[Answerkey] CAPF-2013: History MCQ Questions solved with explanation, reference

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Mrunal Polity Lecture
  1. Analysis: History MCQs
  2. Ancient
  3. Buddhism/Jainism
  4. Culture, Society
  5. Medieval
  6. Modern History/Freedom Struggle

Analysis: History MCQs

  1. In 2013, 22 Out of 125 questions came from Indian History. = ~18% of the paper was History.
  2. In 2012 they had asked 21 questions. So importance of History remains more or less the same.
  3. UPSC is newfound love for Jainism-Buddhism is evident from its 3 MCQs in CSAT-2013, 4 MCQs in CAPF-2013.
  4. Harappan civilization topic makes a comeback.
  5. At least six questions can be solved directly from (new) NCERTs.
  6. Some are bit debatable, because I haven’t located source yet.
  7. Haven’t found the answer to Dakshinpantha yet.

History Answerkey CAPF Internal breakup

ancient 5
Jainism-Buddhism 4
society 3
medieval 3
modern 7
total 22


Polity 14 Covered. Click me
Geography+EnB+Agro 14+8 Covered. Click me
Economy+IR+PIN 21+4+2 to be released soon
Science 20 to be released soon
History 22 Given in this article.
Aptitude 20 to be released soon
total 125

Corrections, Additions post them in comments.


Q1. Various causes have been suggested for the decline of Harappan culture. Consider the causes mentioned below and identify the weakest of them.

  1. Due to constant incidents of naturally occurring floods
  2. Due to increase in the salinity of the soil, fertility decreased there
  3. Earthquakes caused changes in the course of the Indus, which led to inundation
  4. The Aryans invaded and destroyed the Harappan culture

Observe fourth statement:

The Aryans invaded and destroyed the Harappan culture

  1. Indian History by Krishna Reddy(TMH Publication), Page A57: There is no evidence of any Aryan invasion or infiltration causing the flight of Harappans.
  2. (new) NCERT Class 12, Ch.1, Page18: There is no destruction level covering the latest period of the city, no sign of extensive burning, no bodies of warriors clad in armour and surrounded by the weapons of war. The citadel, the only fortified part of the city, yielded no evidence of a final defence.
  3. Old NCERT Class 11, Page80: “Later researches proved that Wheeler’s thesis of Aryan being destroyers of the Harappan civilization was a myth.”

Meaning D is weakest.

Q2. The prevalence of grain in Harappan sites indicated that

  1. Harappans ploughed their fields
  2. Harappans broadcast seed on their fields
  3. agriculture was prevalent in Harappan sites
  4. trade in bulk items like food grains was well-established in Harappan times
  1. Harappans ploughed their fields
Harappans ploughed their fields=> for this to be confirmed, archeologist have to find wooden plough and soil marks. Prevalence of grain alone doesn’t prove or deny this statement.
  1. Harappans broadcast seed on their fields
same as above
  1. agriculture was prevalent in Harappan sites
  1. trade in bulk items like food grains was well-established in Harappan times
Archeologist have to corroborate with evidence of Harappan pottery, seals, Ivory etc. in other countries. Prevalence of grain alone doesn’t prove the trade was well established.

Hence answer (C)

Q3. Ancient route Dakshinpantha connected

  1. Ajanta with Golconda
  2. Ellora with Muziris
  3. Ajanta with Arikamedu
  4. Ajanta with Pataliputra

Haven’t located the source yet. If you know, answer post in the comment below.

Q4. Which one among the following inscriptions was installed in the easternmost part of Ashoka’s territory?

  1. Barabar hill cave inscription
  2. Dhauli major rock edicts
  3. Sahasram minor rock edicts
  4. Lauriya Araraj pillar edicts

Tata Macgrawhil General studies Manual, Page 24: Map of Ashoka’s empire.

We can see among the given four places, Dhauli is easternmost- place where river Mahanadi meets the Ocean. I’ve marked those two places in map given in NCERT Class 12, Chapter 2, Page 33.

map-ashoka's empire CAPF history answerkey

Answer (B) Dhauli.

