1. Vs. CSAT-2013
  2. Vs other exams (CDS, CAPF)
    1. Difficulty Level
    2. Ridiculously Difficult
  3. How to prepare Culture for CSAT-2015?
  4. How to prepare History for CSAT-2015
  5. [Act 1] Religion and Philosophy (3MCQ)
    1. Buddh & Avanti
    2. Bijak & Pushtimarg
    3. 6 Schools of Indian Philosophy
  6. [Act 2] Architecture (3MCQ)
    1. Ibadat Khana
    2. Panchayatan
    3. Buddhist monastery: Tabo, Alchi, Lhakhang
    4. Sculpture vs Site 
  7. [Act 3] Music, Dance, Art forms (4MCQ)
    1. Sattriya Dance
    2. Manganiyars musician
    3. Garba, Mohini & Yaksha
    4. Kalaripayattu
  8. [Act 4] National Symbols/ Post independence (3MCQ)
    1. Satymeva Mudaka
    2. Chaitra month in Gregorian Calendar
    3. Classical language
  9. [Act 5] Misc: Mahattara | Pattakila
  10. [Act 6] Freedom Struggle (5MCQs)

Vs. CSAT-2013

Analysis CSAT 2014 History & Culture

CSAT-2013, History CSAT-2014
History culture occupied 15 questions 20
Freedom struggle portion: 5 questions, all easy from routine books same
Culture portion 8 MCQs: moderate to difficult level 15 Culture MCQ. Although 9 of them directly from routine books / sources.
Harappa/Indus valley asked nope
Tough Question about Foreign traveler and same “genre” repeated in subsequent CDS-CAPF exams Did not ask
Question on Bhakti Saints Dadu Dayal, Guru Nanak, Tyagaraj Dadu Dayal asked again.
Sankhya school, tough question Easy question on philosophical schools
Rock cut caves Cave Sculptures
  • Every subject that rises to the top and then falls down.
  • Once upon a time Geography used to occupy 20-25 questions, now back to 10 questions.
  • Same way traditional history (kingdoms and wars) used to occupy 20+ question, now not even a single question.
  • Right now Culture is reaching the peak but perhaps after 2-3 years, it’ll also begin to decline (which will be good to reap the demographic dividend, by the way!)

Vs other exams (CDS, CAPF)

Some convergence, some divergence
CAPF, CDS (2014) CSAT-2014
CAPF: Building not associated with ShahJahan Akbar’s Ibadat Khana
CAPF: Who were Ahadis? Who were Mahattara and Pattakila?
CDS: correct statement about Mahajanpada. Which place (Mahajanpada) Buddh did not visit?
CDS: Match the temples with towns Monetary vs place; sculpture vs place
CDS: Freedom struggle rather too easy- most can be solved from Spectrum, TMH, Tamilnadu textbooks same
CAPF-2014: Freedom struggle rather tough questions. e.g. Who translated Nil-Darpan to English; Name of regiment whose soldiers who participated in 1857 mutiny and were cremated recently? Freedom struggle very easy.
Harappa asked nope
Buddhism-Jainism asked Only Buddhism

Difficulty Level

Debatable, depends on preparation level. Nonetheless, I classify them to prove two points

  1. You don’t have to tick 100/100 because no one can.
  2. Good number of questions from regular books / websites and they’re easy in nature. Therefore, coaching not essential for success.

