[Yearbook] India 2014: Science Tech, Biotech, Space Tech, Defence Tech: how to prepare from IYB & 12th FYP with sample MCQs

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M K Yadav IAS Coaching
  1. Prologue
  2. Prerequisite: NCERT- Science
  3. IYB Ch 25 Science Technology
    1. Ignore this trash
    2. Organizations
    3. POLICIES
    4. Medicine related
    5. Atomic energy related
    6. Atomic energy- Location and Terms
    7. Environment/ Agriculture
    8. Space And Particle Physics
    9. ISRO- SPACE PROGRAM
    10. Disaster Management
    11. Biotech related Terms/Technology
    12. Low Priority [LP]
    13. #LP1: Misc. Organizations
    14. #LP2: HRD/awards/fellowship related
  4. IYB Ch9: Defense (R&D Related)
    1. Defense PSU/org.
    2. DRDO
    3. Terms/inventions
    4. Misc. Organizations
  5. IYB Ch8: IT – Related Research
  6. 12th FYP Vol1: Ch8 Science
  7. 12th FYP Vol1: Ch9 Innovation
  8. Mock Questions
  9. Answers

Prologue

This article series deals with how to handle India 2014 || Bharat 2014 (+12th Five year plan + sample MCQs).

So far we are done with

  1. ch1 (land and people), ch30 (state and UT) click me
  2. ch12 (Environment and Forest) click me
  3. ch11 (Energy) click me

Now time for the Ch25 Science Tech. It’s the biggest hathodaa (hammer) chapter in India yearbook. Once you overcome this one, remaining chapters are halwaa.

Prerequisite: NCERT- Science

India Yearbook Science-tech studyplan

Use the NCERTs as the base material, in following order:

Class Chapters (PHYSICS) Chemistry Biology
7 4, 13, 14 and 15 5 and 6 1,2,10,11 and 12
8 11 to 16 3 to 6 2, 8, 9 and 10
9 8 to 12 1 to 4 5,6,7 and 13
10 10, 12 and 13 1 to 5 6 to 11
11 Physics textbook ch.1 ** **
12 ** ** Biology textbook Ch.11 and 12

** If you observe the answerkey of CDS (I) 2014 paper, UPSC has asked quick a few tough questions from Class11-12 science NCERTs. (Twelve MCQs from from 7-10 and Eight from 11-12).

Moral of the story is: one should selectively read Class11-12 science NCERTs for CSAT-2014, as an Insurance policy against any BackbreakingTM Move.

After NCERT, go through following articles on Mrunal.org/SNT

  1. [Space Tech] Current Affairs Compilation 2012-13 for SSC CGL, UPSC CSAT
  2. [Defense] Current Affairs compilation 2012-13: missiles, joint exercises, operations, organizations
  3. [Public Health] Current Affairs 2012-13: Diseases, Drugs and Research (Part 2 of 3)

Some of their content is outdated, but the basics about space program, missile program etc. remain one and same, and should help you build the ‘base’.

Now, time to finish following chapters

IYB ch 25 science tech (entire)
IYB ch 9 Defense (only R&D related portion)
IYB ch 8 Comm. & IT (only R&D related portion)
12th FYP vol1 ch 8 Science
12th FYP vol1 ch 9 Innovation

IYB Chapter 25 Science Technology

This chapter mainly talks about four things:

  1. Lot of HRD/fellowship/scholarships with catchy names. (not that important)
  2. Nuke Tech. we are already done with “Nuke Energy” part. Click me. Now we only see nuke-tech’s relevance to agro and healthcare.
  3. Bio Tech
  4. Space Tech

Ignore this trash

ch topic English Hindi
25 Ignore first page of this chapter because its only bolbachhan without much utility. 781 816
25 Paragraph on science tech and alliances 785 821
25 International cooperation- because most of this data is from 2012. You will find better content in MEA website and PIB. 785-86 822
25 First three paragraphs mostly useless. (NABL, NRDMS, NSDI) 787 822-23
25 mostly useless filler stuff about R&D promotion 788 824
25 Pretty much entire page except IIST and ESSO 816 866-867
25 Eight centres under Earth ministry 817 Not given
25 Polar science (Very old 2011) 820 869
25 International cooperation; USA, SARR- Very old 2005-08 821-22 870-71
25 Centre of excellence 823 872
25 Biotech product and processed development 833 878
25 THSTI 839 Not given
25 Promotion of Biotech in North-East 841 883
25 Administration (Last para) 841 Not given

