[Economic Survey Ch13] Human Development (Part 4 of 4): Physically Disabled, Elderly, Nomadic, Denotified Tribes, Drug junkies and Beggars

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  1. Persons with Disabilities
    1. Persons with Disabilities: Schemes
      1. ARUNIM
      2. ADIP
      3. DDRS
      4. DDRC
      5. Pvt. Jobs
      6. ALIMCO
      7. Jaipur Foot
    2. 12th FYP: PH welfare
      1. Education
      2. Disabled friendly Environment
      3. Review existing laws
      4. Task for individual ministry
  2. (Draft) National Youth Policy 2012 (NYP12): Salient Features
    1. New definition of Youth
    2. Age groups of Youth
    3. Categories of Youth
    4. Validity
    5. Youth Development Index (YDI)
  3. SENIOR CITIZENS
    1. Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP)
    2. 12th FYP: Senior Citizen
  4. Nomadic, Semi-Nomadic And Denotified Tribes (Dnts)
    1. DNT: Problems
    2. 12th FYP: DNT welfare
  5. Drug-junkies
  6. Beggars
  7. Mock Question

Persons with Disabilities

1995 Persons with disabilities Act

  • Prevention, protection, promotion, rehab- unemployment allowance, grievances redressal machinery etc.
  • gives 3 per cent reservation in employment.
2005 National policy for persons with disabilities
2008 India ratified UN convention on Protection & promotion of rights & dignity  of persons with disabilities.

Persons with Disabilities: Schemes

ARUNIM

  • ARUNIM (Association for Rehabilitation Under National Trust Initiative of Marketing) – a statutory body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • for marketing products made by PH+skill development, training etc.

ADIP

  • Scheme of Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids/ Appliances (ADIP)

DDRS

  • Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS).
  • for effective implementation of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995.
  • projects for providing education, vocational training, & rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.

DDRC

  • District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs)
  • joint venture of the State & Central Government.
  • to facilitate the creation of infrastructure & capacity building at district level for awareness generation, rehabilitation, training & guiding rehabilitation professionals

Pvt. Jobs

  • To encourage private sector to employ PH candidates.
  • government providing the employer’s contribution to the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) & Employees State Insurance (ESI) for three years,
  • for employees with disabilities with a monthly salary up to 25,000.

ALIMCO

  • PSU in Kanpur
  • Artificial limbs manufacturing corporation of India
  • has been exporting its products to Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh etc.

Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007–12)

did following initiatives

  1. delineating clear cut responsibility between the concerned Ministries/ Departments;
  2. Indian Sign Language Research & Training Centre has been set up in 2011
  3. A new Department, namely Department of Disability Affairs has been set up in the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment on Twelfth May, 2012 to act as the nodal Department for the overall policy

National Handicapped Finance & Development Corporation (NHFDC)

  • It provides loans at concessional rate for education, skill development & self-employment ventures

Eligibility

  • 40% of more disability
  • annual income should not be more than 5 lakh (urban areas), 3 lakh (rural areas)
  • NHFDC also provided loans to Parents Associations of mentally retarded persons to set up income generating activities.

Jaipur Foot

  • Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti, Limb Centre, S.M.S. Hospital/Medical College, Jaipur.
  • was set up by Mr. D.R. Mehta in, 1975
  • The Society (Jaipur Foot/Limb & Calipers) supplements efforts in making disabled persons functional by providing artificial limbs, calipers, other aids & appliances, economic assistance free of charge.
  • The Jaipur Limb is so efficient that after this limb is fitted, a person can walk like a normal person without a stick or support, & even run, ride a bicycle & climb a tree.
  • Jaipur Foot has also been fitted to landmine victims & others in foreign countries like Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia etc.

12th FYP: PH welfare

Two-pronged strategy

  1. service delivery
  2. generate public awareness about disability rights.

Three key aspects

Recognize the extent to PH are enhanced via National & International Conventions & Programmes
Empower Via legal rights
Protect Acknowledging that Persons with Disabilities have ‘un-evolved’ capacities as a consequence of their disabilities & thereby have rights to protection.

focus-areas

  1. make a large number of products, public services & information services accessible to PwDs
  2. improving participation & completion rates of students with disabilities at various stages of education (elementary, secondary & tertiary)
  3. reduce disproportionate incidence of poverty among the persons with disabilities
  4. increase nutrition, health & housing
  5. public awareness about disability rights
  6. modernise & expand production units of ALIMCO to enhance the quantum of production to match/meet the dem& for improved products.