Easy Questions: Given verbatim given in routine books

Bijak & Pushtimarg
  • Easy: Can be solved with combo of New NCERT + NIOS
  • Difficult:When mind develops the doubt: “what if Dadu Dayal also wrote Bijak?”
6 schools of philosophy List Available in NIOS, Lucent, TMH.
Ibadat Khana available in NIOS, Lucent
Garba, Mohini, Yaksha
  • Lucent, TMH, ccrtiindiia.
  • Mohini and Yaksha- routinely appear in theHindu, and have been asked in both prelim and mains. Therefore, one is supposed to memorize it.
Kalaripayattu Given in NIOS. Routinely appears in theHindu lifestyle.
Satyamev Jayte Verbatim answer in India Yearbook ch.2 National emblems
Chaitya month Same as above. Although some players may have downplayed this chapter because UPSC’s earlier trend of moving away from GK facts. aka Double Bluff backbreaking move TM.
Classical language List appeared TheHindu and PIB of Feb 2014 when Odiya was added. Therefore, had to be memorized like God’s own words.
Freedom struggle All five questions available in Spectrum, TMH, Bipan Chandra, TN state books.
Medium level difficulty
Panchayatan Available CCRTIndia website, but difficult to recall during exam
Sattariya dancers Given on ccrtindia but there are 50 dozens terms like this.

Ridiculously Difficult

When answer not available directly in the routine books and/or nearly impossible to recall in exam.

  1. Buddh & Avanti
Even after “smart” elimination, you’re left with two options and everything boils down to just one fact- whether Buddh visited Avanti or not?
  1. Tabo, Alchi, Lhakhang monastery
Who has time to memorize so much data? Better invest energy in preparation of maths, reasoning and comprehension for CSAT- Paper2.
  1. Sculpture vs Site
Hard to dig whether Vishnu saving Goddess earth is given on Mt.Abu or not?
  1. Manganiyar musician
Random article on Indian express. And even if this was given in books. लेकिन यार इतना डिटेल में कोन प्रिपेर करता है?
  1. Mahattara, Pattakila
Had to dig through random google books.

How to prepare Culture for CSAT-2015?

First we have to objectively check which sources were useful?

Source NCERT NIOS SpectrumCulture IYB TMH Lucent ccrtindia fellfromSky?
Buddh & Avanti
Bijak 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 no
6 Philosophy schools 1 1 no
Ibadat Khana 1 1 1 no
Panchayatan 1 no
Buddhist monasteries
Sculpture vs site
Sattariya 1 no
Garba & other dances 1 1 1 no
Kalaripayattu 1 1 no
Satyameva Mudak 1 1 no
Shaka Calendar 1 1 no
Classical lang.
Total utility 1.5 3.5 0.5 2 5 1.5 4 9/15


  • 0.5 means =half of the answer available. (i.e. two statement true/false type question).
  • Last column: “fell from sky”- Ans. No means the given question was available in atleast ONE standard reference book / source. Total 9 out of 15 =60% culture questions came from standard sources.
  • It could be higher than 60%, e.g. lucent /TMH/Spectrum may have Sattariya or Mangniyar somewhere but because of time constrain I have not been able to wade through all pages.

So, how to approach Culture?

  1. (MUST) Tamilnadu Class11 (Ancient-Medieval) + New NCERT History (Class7 to 12) + New NCERT Sociology (Class 11, 12)
    1. all of them available at Mrunal.org/download
    2. Although not much came from TN/NCERT this time.
    3. But one exam insufficient to through them away. They’ve proved their worthiness in CDS and CAPF 2014.
    4. those who have old ncert well, and good but those who don’t have- there is no need to lose sleep, Tamilnadu works just fine.
  2. (MUST) Base material = NIOS Culture material + CCRTindia
    1. You don’t have to manually wade through all webpages of CCRTindia, because in earlier [Write2win] competition, Sandeep Yadav had compiled the note from that site, including photos. Click me. (although his note is bit old, some new pages have been added by that website, so you might have to manually make visit add few new topics accordingly).
  3. (MUST) India yearbook Ch1, 2 and 3. [for geography, culture, polity respectively].
  4. (MUST) TheHindu. Classical language, dance- all routinely appeared in 2014’s newspapers.
  5. (if time permits) General Studies manual.
    1. As such maximum no. of questions from it but if you look at the table again- it has lot of overlapping with NIOS. Compared to NIOS, the GS manual is too bulky, contains lot of unnecessary factoids. So beyond a point, bad cost:benefit.
    2. But practice the mock questions given at the end of each section in GS manual.
    3. I’ve used Tata McGraw-Hill (TMH) general studies manual 2014 as reference because they gave me free review copy.
    4. But any manual works just fine- Arihant, Spectrum, Pearson. Even old/second hand used copy works fine. Because static content remains one and same, irrespective of edition.
  6. Beyond this, Cost:benefit wise, you’ll gain more from pumping that more hours in learning maths, reasoning and comprehension for CSAT Paper II. so don’t waste remaining jawaani in preparing culture only.
  7. You may skip Spectrum Facets of Indian culture. Because content wise, did not help much in the Mains-2013 or in prelims (CSAT-2014). It has cumbersome typesetting, no photos. Therefore, hard to memorize. Situation similar to Congress seats under Modi wave.
  8. Related: How to approach Culture for Mains-2014: Click me