Q5. Who among the following is the author of ‘Ashtadhyayi’, the Sanskrit grammar?

  1. Patanjali
  2. Panini
  3. Kalidasa
  4. Banabhatta

Panini’s Ashtadhyayi. Answer (B)

For more refer this:



Q1. Statement I : Ashoka called the Third Buddhist Council in 252 BC at Pataliputra and it was there that the Buddhist became divided into two sects—the Hinayana and the Mahayana.

Statement II : Kanishka called the Fourth Buddhist Council at Kundalvana near Srinagar and Vasumitra was believed to have acted as President.

  1. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is the correct explanation of Statement I
  2. Both the statements are individually true but Statement II is not the correct explanation of Statement I
  3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
  4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Lucent’s GK Book: table on page 21

Division of Hinyana-Mahayana happened during 4th Buddhist Council under Kanishaka=>1st statement is wrong Hence answer is (D)

Q2. The significant difference between Mahayana and Hinayana forms of Buddhism lay in that

  1. Mahayana allowed for the transference of merit while in Hinayana, a person would only help another by example and advice
  2. Mahayana believed in the Bodhisattvas while Hinayana did not
  3. Hinayana promoted the ideas of a suffering saviour
  4. Mahayana propounded the idea of the ‘Arhant’, the worthy’

Similar question was asked in ACIO-2013

Tata Macgrawhill General Studies Manual, Page 36

Hinyana ideal is arhat, one who strives for his own redemption. Mahayan upholds the ideal of Bodhisattva or Saviour, who is concerned with salvation of others. Hence answer is (B)

Q3. The Buddhist Sangha was an organization of monks

  1. who became teachers of Dhamma
  2. that helped the spread of education
  3. to help the integration of the State
  4. to provide relief to the poor in times of distress

Buddhist Scriptures  By Anil Goonewardene, Page8

Buddha advised the Sangha to teach in the language of the people they spoke to….The oral tradition of Buddhism continues today. The Sangha Memorize sections of Dhamma and chant portions of it at festivals and ceremonies. , both in temples and in the homes of Buddhst. This chanting helps to teach children and adults because after hearing it several times, they begin to remember the words.

Hence Answer (A)

Q4. Khumbum monastery is situated in

  1. India
  2. Thailand
  3. Japan
  4. China

It is in Tibet and Tibet is “integral” part of China. Hence answer is (D)

Culture, Society

Q1. Statement I: The Jajmani system was one in which the village artisans supplied traditionally fixed quantities of their products to peasant families in return for shares in the harvest.

Statement II : The Jajmani system was a system of the Jotedars (rich farmers) and the Bargadars (sharecroppers).

  1. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is the correct explanation of Statement I
  2. Both the statements are individually true but Statement II is not the correct explanation of Statement I
  3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
  4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Rural Sociology By Rajendra Kumar Sharma, Page 144

Jajmani system means each caste group within village is expected to give certain standardized services to families of other castes. E.g Shopkeeper, barber, ironsmith, shoemaker. In Majority of cases, Farmer paid gives grains for the services.=> statement 1 is correct.

In the land reform articles, we saw Sharecropping- Jotedars and Bargadars. it is one type of Land Tenancy system. doesn’t fit the Jajmani definition.=>Statement II incorrect.

Hence, answer (C)

Q2. The direct correlation among caste, poverty and social status implied that

  1. with improvement in economic status, one could claim higher social status
  2. caste hierarchy was immutable
  3. lower castes were the only ones to be pushed into menial labour
  4. with improvement in social status, one could claim higher caste status

Answer choice

  1. 1,2,4
  2. 1,3,4
  3. 2,4
  4. 1,3

NIOS Sociology, Chapter 27, Page 56

Sanskritization: it is a process by which any low caste could adapt to the behavioral pattern, style of life and culture of high caste and claim membership in that high caste. But they’ve to leave their unclean occuption and other impure habits like meat eating and taking (desi) liquor etc.

For Sanskritization, a caste must have three conditions

  1. touchable status
  2. better economic condition
  3. make a claim to membership into a high caste by propagating some story or myth.