Organizations

ch topic English Hindi
25 Dept. of science tech 781 816
25 SERB 782 817
25 Dept. of scientific and industrial research DSIR 787 823
25 Dept. of Atomic Energy 792 830
25 CSIR 790 826
25 AERB 799 839
25 Dept. of biotechnology(last paragraph useless) 822 871

POLICIES

ch topic English Hindi
25 New Science and technology policy 2003 (Mainly for the purpose of chronology, otherwise new policy has been made) 781 816
25 New Science technology and innovation policy 782 816

Medicine related

ch topic English Hindi
25 DPRP- Anti- malarial drug 784 819
25 TDB- suryamin, Cefixime 786 822
25 Risorin, Memory sure, Lupfio, klotbuster, Beseb, Indibacter 790 827
25 Terafil water filter 791 828
25 Stevioside 792 Not given
25 Lysostaphine, and other research 792 829
25 Nuclear medicine- only important names 802 843
25 Radio immuno assay and IRMA- Principle 803 845
25 PACT of IAEA, Bhabahtron 803 845
25 ISOMED sterilization use 803 845
25 Blood irradiator- use 804 847
25 ELIZA, Celiac disease Glial biology* 828 875
25 Stem cell research- This chapter hardly gives any info. dig net for principles, policies and issues 829 876
25 Bio-Engineering, Bio-Design- Only brief overview 830 876
25 Nano Science- again Dig net 833 877
25 Artemisinin 834 Not given
25 SAM, Cactus pulp health drink 834 879
25 Bio safety issues- GEAC- Origin function. Beyond that,  Dig net for facts and fodder. 834 879
25 Drug Pemetrexel for cancer; Gemcetamin 837 Not given
25 MAIBA- MAIBI (Traditional health practitioners in manipur) 838 881
25 JAIVAC-1 Anti-Malaria vaccine 840 883
25 HAPMAP Project 839 882

*Dig net for all such terms

Atomic energy related

Although you’d have already covered this under last part. But still for the sake of quick reference:

25 Overview of three stage program 793 830-31
25 First stage of nuclear program 794 831
25 Stage -2 of nuclear program 798 837
25 Stage-3 of nuclear program 798 838

Atomic energy- Location and Terms

25 Location of deposits 794-95 833
25 Location of underground mines and opencast mines of uranium 795 833
25 Vitrification- nuke waste management 796 835
25 Mobscan, Ropman, Rohytam 797 836
25 Bhavini, Kamini 798 837-38
25 ADS, SODAR, IREMON, CERMS 799 839
25 List of research reactors 800 841

Applications of nuke technology already listed under respective tables of biotech / agro/ medicine topics.

Environment/ Agriculture

25 Nisarga- Runa 800 840
25 Sesbania- Green manure crop 801 842
25 Krushak, Cobalt- 60 801 842
25 MSF, RO, LTE desalination technology 805 850

Space And Particle Physics

25 Kali 200, 1000, 5000 804 849
25 Narayangaon Telescope, Grace-Mt. Abu, TACTIC Gamma ray telescope 806 852
25 India’s contribution to CERN 808 854-55
25 Location of accelerator  facilities in India 808 855-56
25 ADITYA Tokamak 809 857
25 ITER purpose 809 858
25 Ignore this page due to garbage info 810 859

ISRO- SPACE PROGRAM

  • Entire data is given in boring paragraphs making it difficult to remember and recall.
  • So, first you go through my Space tech-compilation to understand the basics.Click me.
  • Then come back to
25 Indian Space Program 811-16 860-866

You need to focus on following information

  1. Difference between INSAT vs. IRS; PSLV vs. GSLV
  2. Satellites with catchy names Example: SARAL vs. ADITYA
  3. Antarix and its functions
  4. This chapter is mostly confined to developments upto 2012 (With cursory mention of GSLV MK-3, Mars mission etc.) So go through Mrunal.org/SNT. For new developments.
  5. For GSLV MK- 3 Dig net
  6. Mars mission already covered. Click me
  7. Chandrayan- 1 too old and clichéd – Only remember the basics about chronology launch vehicle, discovery.