How to prepare History for CSAT-2015

freedom TN Spectrum TMH LucentGK Bipan Chandra fellfromsky?
Bengal partition 1 1 no
Congress session 1929 1 1 1 1 no
Gadar 1 1 1 1 no
Victora’s proclamation 1 1 1 no
Redcliff 1 1 1 no
Total utility 3 5 5 2 1 5/5
  • Disclaimers same as previous table.
  • TN= Tamilnadu class 12 History textbook.
  • (new) NCERTs are good read but I’ve not used them in above comparison table because they don’t cover enough factoids, policies of past governor generals, their policies etc. So, you’ll have to augment It with some other book anyways. therefore TN class12 is better as the base textbook.

Anyways how to approach History for CSAT-2015?

  • (MUST) Tamilnadu Class12 [or OLD NCERT] as a starting textbook.
  • (Good) Spectrum’s Brief History of Modern India, By Rajiv Ahir. (Available in both English | Hindi medium)
    • Although TMH General studies Manual and Spectrum both have same number of questions but spectrum far thinner and easier to revise. and has proved worthy even in Mains-2013
    • Bipan Chandra has its utility in the mains, essay. It should be read depending on the time factor. As far as only prelim preparation is concerned, you’re better off with Spectrum because it’s far more revision friendly than Bipan etc.

What about Ancient and Medieval?

  • In the 90s exams, it used to be Vedic age, Ancient kingdoms, Medieval kingdoms and freedom struggle.
  • And now it’s just Freedom struggle and Culture. Whatever they ask from ancient-medieval, it’s mainly focused on culture part. so for Ancient-medieval, refer to Culture studyplan given above.
  • Besides, in Tamilandu Class 11 already covers the kingdom angle e.g. kings vs religion patronized, king vs monument, king vs policies and so on.
  • Related: How to approach History for Mains-2014: Click me

anyways, enough analysis, let’s begin solving the paper:

[Act 1] Religion and Philosophy (3MCQ)

Buddh & Avanti

1. Which of the following Kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?

  1. Avanti
  2. Gandhara
  3. Kosala
  4. Magadha

Select the correct nswer using the code given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 4
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 3 and 4

To get a better mental picture, first let’s find modern day equivalent of those places

Lucent GK Section Indian History page 15, table 3.1
1.Avanti Malwa
2.Gandhara Western part of Pakistan and Afghanistan
3.Kosala Districts of Faizabad, Gonda, Bahraich in UP
4.Magadha Patna, Gaya, Nalanda in Bihar area.

Viewpoint #1: Avanti is right

We can eliminate choices involving number 2 (Gadhara) because Buddh never travelled to Pakistan.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 4
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 3 and 4

So we are left with C or D.
Alternatively, As per Britannica

  • Buddh born in Lumbini, in Kosala kingdom.=> 3 must be included.
  • Buddh died in Kusinara, in Magadha kingdom=> 4 must be included.
  • if you eliminate answer choices that donot have 3 and 4 together => still we are left with C or D.
  • Therefore, final answer depends on whether Buddh went to Avanti or not.