Now let’s check question statements

  1. with improvement in economic status, one could claim higher social status
Correct, as long as he meets two other conditions.
  1. caste hierarchy was immutable
wrong. Because with Sanskritization, one can move upwards in the caste hierarchy.

so far, answer must contain #1 and must not contain #2. Eliminate options accordingly

  1. 1,2,4
  2. 1,3,4
  3. 2,4
  4. 1,3

Now it boil downs to whether statement 4 is right or wrong?: With improvement in social status, one could claim higher caste status

haven’t found the source to confirm/deny about #4. Those with sociology optional, throw some wisdom in the comment :D

Q3. Match following

A. Vallamkali 1. Temple festival
B. Pooram festival 2. Boat race
C. Chapchar Kut 3. The marriage of Lord Krishna and Rukmini
D. Madhavrai fair 4. Spring festival
  1. 3142
  2. 2143
  3. 2413
  4. 3412

Correct pair

A.Vallamkali 2. Boat race.Vallamkali Vallamkali (boat race) is celebrated with extreme joy and vigour during the Onam season
B.Pooram 1.Parade of Elephants to the temple in Trichur.
C.Chapchar Kut 4.spring festival in Mizoram
D.Madhavrai fair 3. Madhavrai fair at Madhavpur near Porbandar is held to celebrate the marriage by elopement of Lord Krishna and Rukmani .

Hence correct pattern is 2143. Answer B


Q1. The establishment of Mughal rule in India

  1. strengthened urbanization
  2. strengthened inter-urban contact in riparian North India
  3. increased India’s sea trade
  4. decreased the risk of carrying long-distance trade

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 and 4
  4. 1 only

Debatable, depending on which author you believe in:

Approach #1

India in the World Economy: From Antiquity to the Present By Tirthankar Roy.

Page 60: Formation of Mughal state in the North strengthened urbanization and interurban contact in riparian Northern India.

Page 62: the Mughal dominion stimulated trade on the maritime route to Persia.

Hence statement 1, 2 and 3 correct. Answer (A)

Approach #2:

Modern World System and Indian Proto-industrialization, Volume 1  By Abhay Kumar Singh

Mughals didnot initiate steps to facilitate developing and advancing naval and mercantile shipping, nor inspired and encourage shipwrights, ship owners, maritime entrepreneurs and maritime merchants.=>Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

The Indian Ocean By Michael N. Pearson page 116

The Mughals, and other Indian rulers of Large states, by and large pursued a hands-off attitude to trade in general, including that by Sea. Hence 3 and 4 are incorrect.

from these two sources, Statement 3 is incorrect. Hence A and C eliminated.

Since examiner lifted “riparian North India” phrase from Tirthankar Roy’s book so 1 and 2 is definitely correct. Therefore answer (B)

Q2. Akbar’s Ibadat Khana was the place where

  1. military strategy was decided
  2. inter-faith debates and discussions were held
  3. Akbar preached his principles of Sulh-i-lad
  4. fine arts were practiced

NCERT class7 History, Chapter4, Page 54

While Akbar was at Fatehpur Sikri during the 1570s he started discussions on religion with the ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman Catholics, and Zoroastrians. These discussions took place in the ibadat khana. Hence answer (B)

Q3. Ritual kinship was the hallmark of Vijayanagar rule. Vijayanagar rulers claimed to have ruled on behalf of which one among the following shrines?

  1. Vithala
  2. Tirupati
  3. Virupaksha
  4. Mallikarjuna

NCERT History Class 12, Chapter 3, Page 184.

It is likely that the very choice of the site of Vijayanagara was inspired by the existence of the shrines of Virupaksha and Pampadevi. In fact the Vijayanagara kings claimed to rule on behalf of the god Virupaksha. Hence Answer (C)

Modern History/Freedom Struggle

Q1. Mahatma Gandhi’s opposition to separate electorates for untouchables was because

  1. separate electorates would ensure them bondage in perpetuity
  2. of the apprehension of offending the conservative high caste Hindus
  3. it would weaken Mahatma Gandhi’s position as a leader
  4. None of the above

NCERT Class 12 History, Chapter 4, Page 360.