Education

Scholarships

In 2nd part, we had seen various scholarships availble to SC, ST. 12th FYP wants them to be extended to PH also

  1. Pre-Matric and Post-Matric Scholarships
  2. free coaching for competitive exams
  3. Scholarships for ‘Top Class’ education
  4. Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for persons with disabilities;
  5. National Overseas Scholarship for persons with disabilities;

Edu-Infra

  1. Special/ Residential school for students with severe & multiple disabilities,
  2. college for deaf in each of the five regions of the country
  3. establishment of National Accessible Library.

Disabled friendly Environment

  • disable friendly space/ facilities in all modes of transport viz. rail, buses & airplanes & so on During Twelfth Plan
  • barrier free environment in important Government buildings
  • make government websites accessible to persons with disabilities.

Review existing laws

Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Protection of Rights & Full Participation) Act 1995
Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992
National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy Mental Retardation & Multiple Disabilities Act 1999
Mental Health Act 1987

12th FYP wants government to be reviewed them to harmonise these acts with the provision of United Nations Conference on Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). Same for other acts like Right to Free education, CrPC, MNREGA etc.

Task for individual ministry

Ministry of What?
Communication & IT electronic services & emergency services should be made accessible & disabled friendly
Civil Aviation
  • lay down standards for safe & non-discriminatory air travel of persons with disabilities as per provisions of the UNCRPD
  • Adapt toilets in vessels, aircrafts & waiting rooms in such a way as to permit the wheel chair users to use them conveniently.
Health & family welfare
  • Infra: accessible hospitals & health centres, community care centres
  • Personnel: trained & sensitised
  • reasonable health insurance
  • Rehabilitation Centres for treating mentally ill persons
  • Model multi-disability independent living centres
  • setting up of State Spinal Injury Centres;
HRD
  • socialisation of children with disabilities through education
  • schools including all Kendriya Vidyalayas & Navodaya Vidyalayas should ensure barrier free environment.
Labour & Employment
  • Employable Skills of people with disabilities under the Skill Development Initiative Scheme
  • establish an Accessible National Portal allowing people with disabilities to register & search for jobs.
Railways
  • multi-level & multi-platform railway stations & one coach in every class of mail & express trains should be made PH-accessible.
  • prepare rail compartments, toilets in rail compartments & waiting rooms in such a way as to permit the wheel users to use them conveniently.
Rural Development attention to PH under various schemes like MNREGA, Ajeevika, Natial social assistance program, Indira Awas etc.
Women n Child development to priorities the most vulnerable among PH: particularly SC, ST women, Muslim women, single women, differently-abled, & HIV-positive women etc.

Youth: Skill Development

YES project

  • Youth Employability Skills (YES) project
  • focus on providing specific employable skills to unemployed youth in all the States in the North Eastern Region.
  • By Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
  • The skill training would be provided by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)

NSDC

  • National Skill Development Corporation
  • a non-profit company under the Companies Act
  • For skilling 500 million persons by the year 2022.

(Draft) National Youth Policy 2012 (NYP12): Salient Features

New definition of Youth

Definition Age-bracket
India (earlier) 13-35
India (under NYP12) 16-30
United Nations 15-24

Age groups of Youth

NYP 2012 divides 16-30 years into three groups

Age group Attention
16-20 Education
20-25 Employable skills
25-30 self-employment and entrepreneurial skills

Categories of Youth

Target groups

  1. Student Youth
  2. Migrant Youth
  3. Rural Youth
  4. Tribal Youth
  5. Youth At Risk
  6. Youth in violent conflicts
  7. out of school/dropouts
  8. groups with social /moral stigma (transgender, HIV+ve)
  9. Youth in Institutional Care

Priority groups

  1. Women
  2. PH
  3. socially and economically disadvantaged communities

Both target groups and the priority groups will be given skill training with the help of

  • Prime Minister’s National Council on Skill Development
  • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC),

Validity

  • Will be reviewed after every National Census.
  • This policy will remain effective till 2022
  • Will be implemented by Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports

Youth Development Index (YDI)

  • Will be created under NYP 2012
  • Wiil contain five monitorable indicators
  1. Youth Health Index
  2. Youth Education Index
  3. Youth Work Index
  4. Youth Amenities Index
  5. Youth Participation Index

SENIOR CITIZENS

1992 Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP)
2007 Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act. This Is already covered in old article click me

Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP)

Scheme financial assistance up to 90 per cent of the project cost is provided to non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) for running and maintenance of Old Age Homes, Day Care Centres and Mobile Medicare Units.

