1. Tatya Tope: 200th Birth Anniversary
  2. Bhagat Singh: Bogus FIR
  3. Mock Questions for CSAT

In this page, we look at two noted revolutionaries who fought for India’s struggle for independence.

Tatya Tope: 200th Birth Anniversary

  • full name: Ramchandra Pandurang Tope
  • 1814: Born near Nasik, in a Brahmin family. So, 2014 marks his 200th birth anniversary therefore Tatya Tope automatically most important for UPSC!

(GS1) Discuss in brief, the Role of Tatya Tope in India’s struggle for independence. (100 words)

  1. Last Peshwa Bajirao II=> his adopted son Nana Saheb. Nana Saheb had two trusted generals: Tatya Tope and Azimulla.
  2. During the 1857 mutiny, Nana Saheb and Tatya liberated Kanpur from the British
  3. Later, Nana Saheb sent Tatya Tope with 20,000 men to aid Jhansi queen Laxmibai
  4. Tatya and Laxmibai together captured Gwalior but they could not save Jhansi from Sir Hugh Rose.
  5. Tatya was an expert in guerrilla warfare. He led attacks in Rajputana, Malwa, Panchmahal and Banswara districts.
  6. In Panchmahal he aimed to organize the Bhils against the British.

(95 words). After this…two versions about Tatya’s death:

Version #1: Tatya was not hanged
Madhya Pradesh state school textbook
  • Tatya lookalike was hanged in Shivpuri, MP.
  • The original Tatya killed in action (KIA) in a battle.
Tatya’s descendent Parag Tope’s book “Operation Red Lotus”
  • Tatya had died in battle in Chhipa Baroda, near Guna.
  • Tatya was living under disguise, using different names like Ram Singh, Jeel Jung, Rao Singh.
  • British officer had not seen Tatya, but East India company had put a big bounty on Tatya’s head.
  • Therefore, Major Meade captured a wrong guy and hanged him to claim the reward and applaud.
  • After Tatya’s death, Nana Saheb fought in Awadh, later retreated into Himalayas.

Version #2: Tatya was hanged

  • 1859, April: Tatya’s own comrade ManSingh informed the British about his hideout. Tatya was arrested and hanged.
  • May 2014: MP Governor Ram Naresh Yadav says Version#2 is right i.e. Tatya was hanged.
  • Governor Yadav aims to publish a book “Tatya Tope: Ek Swatantrata Sangram Senani”, to correct the error in MP school textbooks.

PS: Tamilnadu class11 textbook also agrees with Governor Yadav. Page 107, Tatya hanged for Kanpur massacre.

Bhagat Singh: Bogus FIR

Timeline: Bhagat Singh
1907, Sept Born. Studied in Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School of Arya Samaj.
1919 Visited the Jaliawalla massacre site
1923 Joined National college, Lahore
1924 Runs away from home to avoid marriage
1924, Oct HRA founded. Later renamed to HSRA Hindustan republican association. Founding members: Bismil, Jogesh Chandra and Sachin Sanyal.
1925 HRA/HSRA members loot cash of British Railways in Kakori, UP. Bismil, Ashfaqullah, Rajendra Lahiri and Roshan Singh were hanged for this.
1928, Sept HSRA recruits new members, including Bhagat Singh.
1928, Oct-Nov Lahore SP Scott orders brutal lathicharge on Lala Lajpat Rai during protests against Simon commission. HSRA decides to avenge his death.
1928, Dec
  1. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Azad and Rajguru plan to kill SP Scott
  2. But they kill DSP J.P. Saunders, because Jai Gopal identified wrong official
  3. FIR registered in the Anarkali Police station of Lahore.
1929, April Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw bomb in the Central assembly, Delhi to protest against
  • Public safety bill: Mainly to stop Communist movement in India by cutting it off from British & foreign communist organizations.
  • Trade dispute bill: jail and fine for striking workers and trade unions.
  • After bombing, they voluntarily surrendered.
  • (As per Britannica, He bombed to protest against Defense of India Act.)
  • Bhagat had met Batukeshwar while working in Hindi daily “Pratap” in Kanpur
  • For this bombing, they got life sentence. (Bhagat hanged for Saunders).


  • Bhagat Singh wrote a pamphel “Why am I an Atheist” while in jail.
  • From Bhagat singh’s letters and writings, we can see he was influenced by Karl Marx, Mazzini, Garibaldi, Tolstoy, Rousseau, Voltaire and Gorky.

1931, FebruaryGandhi-Irwin Pact (Delhi Pact). Lord Irwin rejected Gandhi’s demand of commuting Bhagat Singh’s death penalty to life sentence. Chandrasekhar Azad killed in a police encounter in Allahabad, Alfred park.1931, March 23Hanged along with Rajguru & Sukhdev, at Shadman Chawk, Lahore. for the Lahore Conspiracy case i.e. Murder of Saunders.
Yes, but Why in news?

  • May 2014: A Lahore lawyer found out the original FIR from Anarkali Police station.
  • The original FIR doesn’t mention the names of any individual. But it only describes the physical looks of the assailants.
  • So, it seems British officials would have added the names later.
  • Special tribunal had awarded death sentence to Bhagat Singh, without listening to 450 eye witnesses
  • Bhagat singh’s lawyers were not given opportunity to cross examine the eye witnesses
  • Special tribunal promulgated an ordinance which stopped Bhagat singh from appealing in High Court.

Now this Lahore Lawyer Imtiaz Qureshi, has filled a petition in Highcourt to prove Bhagat Singh’s innocence in this case.

Mock Questions for CSAT

Q1. Correct statements about Bhagat Singh

  1. He, Batukeshwar Dutt and Azad were the founding members of HRA.
  2. He and Rajguru had surrendered after throwing bomb in Central assembly building.
  3. He threw bomb in Central Assembly building to protest against Rowlett Act and Simon Commission.
  4. None of above

Q2. Bhagat Singh had bombed Central assembly building to protest against Public safety bill and trade dispute bill. What was the purpose of public safety bill?

  1. It aimed to curtail the sale of chemicals that could be used in making explosives and firearms.
  2. It aimed to curtail the Nationalist movement in India by empowering British police with powers akin to those under Rowlett Act.
  3. It aimed to curtail the communist activity in India by cutting it off from foreign organizations.
  4. None of above.

Q3. What did Tatya Tope do in 1857 mutiny?

  1. With Laxmibai, he captured Gwalior.
  2. With Begum Hazrat Mahal, he liberated Kanpur from British
  3. Tried to organize Bhils of Panchamahal region against the British

Correct choices

  1. only 1 and 2
  2. only 1 and 3
  3. only 2 and 3
  4. All of them

Mains and Interview

  1. (GSM1) Discuss the role of Bhagat Singh in freedom struggle of India. Why is there a view he was hanged for a false case? (200 words)
  2. (GSM1) Discuss in brief, the role of Tatya Tope in India’s first struggle for independence. (100 words)

Correct answers:

  1. D none
  2. C for communist
  3. b only 1 and 3