At the Round Table Conference Mahatma Gandhi stated his arguments against separate electorates for

the Depressed Classes, saying:

Separate electorates to the “Untouchables” will ensure them bondage in perpetuity.

Hence answer (A)

Q2. Incorrect Statement

  1. The jute industry was almost entirely owned by Europeans
  2. The cotton textile industry was almost wholly owned by Indians
  3. The cotton textile industry was small in size
  4. The growth of cotton industry was the result of government support

Krishna Reddy, Page C85

Tea plantations, coal mines, the jute mills etc had developed in Eastern India under European enterprise, roughly between 1850s and 1880.=>A is correct

In Bombay presidency, cotton mills developed under Parsi and Gujarati enterprise before and after the Civil War in united states.=>B is correct

(Page C87): Slow and painful progress of Indian industries and their inability to compensate even for displacement of indigenous handicrafts in terms of production as well as employment. The main reasons for this feature of Indian industrial Development was the British Policy of artificially restricting and slowing down growth of Indian industry and by not giving them any protection or financial help.=>Hence statement D is incorrect.  Therefore Answer is (D)

Q3. The first major boost to modern industry in India happened in the 1860s- It was a direct result of

  1. the demand created in America because of the Civil War
  2. the demand created in Europe because of the Civil War in America
  3. the decline in competition from the cotton mills of Lancashire and Manchester
  4. the support of government to industries in India

Sumit Sarkar, Page30

Rising exports particularly noticeable during the cotton boom of 1860s when American Civil war made Lancashire (England) turn to Deccan raw cotton for a few years.

Hence answer (B)

Q4. The Salt Satyagraha

  1. encouraged Indians to manufacture salt
  2. showed to the government that Indians would break unfair laws
  3. proved that Mahatma Gandhi was a mass leader
  4. was designed to destroy the finances of the colonial government

Rajendra Prasad’s autobiography page 295

Gandhi further argued that anti-Salt law Satyagraha would be easily understood by all and would also be considered just by the world at large. He thought once we were able to break these unjust laws, we would be able to exercise control over other laws.

Learning History-Civics Standard Eight  By Shantashree Shetty Page 63

The Salt Satyagraha was symbolic of the breaking of all unfair and unjust laws of the Government in a very peaceful way.

The Joy of Social Studies Std.5, Page 29

On reaching Dandi, all of them broke the law by making salt. The British Government understood that Indians would protest any unjust law that would be passed.

Hence answer (B)

Q5. The Khilafat Movement was built around

  1. opposing British rule in India
  2. protecting the sovereignty of the Khalifa
  3. opposing the national movement
  4. protesting against lack of educational opportunities in India

NCERT Class 12 Chapter 4, Page 350

Khilafat Movement, (1919 -1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, that demanded the following: The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire.

Answer (B)

Q6. Separate electorates for representation of Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians were created under the

  1. Indian Councils Act, 1861
  2. Government of India Act, 1909
  3. Government of India Act, 1919
  4. Government of India Act, 1935

Indian Polity by M.Laxmikanth, Chapter on Historical background of Constitution.

Government of India Act of 1919: It extended the principle of communal representation by providing separate electorates for Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians and Europeans. Hence Answer C.

Q7: Mahatma Gandhi’s severe criticism of the Congress leadership at the opening of the Benaras Hindu University was focused on

  1. the Congress strategy for opposing the government
  2. the congress accepting offices under the government
  3. condemnation of Indian nationalism for being an elite phenomenon
  4. All of the above

NCERT Class 12 Chapter 4, Page 347-48

His first major public appearance was at the opening of the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in February 1916. When his turn came to speak, Gandhi charged the Indian elite with a lack of concern for the labouring poor. The opening of the BHU, he said, was “certainly a most gorgeous show”. But he worried about the contrast between the “richly bedecked noblemen” present and “millions of the poor” Indians who were absent.

Hence Answer (C)

Corrections, Additions post them in comments.