Following two sources, suggest that Buddh himself never visited Avanti

Source what does it say?
Region in Indian History edited by Mahendra Pratāpa Page 47 Once Buddha was invited by King Pradyota of Avanti, but he declined to go because of his old age, and deputed Maha Kachchayana, a native of Avanti to impart his teachings there. => #1 Avanti is wrong. This eliminates option A and D.
Historical Buddha: Hans Wolfgang Page3 Avanti lay outside the area visited by buddha, and was converted to his teaching by his disciple Mahakaccana.

Therefore, answer: only C only 3 (Kosala) and 4(Magadha.)

Viewpoint# 2: Avanti is wrong

  1. Question uses the word “associated” with Buddh’s life. So, it is not essential that Buddh himself must have visited the place. Even sending a disciple (Kachchayana), counts as place “associated” with his life.
  2. Buddh had travelled to Avanti, as per this source Link.

Therefore, answer (D) 1, 3 and 4

Final answer: official answerkey of UPSC.

Bijak & Pushtimarg

Q2. Consider the following statements:

  1. ‘Bijak’ is a composition of the teachings of Saint Dadu Dayal.
  2. The Philosophy of Pushti Marg was propounded by Madhvacharya.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Statement #1 is wrong because:

  • NCERT class7, Page 116: Kabir’s ideas were later collected and preserved in Bijak.
  • NCERT Class12-Ancinent Past, page 161: The Kabir Bijak is preserved by the Kabirpanth (the path or sect of Kabir) in Varanasi and elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh
  • Spectrum Culture: Kabir founded a community – Kabirpnathi, who consider Bijak, a collection  of his verses, as their scripture.  (But in Vallabhacharya section, Spectrum is silent on the fact he founded Pushtimarg)
  • Therefore, as such Bijak = Kabir. Hence statement 1 should be wrong.
  • But a doubt arises, what if Dadu Dayal also composed Bijak? The answer is NO. As per Bhati Poetry, Neeti Sadarangani page 123: Bijak, which is the scripture of the Kabir Panth, only contains works attributed to Kabir.
  • Therefore, statement 1 definitely is wrong.

 Statement #2 is wrong because

  • NIOS Culture material,Page 136: Philosophy in Medieval India:
  • Vallabhacharya’s philosophy came to be known as Pushtimarga (the path of grace).
  • Same page, Madhavacharya is listed under Dvaita => he is not associated with Pushtimarg.
  • Alternate source: Lucent GK page 71: Vallabhacharya (1479-1531)- he propounded the philosophy of Pushtimarg.

Hence answer D neither 1 nor 2 are correct.

6 Schools of Indian Philosophy

Q3. Which one of the following pairs does not form part of the six systems of Indian Philosophy?

  1. Mimamsa and Vedanta
  2. Nyaya and Vaisheshika
  3. Lokayata and Kapalika
  4. Sankhya and Yoga

NIOS Culture material, Chapter 8 page 117 onwards

Six system of Indian philosophy are
Samkhya Prakriti and Purush
Yoga Releasing Purush from Parkriti
Nyaya Logical thinking
Vaisheshika Realistic and objective philosophy of universe
Mimamsa  Analyzing Samhita and Brahmana portion of Veda.
Vedanta Philosophy of Upanishad.

So, accordingly, eliminate the correct terms. (Because we’ve to find the wrong term)

  1. Mimamsa and Vedanta
  2. Nyaya and Vaisheshika
  3. Lokayata and Kapalika
  4. Sankhya and Yoga

Therefore, answer C Lokayata and Kapalika  donot form 6 system of Indian philosophy.

Alternate source:

  1. TMH History section Page 15. Six orthodox school of Hindu philosophy are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimansa and Vedanta. Eliminate options accordingly and we are left with answer C.
  2. Lucent GK table given on page7

[Act 2] Architecture (3MCQ)

Ibadat Khana

Q1. Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri was

  1. the mosque for the use of Royal Family
  2. Akbar’s  private chamber prayer
  3. the hall in which Akbar held discussions with scholars of various religions.
  4. the room in which the nobles belonging to different religions gathered to discuss religious affairs.