12th FYP: Senior Citizen

consolidate, expand and strengthen various programmes.

IPOP More day care/enrichment centres for the elders under the scheme of Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP)
Personnel at least one Regional Resource and Training Centres (RRTCs) in every State – to provide training to caregivers for elderly.
States
  • Effectively implement Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007.
  • Tribunals will be set up so that elderly parents, unable to maintain themselves, are not abandoned and neglected.
  • set up homes with assisted living facilities for abandoned senior citizens in every district
  • District level help lines
  • Bureau for Socio-Economic Empowerment of Senior Citizens at district level

12th FYP wants new policy for elderly and focus on following

  1. set up a National Commission for Senior Citizens to look into their grievances on priority for redressal and ensure that services and facilities meant for them are being provided
  2. create of National Trust for the Aged
  3. Smart Identity Cards for senior citizens;
  4. health insurance for senior citizens
  5. Mainstream all the senior citizens, especially the older women
  6. Promote the concept of ‘Ageing in Place’ or ageing in own home. Institutional care should be the last resort
  7. housing, income-security, homecare services, old age pension, access to healthcare, insurance schemes for dignity in old age.
  8. India is a signatory to the Madrid Plan of Action and Barrier Free Framework, the Policy will aim to work towards an inclusive, barrier-free and age-friendly society.
  9. Long term savings instruments and credit activities in both rural and urban areas.
  10. Employment in income generating activities after superannuation
  11. counselling, career guidance, training services, awareness generation, sensitization and other fancy stuff.

Nomadic, Semi-Nomadic And Denotified Tribes (Dnts)

Back in 1871 the Britishers made a notorious law called “Criminal Tribes Act (CTA)”. Under this act, ~200 tribes classified in six categories.

  1. petty traders moving from village to village selling salt, forest produce etc.
  2. musicians, dancers, singers, storytellers, acrobats, gymnasts, puppeteers and tightrope walkers
  3. fortune telling, traditional faith healing services
  4. entertainers with the help of performing animals
  5. pastoral groups, hunters, gatherers, shifting cultivator
  6. artisans working with bamboo, iron, clay and so on

After freedom, Indian government annulled this CTA Act of 1871 and thereafter those tribes have been referred to as the Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (DNTs, SNTs and NTs).

DNT: Problems

  • There is no authentic data on DNTs and no Census enumeration was conducted for them, though they are found in almost all the States and belong mostly to the OBC category in some large States.
  • Some communities are not covered by any of the three SC, ST and OBC categories.
  • They keep moving from one place to another, don’t have permanent homes due to various social, political and cultural reasons hence they’re unable to get benefits of the various schemes named after you know who!

12th FYP: DNT welfare

Housing

  • conduct nation-wide survey of DNT settlements.
  • Provide permanent habitations/villages for them: with basic amenities such as roads, schools, electricity, drinking water, community centers.
  • earmark a proportion of the funding for Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) for DNTs.

schemes

  • DNTs should be covered under existing facilities for ST, SC and OBC categories as applicable: scholarships and hostel facilities etc.
  • skill development and marketing, loans for economic empowerment

Laws

12th FYP wants government to review following Acts to ensure the dignity and the livelihood of DNTs

Habitual Offenders Act 1952
The Prevention of Begging Act 1959
The Bombay Prevention of Begging Act 1959
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989

Drug-junkies and alcoholics

Rehabilitation

  • Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment provides support
  • to Rehabilitation Centre run by NGOs
  • ^For de-addition/rehab therapy of drug junkies.
India is signatory to three United Nations Conventions, namely:

  1. Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961
  2. Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971
  3. Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988

Therefore, India has an international obligation to curb drug abuse.