Mrunal recommends

106 Comments on “[Answerkey] CAPF-2013: History MCQ Questions solved with explanation, reference”

  1. satish its like GOI act 1909 seperate elecs for muslims n extended to christians and anglo indians in the GOI act 1919

    1. r u sure that answer would be option D as through this link it is not clear about two other options

  2. Ecological reasons are the most accepted reasons for Harappan decline. So I think Aryan Invasion may be the right answer.

  3. From Wikipedia

    Around 1800 BCE, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned. In 1953, Sir Mortimer Wheeler proposed that the decline of the Indus Civilization was caused by the invasion of an Indo-European tribe from Central Asia called the “Aryans”. As evidence, he cited a group of 37 skeletons found in various parts of Mohenjo-Daro, and passages in the Vedas referring to battles and forts. However, scholars soon started to reject Wheeler’s theory, since the skeletons belonged to a period after the city’s abandonment and none were found near the citadel. Subsequent examinations of the skeletons by Kenneth Kennedy in 1994 showed that the marks on the skulls were caused by erosion, and not violent aggression.[72] Today, many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Civilization was caused by drought and a decline in trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia.[73] It has also been suggested that immigration by new peoples, deforestation, floods, or changes in the course of the river may have contributed to the collapse of the IVC.[74]

  4. But I dont Understand why UPSC asked a question on a debated topic

  5. From Wikipedia

    A tectonic event may have diverted the system’s sources toward the Ganges Plain, though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event, as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated.

    1. I think the statement “Earthquakes caused changes in the course of the Indus, which led to inundation” is wrong because no historian mentioned about the change of course of Indus. They mainly reasoned for the other small rivers.

      1. I have marked the option of earth quakes too. This question is debated because nobody knows the exact cause for the decline of harappa civilization, There are many people who claim about Aryan invasion theory and there are others who deny it. Its still a big mystery

      2. There are evidences about the floods which occurred there and the salinity of soil increased due to the expanding desert

  6. “The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials”: Wikipedia. So apart from grain there are other materials also in agriculture. Grains cannot be cultivated without the help of tools. So in my opinion “Harappans ploughed their fields” should be correct. Until or unless they plough their field how can they get grains. Please correct if wrong.

  7. Q3 In the old Pali literature the name Dakkhināpatha, the great southern trade route is mentioned in the Arthashastra but was operational from the early historical period (Irone Age). It stretched from Pataliputra in Magadha to Pratishthana on the Godavariand was also connected to ports on the Western Coase

    1. Ujjayini – Mahismati – Pratishthana(Paithan)
    2. Bharukachchha – Kaushambi

    So Ans – D

  8. dakshinpantha dilemma

    our pasts 1(ncert)
    new page 112 and 113

    stumbled upon this probably answer is ajanta golconda

  9. guys u can search on net……historians had found proof that one city chanu-daro of harrapa civilization was destroyd by force……so in my opinion dat salinity ans is correct….

    1. Chanu daro is located a little south of Moinjudaro on the banks of river Indus. It was flooded 3 times which eventually lead to its destruction. It is agreed upon that they were destroyed by ecological factors just like central asia from where Aryans first lived. But the fact that Aryans invaded them is something where no consensus is built upon and many prominent historians have rejected the idea. Hence that is the weakest statement.
      My source SriRam sir.

  10. Thank yuo very much Mr. Mrunal. This answer key will help me a lot to find where to work on section wise preparations . waiting for next answer keys.

  11. My marks are hovering around 100, thanks to UPSC for setting up such paper.

    I guess many questions are debatable.

    Mrunal bhai this time please upload the solutions to all questions.