Answer is C: “Scholars” because

  • NCERT class7 History, Chapter4, Page 54: While Akbar was at Fatehpur Sikri during the 1570s he started discussions on religion with the ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman Catholics, and Zoroastrians. These discussions took place in the ibadat khana. Hence answer C
  • NIOS Culture material, Page 49: On every Thursday, scholars from different religions came to debate on religious issues raised by Akbar. This was done at the Ibadat Khana in Fateh Pur Sikri at Agra
  • TMH: History section, page 74

btw, A similar question in CAPF-2013.


Q2. With reference to the cultural history of India, the term ‘Panchayatan’ refers to

  1. an assembly of village elders
  2. a religious sect
  3. a style of temple construction
  4. an administrative functionary


Panchayatana – a temple that has a central shrine surrounded by four other shrines.

Therefore, answer C

Buddhist monastery: Tabo, Alchi, Lhakhang

Q3. With reference to Buddhist history, tradition and culture in India.

Consider the following pairs:

Famous shrine Location
1.  Tabo monastery and temple complex Spiti Valley
2.  Lhotsava Lhakhang temple, Nako Zanskar Valley
3.  Alchi temple complex Ladakh

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Ans: (C) 1 and 3 only:

  • Tabo=Spiti and Alchi=Ladakh. There are correct as per National geographic page.
  • Lhotsava Lhakhang, Nako is in Himachal Pradesh as per Frontline. Zanskar Valley is in Jammu and Kashmir. Therefore #2 is wrong pair.

Sculpture vs Site

Q4. With reference to the Indian history of art and culture, consider the following pairs:

Famous work of sculpture Site
1. A grand image of Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana with numerous celestial musicians above and the sorrowful figures of his followers below Ajanta
2. A huge image of Varaha Avatar (boar incarnation) of Vishnu, as he rescues Goddess Earth from the deep and chaotic waters, sculpted on rock Mount Abu
3. “Arjuna’s Penance” /”Descent of Ganga” sculpted on the surface of huge boulders Mamallapuram

Which of the pairs given above is/ are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only,
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Let’s check

location why?
1 correct
  • Frontline 2004: Parinirvana of the Buddha in Cave 17 of Ajanta, with numerous celestial musicians above and the sorrowful figures of his followers below, is one of the grandest and yet most delicately expressive scenes ever made in ston.
  • another source: ASI’s official website
2wrong Vishnu (Varah / boar form) saving Goddess Earth= found at Mamallapuram. Ref:

  1. Images of Indian goddesses: Madhu Bazaz page 91
  2. bl.uk photogallery
  3. And I couldnot find any mention anywhere that Mount Abu also has similar sculpture where Vishnu saving Goddess earth in a boar form. LucentGK Page48 says “Of the Brahamanical images perhaps the most impressive was The Great Boar(Varah) carved in relief at the entrance of a cave at Udayagiri.” – but it doesn’t mention whether its saving Goddess earth or not?
3 correct Upinder Singh, A history of Ancient and Early Medieval, Page 634

Therefore, Answer C: 1 and 3

[Act 3] Music, Dance, Art forms (4MCQ)

Sattriya Dance

Q1. With reference to the famous Sattriya dance, consider the following statements:

  1. Sattriya is a combination of music, dance and drama.
  2. It is a centuries-old living tradition of Vaishnavites of Assam.
  3. It is based on classical Ragas and Talas of devotional songs composed by Tulsidas, Kabir and Mirabai.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


  • This neo-Vaishnava treasure of Assamese dance and drama has been….…Sattriya dance tradition is governed by strictly laid down principles in respect……music etc=> Statement 1 right. Combination of music, dance and drama.
  • Sattriya dance form was introduced in the 15th century A.D by the great Vaishnava saint and reformer of Assam, Mahapurusha Sankaradeva as a powerful medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith.=> Statement  2 is right
  • Statement 3: hard to locate direct source in google books, to refute or validate the third statement.Hence joining dots
    1. music of Sattriya dance comprises of classical ragas (melodies), talas (rhythms) and traditional songs. Ref1
    2. Tulsidas and Mira were Vaishnavite. Ref2
    3. Kabir was a Vaishnavite. Ref3

And therefore, dots 1+2+3= third statement should be right. Therefore, (D) 1, 2 and 3. [or may be “B” only 1 and 2].