Strategy to reduce narcotic drug demand

  1. education
  2. treatment
  3. rehabilitation
  4. social integration

Beggars

Problem #1: No laws

  • No firm and authentic information regarding number of beggars in the country.
  • According to the unpublished data of Census 2001, there were ~7 lakh beggars and vagrants.
  • at present, there aren’t any specific Central Act or clear policy on prevention/rehab of beggars.

Although following laws contains provisions to prevent  begging:

  • Indian Penal Code (IPC),
  • the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000
  • Indian Railway Act 1989

Problem #2: No schemes

  • no central schemes directly related to beggary.
  • many beggars suffer from various types of disabilities, including mental illness and are addicted to various narcotic drugs (apart from the omnipresent desi liquor).
  • although there are schemes for elderly, PH, and druggies that also cover issues/problems of beggary.

12th FYP for beggars

Make law

  • Model Legislation on Beggary at the Central level which can be suitably adapted by States/UTs.
  • National policy for beggars

Make scheme

new programme/scheme like Integrated Programme for Rehabilitation of Beggars. This program may include

  1. Night Shelter-cum-Work Production Centre;
  2. Multiple Skill Training;
  3. Mobile Health Care;
  4. Counselling; Awareness Generation; and Sensitization and other fancy stuff.

It remains to be seen whether this scheme also get named after you know who!