Disaster Management

25 Tropical cyclone tracker 818 868
25 RIMES 818 868
25 Coral bleaching alert system- CABS 819 ?
25 Costal vulnerability index 819 ?
25 Indian ocean dipole and its relationship with summer monsoon 820 870

Biotech related Terms/Technology

25 ROSUB- ROSIS 820 870
25 Black pearls 820 870
25 Agri. biotech- Nagina – 22 rice, Vivek maize, Virupaskshi banana 824 873
25 Biofertilizers bioinsecticides* 825 873
25 IBIN- Indian bioresource information network 826 Not given
25 Saffron network program 826 Not given
25 Medicinal and aromatic plants 826 874
25 Xenobiotic compounds, biorestoration technology, HCH degrading bacteria** 831 ?
25 Biofertilizer-Biopesticide given under IBSD 838 881
25 AmA1 gene improves staple crops 837 881
25 Biotech parks 835 879
25 Biocluster 840 882

*Dig net for utility of all the micro-organisms, fungi, algae, plants mentioned here.

Instruments and vehicles

25 VISCOTRAN 790 827
25 NISHANT- UAV 791 Not given

IT- web portal related

25 TKDL 791 823
25 IREMON, CERMS 799 839
25 Anupam- Ameya super computer 805 851

Low Priority [LP]

Don’t waste too much time in here:

#LP1: Misc. Organizations

25 NRDC, CEL 789 825
25 NPCIL falls under DAE and its functions 793 831
25 Uranium corp. of India 795 833
25 Heavy water board 796 834
25 Electronics corp. of India 797 837
25 National bioresearch board 825-26 873-74
25 Biotechnology industry research assistance council 833 879
25 NII, NCCS, NBRC, DNF Fingerprint centre 836 880
25 Instem 838 882
25 National Institute on Biomedical genomics: Agri. food: Agri. biotech: Animal biotech 839 882
25 ICGEB, C-CAMP 840 883

#LP2: HRD/awards/fellowship related

25 INSPIRE, PURSE, FIST 783 818
25 That CSIR runs shanti swaroop bhatnagar prizes, young scientist award, JRF, NET, etc. 792 829
25 NISER conducts NEST 807 853
25 BEST- Teacher’s Training programme 785 821
25 Star college scheme 823 871
25 Bamalinga swami reentry fellowship 823 872
25 Rapid grant for young investigator 823 872
25 Program for SC/ST, Women 832 878
25 Biotechnology ignition grant 833 ?

IYB Ch9: Defense (R&D Related)

Defense chapter mainly talks about three topics:

  1. IR / bilateral
  2. GK type (Army, Navy airforce- their ranks, entry schemes etc.)
  3. Sci-tech (missiles, technology, DRDO etc.)

First we focus on the third topic. But before that, do read following article

[Defense] Current Affairs compilation 2012-13: missiles, joint exercises, operations, organizations

(Although joint exercise etc. is outdated, but the “Basics” about missile /tank development etc. remain one and same)

Defense PSU/org.

in PSUs- main focus should be: what have they produced?

CH. TOPIC ENGLISH HINDI
9 Ordinance factories 220 187
9 Hindustan Aeronautics 220 187
9 Bharat Electronics 221 187
9 Garden reach 221 188
9 Shipyards; Goa, Hindustan, Mazagaon 221 188
9 Bharat Earth mover, Bharat dynamics 222 189
9 Mishra dhatu (Midhani) 222 190
9 NIRDESH 226 193

Policies

CH. TOPIC ENGLISH HINDI
9 FDI in defense production (Update from newspapers) 223 190

DRDO

CH. TOPIC ENGLISH HINDI
9 DRDO- Its achievements and developments* 229-237 197-206

*Ignore technologies without catchy names for example

  1. “Advanced technologies developed” (Page. 235),
  2.  Infrastructure facilities established (Page. 235 upto 237, except INS Sagar Dhwani, Bio-digesters.)

