- Dairy: Near & Away from Market
- Dairy: New-Zealand
- Dairy: Europe
- Dairy: Africa=non-existent
- Dairy: USA
- Regional specialization: ice cream/cheese/butter
In the previous article, we discussed the geographical factors affecting the location of wheat and corn cultivation & allied industries. In this article will talk about the dairy industry.
Near Market area
- Fresh (Liquid) milk=bulky, perishable=>dairying should be done near market. e.g. those DUDH-wallas in most Indian cities
- If the cattle to be raised for milk alone, then you don’t need large area.
- Hence dairy farmers can risk to buy/rent their farms on expensive land near towns. Because demand of milk products is high in urban areas. (same reason for vegetable growing, truck farming)
- Pig rearing and poultry farming requires little land, products perishable and in high demand =located near market area.
Away from Market area
- New Zealand, Switzerland, Holland, Denmark: their domestic population is low, so they’ve to export surplus milk/milk product to foreign market.
- They convert raw material (fresh liquid milk) into more ‘concentrated’ form (Cheese/butter/powdered milk). It gives two benefits:
- Product Shelf life is extended. (butter/cheese doesn’t deteriorate quickly like liquid milk)
- New product has higher value per unit of weight=>it can withstand the greater transport cost to the faraway markets.
- When milk is turned into butter, the byproduct is skimmed milk= excellent feed for pigs
- Therefore the dairy farming regions are also famous for pigs, pork, and bacon.
Denmark, Holland, Netherlands also famous for dairy products. by and large the factors are
- ample grassland for grazing
- traditional skill
- scientific breeding
- Again same “concentration” principle: milk turned into cheese, butter, chocolate etc. for sending to other countries.
US corn/dairy/meat industry can be summarized in this map (although not covering all states or caveats):
- red box states=grow corn on mass scale, sell it to blue box states
- blue box states use corn feed to fatten pigs and cattle
- finally they’re slaughtered in Chicago
The dairy farming in North America spreads from Lawrence Valley, upstate New York, Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Covers an area of 2000 miles
|Climate||Severe winter region. Agro difficult, but cattle can be raised indoor.|
|Transport||Truck based refrigerated collection-distribution network, owned by farmer cooperatives.|
Milk=> ice cream: doesn’t lead to significant weight loss. On the other hand,
|final product||amt. of fresh liquid milk necessary|
|1 pound cheese||10 pounds of milk|
|1 pound butter||20 pounds of milk|
Therefore, in US, as we move away from the market (highly urbanized area such as NY/LA): the dairy specialization is found in this order: ice cream>cheese>butter. Because farther place can only compete in market if they ‘concentrate’ their produce to decrease weight and increase value.
|place||distance from urban market (Los Angeles)||specialization|
In the next article, we’ll talk about the factors affecting the location of meat, pig rearing and poultry industry.