1. Natural gas refining
    1. ONGC Hazira, Gujarat
    2. GAIL: Pipelines
    3. Reliance KG Basin
  2. Fertilizer Industry: Location
  3. Mock Questions

In the previous article, we saw the geographical factors responsible for the location of Petroleum refinaries & synthetic textile industry. Let’s move to the next topic:

Natural gas refining

Natural Gas compared to Petroleum:
  1. cheaper
  2. does not require extensive refining
  3. burns clean
  1. Storage and distribution is difficult.
  2. With the help of pipelines, the gas can be transported to the consuming centers, but the construction of pipeline and its security and maintenance is expensive. Hence export=problematic.
  3. once the pipeline is laid- its size/capacity cannot be increased.
  4. leakage detection is difficult incase of underground pipelines.
  5. If market/buyers are not found, then gas is wasted by burning. (flaring).
  6. Therefore it is economical only to mine gas near market areas/ only if pipeline is established.

After the Second World War, United States was the first country to lay a comprehensive pipeline network for natural gas.

International Pipeline Projects

  1. Iran-Pakistan-India
  2. Myanmar-Bangladesh-India
  3. Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI)

ONGC Hazira, Gujarat

INPUT Natural gas from Bombay High
  • They remove sulphur impurity from the (sour) natural gas, and send it to other regions via pipeline. (process called “Sweetening the gas”)
OUTPUT the “sweet” natural gas is used in

  1. LPG cylinders
  2. Nitrogen based fertilizers
  3. Household via pipelines as cooking gas.
Labor Not the deciding factor. Because skilled labour=mobile. and Hazira has township for them.
TRANSPORT Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline passes through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, U.P., Delhi and Haryana= all big markets are connected through pipeline.

GAIL: Pipelines

  • Reliance refinery Jamnagar
  • Essar refinery Vadinar
  • Imported LNG from Kandla port
  • Vizag-HPC Refinery
  • Imports from Vishakhapatnam port
  • Ajmer  & Jaipur in Rajasthan,
  • Gurgaon in Haryana,
  • Delhi
  • Loni-Gaziabad (U.P)
  • Vijayawada
  • Secunderabad, Near Hyderabad
  • 1300kms
  • 600

Reliance KG Basin

Refining done @ Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh

input gas from offshore block in Krishna-Godawari Basin
refining Onshore Gas Terminal at Gadimoga, about 30 Km south of Kakinada in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • East West Gas Pipeline (EWPL) transports gas from Kakinada, the landfall point of KG-D6 gas, to Bharuch (Gujarat) and traverses through Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  • From Bharuch, they use the pipeline network of Gujarat State Petronet to take the gas to end-consumers as well as connect to Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline.
  • Through this entire Pipeline networking, gas reaches to fertilizer plants e.g. Tata Chemicals (Mumbai) and Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers (Trombay), IFFCO’s (Phulpur), GSFC(Vadodara), Kribhco etc.

Fertilizer Industry: Location

Urea/ Nitrogen Based industries are located near Natural gas source. Why?

  • Natural Gas has Methane. (CH4)
  • You mix it with Oxygen, Nitrogen and heat in presence of catalysts=> the Hydrogen part combines with Nitrogen, thus you get Ammonia (NH3). This is known as Haber process.
  • This Ammonia (NH3) can be used for making nitrogen based fertilizers e.g. Urea.
  • Therefore availability (and price) of Natural Gas, affects the location of Fertilizer industry.
  • Similarly Neptha (obtained from crude oil) is also used in production of nitrogen based fertilizers. Hence proximity to oil refinery is also considered a favourable factor.
  • Thanks to oil and gas from Bombay High, the Gujarat-Maharahstra region got fertilizer plants at Hazira, Mumbai, Trombay, Vadodara etc.  (Nowadays they also source gas from Reliance KG basin).
  • Similarly, Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline=> fertilizer industry in Bijapur, Sawai Madhopur, Shahjahanpur etc.
Geographical factors:
PHOSPHATE Near raw material Rock PhosphateUSA: Florida, North Carolina, Utah and Idaho.India: UP, MP, Rajasthan.
POTASH Near raw material Potash.Canada: in the Prairie-Saskatchewan region.India: we don’t have potash reserve. We rely on imports. India Potash ltd. settingup port @Bhavnagar, Gujarat.
GUANO Guano=excreta/dung of seabirds. Large deposits at Peru-Chili coasts.Problem: Ocean temperature/acidification affecting plankton=>fishes=>seabirds: hence Guano production declined.

Mock Questions

  1. Discuss the significance of the Forest rights act with special reference to Niyamgiri Bauxite Mining Issue.
  2. Give an account for the petroleum refineries in India with factors responsible for their particular location
  3. Examine the location and growth of fertilizer industry in India.
  4. Discuss the location characteristics of Aluminum Industry in India.
  5. Give a brief account of the copper smelting in India? What are the constrains faced by them.

Visit Mrunal.org/geography for the Archive of all geography articles published so far.