Terms/inventions

CH. TOPIC ENGLISH HINDI
9 ATGM, KONKOR, INVAR, C-303 222 189
9 Exhibition; Aero India, Def Expo. India (Find latest locations from newspapers) 225 192-93
9 NIRDESH (Its society but catchy terms for MCQs) 226 193
9 NIRBHAY 231 200
9 Missile systems and their ranges 232 200
9 LAKSHYA, NISHANT, RUSTOM 232 200
9 PINAKA, Adrushy mine 232 200-01
9 MBT- Arjun, Ajey, Bhim, Sarvatra, Daksh 233 201
9 Truckload of radars, sonar given under electronics, computer systems 233-34 201-02

Misc. Organizations

CH. TOPIC ENGLISH HINDI
9 DGAQA, DOS, DEO, IITF 224-25 190-192

IYB Ch8: IT – Related Research

Chapter 8 deals with e-governance, postal, telecom etc. that we’ll see separately.

Right now, for the sci-tech, we only focus on following topics at the moment:

CH. TOPIC ENGLISH HINDI
8 Sameer 188 ??
8 C- DAC: Garuda, eAgriEn, Bharatiya AFIS, Sarjeevani, E- Nayana 188-190 ??
8 EDGE, Chakra, APPSAMVID 190 ??
8 CERT-IN 190 ??
8 C- MAT 191 ??

NIELIT, ERNET, etc. we will see under education E-Governance.

Now it’s time to read 12th Five year plan, Chapter 8 and 9

12th FYP Vol1: Ch8 Science

RELEVANCE Topic PDF page
FODDER 8.21-science technology national mission should focus on 274
MCQ 8.23- the fact that The technologies on flocculation and chlorination currently in vogue do not remove trace organics, metals and pathogens in treated drinking water and, therefore 274
MCQ 8.28-list of six mega facility and their utilities 276
FODDER box 8.1 – India’s contribution in the discovery of Higgs boson particle 276
ORG serb, National innovation foundation, purse, curie 278
MCQ BONISTA, RECEPTOL, RHOCLONE, HAGAR 279
FODDER 8.48- 12th FYP RND innitiatives 281
E-GOV 8.54- NGIS 282
MCQ Public Sector developed GM CROPS 284
ORG 11.BIRAC 286
SCHEME Box.8.5- Doppler weather radars, National monsoon mission, PFZ, LTTD (Dig Net for principles) 288
MCQ 8.70 Fact that Sagar sampada is an ocean research vessel 290
MCQ 8.76 Fact that Earth system enterprise is a PSU under ministry of Earth Science 292
MCQ 8.79 Fact that [email protected] 80 and [email protected] 75 will coincide on 2022 291
SCHEME 8.82 PRISM, PACE, BIRD, A2K+ 292
TERM 8.84 Benefit of GRATZEN CELL over traditional solar cells 292
TERM CMM5- All metal civil aircrafts 293
TERM CAERULOMYCIN- For heart and kidney transplant 293
TERM Krishi Shakti Tractor 293
TERM Heptafloropropane- Fire fighting system 293
TERM Terafil water filter 293
TERM Ashvagandha Applications 294
TERM Risorin- TB 294
TERM PROSTALYN- Cancer; BACOPA Memory Enhancer; CSIR 800, Soleckskaw 294
SCHEME 8.96- Techvils under CSIR 800 296
TERM 8.97- OSDD, DOCS- For drug discovery 296
FODDER 8.105- Space plan for 2025 298
FODDER Box.8.7 Space launches during 11th FYP 298-99
TERM 8.111 GAGAN, IRNSS (More details under Mrunal/SNT) 300
FODDER 8.116 Disaster Management support by ISRO 301
TERM POLIX 302
MCQ Box.8.8- Spider robot, Barcom, IERMON 303
MCQ 8.126- Fact that AHWR uses thorium 305
MCQ Fact that only dhruva research reactor is working 305
TERM 8.131-Fair project, Germany, INO, LIGO,TMT, SKA 306
MCQ Table 8.1 Fact that dept. of Space is given largest plan outlay among all science related dept. 307
FODDER Dept. based deliverables for 12th FYP- Selectively prepare a few points for each department 308-311

12th FYP Vol1: Ch9 Innovation

short and sweet chapter.

