- Aluminum industry: Foreign Locations
- Aluminum Industries: Desi Location
- Hindalco/ Birla
- Vedanta Aluminum
- Niyamgiri hills
To understand the reason behind location of aluminum refineries, first we need to understand how aluminum is produced from bauxite?
Phase: bauxite to Alumina
- Aluminum is an abundant mineral in the crust of earth but for mining or commercial scale exploitation, you require significant concentration of bauxite ore at one particular site.
- Bauxite occurs frequently in the tropical areas where limestone rocks are exposed to weathering
- First, Bauxite ore is crushed, washed and mixed with caustic soda to remove impurities.
- Then it is dried in large furnaces to remove moisture content=> you get alumina.
- During this phase, ~50% or more weight loss happens.
- Hence, this process (of converting bauxite to Alumina) is done near the raw material side. Because less weight= less transportation cost.
Phase: alumina to aluminum
- Involves electrolysis.
- The white powder of alumina is dissolved in a bath and electric current is passed through it using carbon electrodes. Result- alumina is converted to aluminum.
- But this stage requires massive amount of electricity
- Therefore, aluminum smelting facilities are set up near sources of cheap electricity, rather than near to raw material or near to final market.
Aluminum industry: Foreign Locations
|Canada and Norway||
Cheap electricity =deciding factor for location of Aluminum refinery.
|LEADING Refiners IN THE 70s||LEADING Refiners TODAY|
|Japan, United States and Western Europe||Australia, Canada, Brazil, Middle East, Russia and China.|
|Declined because of rising cost of electricity + pollution related taxes and laws.||Cheap electricity from coal/hydro.|
Largest producer (2012 data)
Still China imports a substantial amount of Aluminum from Indonesia. Why?
- Aluminum is cheaper substitute of Copper.
- used backing plates for flat screen TVs (a lightweight alternative to steel), tablet computers, mobile phones, laptops or as a laminated film used in exterior packaging for batteries;
- Aluminum in green applications such as solar paneling (used in the frame) and wind farms (in submarine cables for off-shore wind farm projects.
Chinese industry involved manufacturing all of above, hence need large-scale supply of aluminum.
Aluminum Industries: Desi Location
- Vedanta is an integrated producer of Aluminum in India with mines, smelters and associated power plants.
- Korba (Chhattisgarh) and Jharsuguda (Odisha)
- Both places have bauxite and coal deposits.
- Vedanta uses that coal for generating thermal electricity in its own captive power plants. Same electricity used for refining alumina to aluminum.
Located in Odisha. Considered sacred by the tribal groups such as the Dongria Kondh, Kutia Kandha etc. Vedanta Resources ltd. wanted to extract Bauxite from here, project worth more than $1.5 billion.
After this Vedanta verdict, Andra also facing crisis because their state government has given bauxite mining projects in Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts. Local tribal demanding similar ‘environmental referendum’ under FRA.
In the next article, we’ll look at the geographical factors responsible for the location of Copper, Zinc, Lead and Acid industries.
Visit Mrunal.org/geography for the Archive of all geography articles published so far.
sir, if in states with international borders instability is detrimental for industries , what would be the best way out for the development of that area?
The best way is to promote Agriculture & Tourism and kutir udyog.
umm..but border areas in j&k , rajasthan, kutch are not good for agriculture..and msme r not taking off in areas like west punjab..
thanks a lot sir
really if u are with us no need to go any coaching class
u are supeb………
god bless you!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
do somebody can explain me,”what is forward market” plz help
do we need to read and remember each and every chapter of india’s struggle for independence by bipin chandra……….
Mrunal sir, please publish article about Indian culture and arts.
Very interesting article,easy to understand,Thank you.
Forward Market is an OTC market where buyer and seller enter into a contract for future delivery of an asset. you can get this definition on internet, just remember below points
OTC market -> Over-the-counter market – a flooress market- a way of trading out of formal exchanges like NSE, BSE, NYSE.a .brokers/dealers are scattered over different places..so it could simply be a dealers network, where they may finalize the deals over phone/computer network/fax/telex/or any modern day technologies.
Forward contracts are Customised means terms and conditions(price, amount, date and even place)are fit as per the business and counter-parties. (its standardised form is called future contract).
Trading instruments could be – currencies (foreign exchange forward), agriculture/ physical commodities , Interest rate ( Forward rate agreement).
Nice work. This is the true model of SEVOTTAM.
can u pls upload some articles on international affairs…exam is close n i am not getting some relevant material….at least suggest me some rerliable source..
sriram ias’ notes if u can get it…
Very nice article. its realy help full for who preparing for UPSC.
Mrunal is the second most popular Gujarati in India after Modi!
Good work Sir!
Long time NO diplomacy , economy article ? I am bored with same type of article from last 2 months.
With due respect i request you to provide guidance in the preparation fo uppsc lower subordinate exam as your guidance in the preparation of uppsc review officer exam has helped me a lot i am highly obliged as the question were of the same pattern as suggested by you please suggest me.
Pls provide link for reference material or mention the name of the books(source) from which you are making notes so that it ll be more helpful to go through first hand information and then study ur notes as synopsis.
BEWARE SOME MISS DOLLY MISLEADING STUDENTS IN ORKUT COMMUNITY THAT EXAM POSTPONED TO 8TH? BEATING COMPETITION THAT WAY. SOME PEOPLE ACTUALLY MADE FOOL BY DOLLY AUNTY
@ mrunal..kindly mention the references at the end of your articles..will be very helpful.
sir the wikipedia site states that china is the largest producer of aluminium in the world. can you please clarify?
balco(Aluminium process plant) is in chhattisgarh(korba),eastablished in 1965,
captive mines located in Mainpat(sarguja)& daldali(kabeerdham)
I am highly impressed after knowing about this SITE. I helps me to prepare for competitive purpose.
Nicely written article with vivid description, makes a pleasure to read.
But following clarifications needed.
1. In Alluminium Industries, raw material, you have mentioned KORATPUR in Odisha.. Its actually KORAPUT. Infact you have mentioned 3 times. Hence felt need to clarify.
2. In fertilizer industry location, you have mentioned BIZAPUR as one of the locations but BIZAPUR is a district in Karnataka. The Location of fertilizer plant is VIJAIPUR in Guna district of Madhya Pradesh. It is along HVJ pipeline. It houses 2 urea manufacturing plants of National Fertilizers Limited
sir i want old ncert ebooks in hindi medieum . plz help me
thanks sir i am really greatful to u ………….u have written it in a simple manner
Sir, could you please please help me in two topics, i need a simple explaination of Jet streams , how they originate, how they effect monsoon? and how they shift with season and types? also please help in explaining Tibet pleatue concept of dynamic theory of monsoon. sir i read in 2-3 books but not clear. please if you can upload.
thank u so much sir
Well consolidated. Superb !!
On the internet it says that China is leading producer of aluminium and Australia is the leading producer of bauxite and alumina. Then how come we have factors for the Chinese Import of aluminium from Australia. I think they just import alumina not aluminium