Manganiyars musician

Q2. A community of people called Manganiyars is well-known for their

  1. martial arts in North-East India
  2. musical tradition in North-West India
  3. classical vocal music in South India
  4. pietra dura tradition in Central India

May 26, 2014; Indian express  mentioned this.

Manganiyars — a tribal community from Rajasthan with a strong musical tradition

Therefore, Option B is most apt.

Garba, Mohini & Yaksha

Q3: Consider following pairs

  1. Garba : Gujarat
  2. Mohiniattam : Odisha
  3. Yakshagana : Karnataka

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. (c) 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


From Spectrum culture book Pages no.
1.Yakshgana A theatre form of Karnataka 174
2.Mohiniattam Kerala. (and not Odisha). Therefore, all options involving #2 are wrong. 118
3.Garba Gujarat. 127

Alternative source:

Therefore, only 1 and 3 correct. Answer is C

Counter argument

  • NIOS culture material, page 175 says Yakshagana, a form of Kathakali in Kerala, tells us stories of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Therefore, both 2 and 3 are wrong. Answer only 1 (Garba).
  • Mrunal: well in that case, we’ve to fall back to TheHindu because just like General Dong, the Hindu can NEVER be wrong (as far as UPSC answerkey-making is concerned)

July 22, 2014’s Hindu newspaper says, Though Yakshagana is native to coastal Karnataka, the artform has a good number of admirers all over the State and other parts of the country as well. Therefore, final answer C 1 and 3 only.


Q4. With reference to India’s culture and tradition, what is ‘Kalaripayattu’?

  1. It is an ancient Bhakti cult of Shaivism still prevalent in some parts of South India
  2. It is an ancient style bronze and brasswork still found in southern part of Coromandel area
  3. It is an ancient form of dance-drama and a living tradition in the northern part of Malabar
  4. It is an ancient martial art and a living tradition in some parts of South India

NIOS Culture material, page 187. martial dances like Chholia of Uttranchal, Kalari-paittu of Kerala, Thang-taa ofManipur among the more famous ones.=> Answer D.

Another source: http://ccrtindia.gov.in/performingart.php

Martial art forms
Lazim Maharashtra
Kalaripayattu Kerala
Chhau Orissa, West Bengal and Bihar.

Ans: (d) Kalariyapattu is a martial dance practiced in Kerala / South India.

[Act 4] National Symbols/ Post independence (3MCQ)

Satymeva Mudaka

Q1. The national motto of India, ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed below the Emblem of India is taken from

  1. Katha Upanishad
  2. Chandogya Upanishad
  3. Aitareya Upanishad
  4. Mundaka Upanishad

Answer D because

  • India Yearbook 2014, Chapter 2 National Symbols Page 28: “The words Satyameva Jayatefrom Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagariscript.”
  • TMH section General knowledge, first page tells the same story.

Chaitra month in Gregorian Calendar

Q2. Chaitra 1 of the national calendar based on the Saka Era corresponds to which one of the following dates of the Gregorian calendar in a normal year of 365 days?

  1. 22 March (or 21st March)
  2. 15th May (or 16th May)
  3. 31st March (or  30th March)
  4. 21st April (or 20th April

Answer is A because:

  • India Yearbook 2014, Chapter 2 National Symbols Page 30: Topic national calendar: Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year
  • TMH section General knowledge, page#4 tells the same story.

Classical language

Q3. Consider the following languages:

  1. Gujarati
  2. Kannada
  3. Telugu

Which of the above has/have been declared as ‘Classical Language / Languages’ by the Government?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

News appeared in Feb 2014, in both TheHindu and PIB, when Odia was added as 6th classical language.

  1. Sanskrit
  2. Tamil
  3. Telugu
  1. Kannada
  2. Malayalam
  3. Odia

Therefore answer is C only 2(Kannada) and 3(Telugu).

