3 individuals
  • for outstanding contribution to child development/welfare/protection

Mock Qs after 4th part.

Mrunal recommends