- Natural gas refining
- Fertilizer Industry: Location
- Mock Questions
In the previous article, we saw the geographical factors responsible for the location of Petroleum refinaries & synthetic textile industry. Let’s move to the next topic:
Natural gas refining
After the Second World War, United States was the first country to lay a comprehensive pipeline network for natural gas.
International Pipeline Projects
- Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI)
ONGC Hazira, Gujarat
|INPUT||Natural gas from Bombay High|
|OUTPUT||the “sweet” natural gas is used in
|Labor||Not the deciding factor. Because skilled labour=mobile. and Hazira has township for them.|
|TRANSPORT||Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline passes through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, U.P., Delhi and Haryana= all big markets are connected through pipeline.|
|JAMNAGAR LONI LPG PIPELINE||
Reliance KG Basin
Refining done @ Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh
|input||gas from offshore block in Krishna-Godawari Basin|
|refining||Onshore Gas Terminal at Gadimoga, about 30 Km south of Kakinada in the state of Andhra Pradesh.|
Fertilizer Industry: Location
Urea/ Nitrogen Based industries are located near Natural gas source. Why?
- Natural Gas has Methane. (CH4)
- You mix it with Oxygen, Nitrogen and heat in presence of catalysts=> the Hydrogen part combines with Nitrogen, thus you get Ammonia (NH3). This is known as Haber process.
- This Ammonia (NH3) can be used for making nitrogen based fertilizers e.g. Urea.
- Therefore availability (and price) of Natural Gas, affects the location of Fertilizer industry.
- Similarly Neptha (obtained from crude oil) is also used in production of nitrogen based fertilizers. Hence proximity to oil refinery is also considered a favourable factor.
- Thanks to oil and gas from Bombay High, the Gujarat-Maharahstra region got fertilizer plants at Hazira, Mumbai, Trombay, Vadodara etc. (Nowadays they also source gas from Reliance KG basin).
- Similarly, Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline=> fertilizer industry in Bijapur, Sawai Madhopur, Shahjahanpur etc.
|PHOSPHATE||Near raw material Rock PhosphateUSA: Florida, North Carolina, Utah and Idaho.India: UP, MP, Rajasthan.|
|POTASH||Near raw material Potash.Canada: in the Prairie-Saskatchewan region.India: we don’t have potash reserve. We rely on imports. India Potash ltd. settingup port @Bhavnagar, Gujarat.|
|GUANO||Guano=excreta/dung of seabirds. Large deposits at Peru-Chili coasts.Problem: Ocean temperature/acidification affecting plankton=>fishes=>seabirds: hence Guano production declined.|
- Discuss the significance of the Forest rights act with special reference to Niyamgiri Bauxite Mining Issue.
- Give an account for the petroleum refineries in India with factors responsible for their particular location
- Examine the location and growth of fertilizer industry in India.
- Discuss the location characteristics of Aluminum Industry in India.
- Give a brief account of the copper smelting in India? What are the constrains faced by them.
Visit Mrunal.org/geography for the Archive of all geography articles published so far.
Fertiliser industry is primary sector or secondary sector industry?
Its product is used in primary sector and raw materials are minerals.
fertilizer industry is primary sector industry,in essence that it is dependent on Natural Gas
whole material is relevant nd succintly defined -thanx