[Act 5] Misc: Mahattara | Pattakila

Q1. In medieval India, the designations ‘Mahattara’ and ‘Pattakila’ were used for

  1. military officers
  2. village headmen
  3. specialists in Vedic rituals
  4. chiefs of craft guilds

Different books giving slightly differing interpretations:

RS Sharma: early medieval society, Page 333 Mahattara: village elders
Indian epigraphical glossary Page 191 Mahattara: village headman
Madhya Pradesh Through the Ages edited by Shiri Ram BakshiPage 210
  • Pattakila: generally identified with the modern Patel, believed to be the king’s representative in the village.
  • Mahattama was the village headmen. Unlike Pattakila, he was a non-official and possibly a representative of people.

Overall, we can certain that A, C and D are wrong. Therefore, Final answer B village headmen.

[Act 6] Freedom Struggle (5MCQs)

Q1. The Partition of Bengal made by Lord Curzon in 1905 lasted until

  1. the First World War when Indian troops were needed by the British and the partition was ended.
  2. King George V abrogated Curzon’s Act at the Royal Darbar in Delhi in 1911
  3. Gandhiji launched his Civil Disobedience Movement
  4. the Partition of India, in 1947 when East Bengal became East Pakistan

Spectrum Modern India – Rajeev Ahir

  • Page 85- “it was decided to annul the Bengal partition in 1911” although it doesn’t specifically mention whether King George did it or not. So let’s look into another source for cross verification.

TMH History section page 113

  • 1911: King George V visits India. A durbar held @Delhi I, The capital of India is transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. Partition of Bengal is annulled.

Answer D

Q2.  The 1929 Session of Indian, National Congress is of significance in the history of the Freedom Movement because the

  1. attainment of Self-Government was declared as the objective of the Congress
  2. attainment of Poorna Swaraj Was adopted as the goal of the Congress
  3. Non-Cooperation Movement was launched
  4. decision to participate in the Round Table Conference in London was taken

Ans- B because

  1. Spectrum: Page 164-65
  2. TMH Indian national movement, Page 26
  3. Class 12th TN history text book : page 165
  4. India’s struggle for freedom by Bipan Chandra: Page 266

Q3. The Ghadr (Ghadar) was a

  1. Revolutionary association of Indians with headquarters at San Francisco.
  2. nationalist organization operating from Singapore
  3. militant organization with headquarters at Berlin
  4. communist movement for India’s freedom with head-quarters at Tashkent

Ans- A because

  1. Spectrum Page 100
  2. TMH: Section Indian National movement Page12
  3. TN History Book Class12: Page154
  4. Bipan Chandra India’s struggle for freedom: Page 149
  5. PIB press release for Gadar completed 100 years in 2013.

Q4. What was/were the object/objects of Queen Victoria’s Proclamation (1858)?

  1. To disclaim any intention to annex Indian States
  2. To place the Indian administration under the British Crown
  3. To regulate East India Company’s trade with India

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer- A because

  • Spectrum Page 12-13
  • TMH: History of India section Page 106-07
  • LucentGK page 101

But some people engaging in fierce debate wars about statement 1, so, let’s crosscheck

statement crosscheck
1.To disclaim any intention to annex Indian States The announcement reversed Lord Dalhousie’s pre-war policy of political unification through princely state annexation.  Therefore, statement 1correct.Ref: Page 261, Britannica’s history of India.
2.To place the Indian administration under the British Crown True from every source.
3.To regulate East India Company’s trade with India Irrelevant. Not mentioned in the original speech posted here

Therefore, answer A only 1 and 2.

Q5. The Radcliffe Committee was appointed to

  1. solve the problem of minorities in India
  2. give effect to the Independence Bill
  3. delimit the boundaries between India and Pakistan
  4. enquire into the riots in East Bengal

Ans- C because

  1. Spectrum Page 238
  2. TN history book class12: page 173
  3. TMH: Indian national movement section page 49