Type Point Page
MCQ 9.1 Decade of innovation 312
Fodder 9.3 Why do we need innovation in India 312
ORG 9.7 NINC 313
Fund 9.10 Innovation Fund IIIF. (Recall chindu talked about this fund in the interim budget.) 313
MCQ 9.13 Clusters in various cities 314
E-GOV 9.17 India innovation portal 315
MCQ 9.26 Fact that Chanderi weavers belong to MP 317
Fodder 9.28 IPR concerns of western companies 317
E-GOV 9.30-9.32 Adhaar, other ICT initiatives 317-318
Fund District innovation Fund 318

dig following from NET, because 12th FYP merely mentioned them.

  1. Principles behind: Low  Temperature  Thermal Desalination (LTTD), reverse  osmosis  (RO)  and  multi-stage  flash  for sea  water  desalination.
  2. Disha for women scientist
  3. BRAI Bill
  4. Polymetallic manganese modules
  5. Need for Indian satellite navigation policy

+Every year many summits are held at National and International levels, You need to keep track on their locations and themes for PIB and NET.

Mock Questions

Warning: DONOT attempt them before digging principles / features of the various terms mentioned in IYB ch25. Example Food irradiation. (Using books/net.)

  • Don’t get demotivated if you can’t solve all of the questions.
  • The purpose is to show that despite all reading-revision, there will always be odd MCQs in UPSC outside the traditional books. For example, observe CSAT 2013’s sci-tech MCQs. click me.
  • So, If you are unsure of the fact/principle, better skip them rather than risk negative marking.

Q1. The terafil water filters developed by CSIR can remove ___ from water.

  1. turbid particles
  2. microorganisms
  3. bad odor and bad taste

Answer choices

  1. only 1 and 2
  2. only 1 and 3
  3. only 1
  4. all of them

Q2. Correct statements about terafil water filter developed by CSIR

  1. They’re designed to use solar energy to provide safe drinking water to coastal area.
  2. TERAFIL filter is made by mixing black clay (silt clay) and aluminum dioxide.
  3. CSIR is planning to add Nano-silver particles in these filters, so they can remove virus and bacteria from the drinking water.

Answer choice

  1. only 1 and 3
  2. only 2
  3. only 3
  4. all of them

Q3. CSIR has developed a new technology for production of Stevioside from Stevia Rebaudiana. What is the main use of this Stevioside?

  1. Arthritis Drug
  2. Bio fertilizer
  3. Bio control Agent
  4. Natural Sweetener

Q4. Correct statements about Stevioside

  1. it is extracted from the fruits of Stevia plant
  2. Stevia plants are native of Mizoram.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B.

Q5. Find correct statements about Green Maure crops

  1. Green manure crops usually belong to leguminous family.
  2. Clusterbeans and Sesbania rostrata are examples of Green Manure Crops
  3. Sesbania rostrata is a native of Africa, BARC used radiation technique to make it adaptable to India.

Answer choices

  1. only 1 and 2
  2. only 1 and 3
  3. only 2 and 3
  4. all of them

Q6. BARC has set up KRUSHAK (Krushi Utpadan Sanrakshan Kendra) in Lasalgaon for food irradiation. What are the benefits of food irradiation method?

  1. Inhibits the sprouts growth in Onion, potato, garlic and ginger.
  2. Extends shelf life of fruits and meat
  3. controls Microbial pathogen in processed food.

Answer choices

  1. only 1 and 2
  2. only 1 and 3
  3. only 2 and 3
  4. all of them

Q7. Incorrect statements about Food irradiation.

  1. This process makes the food radioactive, thereby making it unfit for survival of microbes and pathogens.
  2. food irradiation plant is one type of nuclear reactor.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B

Q8. Correct statements about Bhabhatron.

  1. Bhabhatron is a specialized research nuclear reactor that produces cobalt-60 isotops, which are then sold cancer hospitals at subsidized rates.
  2. Under WHO’s PACT program, India donated one of the Bhabhatron to Vietnam.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B.

Q9. Consider these terms: Anupam-Ajeya, Anupam-Ameya and Anupam-Ashva. What are they?

  1. Series of bio pesticides developed by ICAR
  2. Series of research reactors developed by BARC
  3. Series of super computers developed by C-DAC
  4. None of Above

Q10. Incorrect statements about Radioimmunoassay

  1. It is an in-vivo technique for measuring hormones and vitamins in biological fluids.
  2. Radioimmunoassay pose health hazards due to radiation exposure.
  3. ELISA is an example of Radioimmunoassay

Answer choices:

  1. only 1 and 2
  2. only 1 and 3
  3. Only 2 and 3
  4. None of them.