  12. yes satish d should be correct as lucent also

  13. Dakshinapada- map and trade route clearly available in ‘The Culture and Civilisation of Ancient India in Historical Outline’ by DD Kosambi.. If originates at Paithan or pratihasthana(in present day aurangabad dist of MH) and passed through Ajanta, mahesvar, ujjain, bhilsa, kosam, ayodya and ends at savatti where uttarpadha joins.. Uttarpadha( Rangir to Taxila via Pataliputra).. So with our option Answer is Ajanta and pataliputra

  14. for such a vast civilization(1.28 million sq km) decline due to ecological and salinity might be the weakest reason and even the corroboration of fact that aryans had invaded the ivc by calling INDRA as slayer of forces in RIGVEDA .INTERMITTENT WARS FOR SUCCESSION AMONG THE SETTLERS COULD BE STRONGEST REASON FOR DECLINE OF IVC

  15. separate electorate was given in GOI 1935

  16. As per the TMH hindi page no 157 the ans for qus no 6 1s D GOI act 1935.

  17. In my opinion the ans for qus no 1 should be B because as per TMH GS manual in hindi all the remaining option have been given by great scholars such as EARTHQUAKE by DALES,Aryans invasion by WHEELER and GORDEN,FLOOD by MARSHAL,MACKEY andS R RAO.

  18. i think shailesh is right

  19. Thank you very much mrunal sir….!!

  20. sir your hard work of answers for the CAPF is appreciable but I am confused which books to read as you have almost searched the answers from the different books for each answer. please suggest the books which are sufficient to get selected

  21. Which one among the following inscriptions was installed in the easternmost part of Ashoka’s territory?
    Lauriya Araraj pillar edicts
    is the correct answer

    1. I checked with Wiki and hard copy atlas, you are right. Thanks!

  22. Attack of the aryans from outside can be a cause of decline of civilisation.It is written over in Old NCERT of class 6th..option B seems to be the weakest.

  23. Regarding Q2. The prevalence of grain in Harappan sites indicated that

    A.Harappans ploughed their fields
    B.Harappans broadcast seed on their fields
    C.agriculture was prevalent in Harappan sites
    D.trade in bulk items like food grains was well-established in Harappan times

    Although option C. is correct, as it is the strongest point. But your explaination of option ‘A’ that ‘Harappans ploughed their fields=> for this to be confirmed, archeologist have to find wooden plough and soil marks. Prevalence of grain alone doesn’t prove or deny this statement.’ doesn’t seems entirely true because according to recent discovery a ploughed field at Kalibanghan in northern Rajasthan, which dates back to the pre-Harappan, has confirmed that the food sufficiency of the Harappan period was owing to the plough agriculture. – See more at: http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=743
    Other sources confirming this:Read agriculture practice section of http://dilipkumar.in/india/indus.php And Indus Valley Farmers section of http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/indus_valley/food_and_farming/

    And Culture, Society Question 2:
    Q2. The direct correlation among caste, poverty and social status implied that

    1.with improvement in economic status, one could claim higher social status
    2.caste hierarchy was immutable
    3.lower castes were the only ones to be pushed into menial labour
    4.with improvement in social status, one could claim higher caste status

    Answer choice


    I think option ‘B’ is correct because In India we have a very flexible and organic milieu consisting of Jatis that can adapt easily to changing times by allowing for evolving social equations.For instance,the system can spontaneously create new castes whenever new groups need to be accommodated.Similarly,groups can be promoted or demoted in status according to prevailing social conditions.Though I don’t have any direct evidence to prove this, but you can consider this as an suggestion.

    1. sanskritization is the process in which the caste can move upwardly in the stratum. so 4th choice is also included. therefore answer would be option B i.e. 1,3,4

  24. separate electorates for representation of Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians were created under the GOI ACT 1909 (MORLEY-MINTO)-SEPARATE ELECTORATES FOR MINORITIES.
    correct me if any mistake..

    1. it is only for muslims

  25. Sir, for the question on “Dakshinpanth”, it should be “Dakshinapatha” (panth means some group) which is from Magadha (pataliputra/Patna- Bihar) to Pratishthana (Paithan- Maharashtra). So answer which has Pataliputra would be correct. This is mentioned in Karnataka text book( PUC ) similar to NCERT.

  26. dear sir, it is regarding the question abt “Dakhshinapatha”. According to history ncert 6th class(new)(page no. – 112&113), it was path b/w kalinga and arikamedhu.However it was nt one of the options given in the question. Responses are welcome.

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