Mock Question

  1. Correct Statement about Human Development Index
    1. It is an arithmetic mean of three dimensions of Human Development viz Health, income and education
    2. It measures income in terms of GDP per capita
    3. It measure education in terms of gross enrollment(1/3rd weight) + adult literacy (2/3rd weight)
    4. None of Above
  2. Human Development Report (HDR)-2013
    1. Highlights the topic “Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World.”
    2. Ranks Australia 2nd in the HDI index for 2012
    3. Rank Niger and Congo at the bottom in HDI ranking.
    4. All of Above
  3. For HDI-2012 index, among the BRICS nation,
    1. India ranks higher than Russia but lower than China
    2. China ranks higher than India but lower than Russia
    3. China rank higher than both India and Russia
    4. None of above
  4. Correct statements HDR-2013
    1. Apart from HDI, it also provides Gender Inequality Index, Multidimensional poverty index, Hunger and malnutrition index.
    2. In HDI ranking, it allots same rank to Pakistan and Bangladesh
    3. Both
    4. None
  5. Dr.NC Saxena Committee
    1. was setup by planning Commission
    2. to recommend changes in the existing procedure used for official estimation of poverty.
    3. Said that more than 77% of Indian public is below poverty line
    4. None of above.
  6. Suresh Tendulkar Committee was
    1. was setup by Rural Development Ministry
    2. to advise on the suitable methodology for BPL Census.
    3. recommended Mixed Reference Period (MRP) equivalent Poverty Line Basket (PLB) method for poverty-estimation.
    4. None of Above
  7. Correct Statements
    1. ‘Awaasoft’ is an MIS software developed energy efficient habitats under National Action plan for climate change.
    2. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) wants 100 per cent access to sanitation for all rural households by 2015.
    3. Aajeevika is an initiative by rural Development ministry to to lift the assisted rural poor families above the poverty line.
    4. None of above.
  8. Correct Statements
    1. Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme provides scholarship for ST-SC students pursuing Master’s level courses and PhD/Post-Doctoral courses abroad.
    2. “Top Class Education” scheme provides free coaching for SC, ST, Minorities preparing for competitive exams in  UPSC, SSC, Railways, State PSCs
    3. Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana seeks integrated Development of minorities dominated villages
    4. None of Above
  9. Consider following statements (A) No communities of Pondicherry are notified as scheduled tribes. (R) Pondicherry is neither in 5th or in 6th schedule.
    1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
    2. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
    3. A is true but (R) is false.
    4. A is false but (R) is true.
  10. Correct Statements about PESA act
    1. Parliament had to enact PESA Act Because under AFSPA, provisions related Panchayat didnot apply to scheduled and disturbed areas without parliamentary approval.
    2. Among other things, it provides right to live in forest and right to self-cultivation for livelihood.
    3. Both
    4. None
  11. Which of the following is not a statutory body?
    1. National commission for protection of child rights
    2. special officer for linguistic minorities.
    3. Rehabilitation council of India
    4. Chief Commissioner for persons with disabilities
  12. Correct Statement
    1. TRIBES INDIA, are exclusive shops setup by the Ministry of Commerce to market tribal handicrafed items.
    2. National Safai Karmacharis financing development Corporation provides loans only to Safai Karmacharis living below double the poverty line.
    3. Majority population in Lakshadweep is Christian.
    4. None of Above
  13. Among the following, which one was enacted first
    1. Act to prohibit Indecent Representation of women in media
    2. Act to prohibit domestic violence against women
    3. Act to establish National commission for women
    4. Act to protect children from sexual offenses
  14. What is the function of Ahimsa Messangers?
    1. They promote peace and unity in communinally sensitive areas
    2. They encourage naxals to lay down arms and join mainstream
    3. They encourage terrorists and extremists in J&K and North East to lay down arms and join mainstream
    4. They work for prevention of domestic violence against women.
  15. Beijin Platform for action is related with
    1. Rights of the disabled
    2. Children rights
    3. Refugee rights
    4. Women rights
  16. Priyadarshini is a scheme for
    1. education and nutrition of adolescent girls
    2. nutrition and health of pregnant mother
    3. shelter homes for victims of sexual crimes, dowry etc.
    4. none of above
  17. Saksham is a scheme for
    1. Self defense training for adolescent girls under SABLA framework
    2. Low interest credit facility for Women SHG
    3. for gender sensitization among adolescent boys
    4. None of above
  18. Swadhar Greh is created by merging
    1. Swadhar + Short stay home
    2. Swadhar + working women’s hostel
    3. Swadhar + SABLA
    4. Swadhar + STEP
  19. Incorrect Match?
    1. Swadhar greh: Women in difficult circumstances
    2. Ujjawala: girls / women in prostitution
    3. Swavalamban: banking penetration in rural areas
    4. None of above
  20. Which of the following is a conditional cash transfer scheme
    1. Dhanlakshmi
    2. Indira Gandhi matritva Sahyog yojana
    3. Both
    4. None
  21. Correct statements about Indian and the UN convention on rights of children
    1. India has ratified this UN convention.
    2. India has not ratified two optional protocals under this convention, related with children in armed conflict and child pornography.
    3. Both correct
    4. None correct
  22. 12th Five year plan seeks
    1. Separate quota under Indira Awas Yojana and Rajiv Awas Yojana for Single women
    2. separate column in all Government and non-Government records to include the third gender
    3. Both
    4. None
  23. which of the following is a target of 12th Five year plan?
    1. Improve Child Sex Ratio to 980 by 2017
    2. Reduce anemia in girls and women by half
    3. Both
    4. None
  24. Correct statement
    1. Hindu Succession Amendment Act (HSAA), 2005 grants land inheritance rights to women except for agricultural land.
    2. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 prohibits employment of children in both hazardous and non-hazardous industries.
    3. As per the amended IMS act, direct advertisement of infant milk substitutes(IMS) and bottle-feeding is permitted.
    4. None of above
  25. correct statements about Persons with disabilities Act
    1. provides for 4% reservation in Government employment to PH candidates
    2. Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme was launched for effective implementation of this act.
    3. Both
    4. None
  26. Who benefits directly from ARUNIM, ADIP, ALIMCO
    1. Student from minority community
    2. Tribal artisan
    3. Physically disabled person
    4. None of above
  27. In 2012, a new Department of Disability Affairs was setup in which ministry?
    1. Health and family welfare
    2. Social Justice & Empowerment
    3. Rural development
    4. None of above
  28. Draft National Youth Policy 2012
    1. Defines youth as any person under 13-35 age group.
    2. Proposes creation of Youth Development Index.
    3. Will be implemented by Ministry of social justice and empowerment
    4. None of above
  29. Incorrect statement about Senior Citizens Welfare Act
    1. Senior citizens are defined as those above the age of 60 years
    2. State Governments are required to constitute “Maintenance Tribunals” for them.
    3. Lawyers are permitted to represent either party before such Tribunals
    4. None of above
  30. Which of the following lady fought against the British?
    1. During freedom struggle, Rani Rudramma Devi and Rani Gaidenlou Zeliang fought against British in South and North Eastern region respectively.
    2. Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Award are given for outstanding contribution to human rights, poverty elimination and communal harmony.
    3. Both
    4. None
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