Q11. What are the uses of INSAT system of satellites?

  1. Natural Resources Monitoring
  2. Communication
  3. Meteorological Services
  4. DTH service

Answer choices

  1. all except 1 and 4
  2. all except 1
  3. all except 4
  4. all of them

Q12. Correct pairs

  1. Megha Tropiques: Earth observation
  2. Astrosat: Celestial bodies
  3. SARAL: Solar Coronagraph

Answer choices

  1. all correct matches.
  2. all except 1 and 3
  3. all except 2 and 3
  4. None of them.

Q13. Correct statements about Indian Ocean dipole (IOD).

  1. During a negative IOD year, the winds from Indian Ocean blow from west to east.
  2. During Positive IOD year, India receives more rainfall.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B

Q14. Correct statements about coral bleaching?

  1. Coral bleaching turns white coral into grey color.
  2. Coral bleaching occurs when coral’s symbiotic algae is damaged.
  3. Ozone depletion makes the coral reefs more vulnerable to bleaching.

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 3
  2. only 2 and 3
  3. only 1 and 3
  4. None of them.

Q15. Correct statements about Mycorrhizae.

  1. Mycorrhizae are fungi that exhibit symbiotic relation with plant roots.
  2. Mycorrihzae are used as biopesticides because they produce xenobiotic compounds that kill insects and pests.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B

Q16. Correct pairs

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis: biopesticide
  2. Trichogramma: biocontrol agent
  3. Mycorrhizae: fungus root

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 3
  2. only 2 and 3
  3. only 1 and 3
  4. all of them

its 12:37 AM, feeling dizzy, Stopping here. Besides, defense and space tech related MCQs already given in those old articles.

Answers

  1. D. All statements correct as per CSIR website
  2. C. Only third statement right as per CSIR website
  3. D. Natural sweetener, Britannica
  4. D. Both wrong. It’s extracted from leaves, and plant native of S.America. (NIIR board)
  5. D. All correct, as per Tamilnadu State Agro portal
  6. D. All of them as per BARC page
  7. C. both statements wrong UC Davis university, California  (note: question asked you to find “Wrong” statements, hence C and not D)
  8. D. Both wrong. Bhabhatron is not a nuke reactor, but teletherapy device to help rural patients get treatment without having to travel to faraway cities.  And PACT program belongs to IAEA and not WHO.
  9. D. all wrong. These are supercomputers of BARC
  10. B. 1 and 3 are wrong. It is “in-vitro” and not “in-vivo” (IYB page 803.); ELISA is not a radioimmunoassay. (Naik’s Biochem book, Page433)
  11. B. all except 1. IYB page 811. (DTH also works on INSAT)
  12. B. all except 1 and 3. IYB page 811 and 813
  13. B. only second statement right. (IYB 820). first statement wrong as per Chandrasekar’s atmospheric science book page 323
  14. B. only 2 and 3. Britannica: during bleaching, coral turns white=>1st is wrong. UV radiation can cause bleaching =>#3 right.
  15. A. only 1 is right. #2 is wrong because Xenobiotic compounds = compounds that are unnatural for the environment and life forms. Example- affluent from pharma, fertilizers etc. Hence #2 is wrong. Myco fungi cannot create xenobiotic compounds. (Environmental Biotech, Indu Thakur page 261)
  16. D. all correctly matched as per Bioinoculants: R. P. Gupta. Page 228

visit Mrunal.org/yearbook For more on Yearbook related topics/articles.

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38 Comments on “[Yearbook] India 2014: Science Tech, Biotech, Space Tech, Defence Tech: how to prepare from IYB & 12th FYP with sample MCQs”

  1. than you sir .i havent attaneded any coaching classes.your guidance is valuable to persons like me.thank you fro providing all the relevant materials in one place

  2. answser of 13 both statement are right
    kindly confirm

  3. SIR,
    REGARDING 13 TH QN..FROM THE LINK IT IS GIVEN THAT -only during positive IOD wind moves from east to west,,also logically during negative IOD wind blows from west to east-..hence the answer should be c=both are correct…….pls correct me if im wrong

  4. Sir kindly send me the link how to prepare India year book 2016

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