[Essays] September Week3: India-China, Zero Sum Game, Parliamentary minority, Daughter aversion

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Mrunal's Economy Course

Write Essay on any one of the following topics. 2500 words, 3 hours.

  1. International relations, Diplomacy
  2. Democracy and governance
  3. Social Issues and Women empowerment
  4. Education, Economy, HRD

International relations, Diplomacy

  1. International cooperation is not a “zero sum game.”
  2. If “world’s factory” and “world’s back office” worked together…(President Xi)
  3. “No genuine Asian century would come without the development of China, India and other developing countries” – Xi Jinping in The Hindu.
  4. When India and China speak in one voice, the world will pay attention. (Chinese President Xi Jinping in India)
  5. India and China- the twin civilizations with “intellectual fire power” (Amartya Sen)
  6. China and India- the twin “express trains” for driving regional development.
  7. China and India- the twin anchors of regional peace.

Democracy and governance

  1. Democratic government demands not only a parliamentary majority but also a parliamentary minority- (Ivory Jennings. Current Context- Leader of opposition issue.)
  2. Magnanimity in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom. (Edmund Burke, Frontline quoted)
  3. A great empire and little minds go ill together (Edmund Burke, Frontline quoted)
  4. “In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act.”  (George Orwell. Current context-CBI whistleblower)
  5. “Freedom is a celebration; independence is a challenge.” – Pranab in Independence day speech.
  6. “In a democracy, good governance is exercise of power for efficient and effective management of our economic and social resources for the well-being of the people.”
  7. India is a “harmonious” and “stable democracy” in spite of its cultural and linguistic diversities.  (Dalai Lama )
  8. Media- the strongest pillars of democracy. (Context- TRAI chairman said- political parties should not own TV channels, and same essay asked in RBI mains 2014).
  9. A clean judiciary is a constitutional imperative for any working democracy. (some column)

Social Issues and Women empowerment

  1. “When women are safe, nations are safe” (President of Liberia, Sir John Sirleaf)
  2. Has Indian Society has become silent to injustices? (Some seminar)
  3. Daughter aversion. (Context- deep seated patriarchal mindsets leading to the preference for sons over daughters.)
  4. Can girl-child grow without fear in India?
  5. Only sustained and systematic efforts in families, communities and in society can end violence against women.
  6. Not only women but men also need to participate on an equal footing in gender justice.
  7. Healthy mothers and healthy children are crucial for India to realize the demographic dividend. (Melinda Gates)
  8. The promise of women empowerment is hollow without breaking away from gender stereotypes first.
  9. Gender is a matter of culture without which either a man or a woman cannot lead a harmonious life.
  10. We have just enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another (Jonathan Swift. Current context- Love Jihad controversy in India, ISIS/Shia-Sunni in Middle East.)

Education, Economy, HRD

  1. A nation that treats its intellectual capital in a shabby manner is doomed to remain backward.
  2. Libraries- the dilapidated temples of Modern India.
  3. Economy is the material part of development. Education is the essential part of it.
  4. The difference between rich and poor people is not their education it is the assets versus liabilities.(Robert Kiyosaki, the author of “Rich dad, Poor dad”.)
  5. India is going to be the information power of world. (Robert Kiyosaki, the author of “Rich dad, Poor dad”.)
  6. Through innovation, hard work and cutting edge research, our engineers have played an anchoring role in the making of our nation. (Modi on 154 birth anniversary of Sir M. Visvesvaraya)
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72 Comments on “[Essays] September Week3: India-China, Zero Sum Game, Parliamentary minority, Daughter aversion”

  1. Someone asked about zero line, sorry i wasnt able to locate that question. i am writing about it here, hope to get it noticed. A Boundary between two nations is demarcated by some pillars. These pillars can be 5 meters away or 50 meter or 51 meter or 1 km or any rational distance. There will be always a straight line between these pillars (Taar-bandi) known as zero line, that is if you step ahead it you enter next country (So please dont do it, unless you want to be in local newspaper headlines) . There is also one more concept (always agreed between two nations), ‘Ditch cum bunds’ or ‘dcb’ , in normal time (i.e no war scenario) army cannot enter this region. it is generally 1 km distance from zero line. If army enter this area, neighbor will get scared out of hell and will try to retaliate through bringing its own army , which may be sitting 5 or 10 km away in a camp (watching television and uploading pictures on facebook) . So last thing is majority border lines of india are guarded by paramilitary say bsf, itbp, ssb, earlier to bsf it was punjab police, gujarat police et al , but some ‘tussle going on area’ like glaciers are guarded by army. pak rangers are responsible for border security of pakistan. There is nothing like black and white or good or bad. all these rules are based on understanding between nations. Indian home ministry can also come up with an idea that every jawan will do bhangra from 1 am to 2 am and garba from 2 am to 3 am with full volume on speakers on border.

    1. It was me who asked this quest…Thanx caligula :)

      1. Viji these taar-bandi or fence is on both sides of pillars, say for india-pak, one side fencing will be done by india and other side by pak. The pillars in between are small in size, even smaller than milestones . just type india pakistan border on google, the image results will clear all your doubt. follow up questions are welcome.

    2. bsf,itbp are not paramilatary forces as far as my knowledge goes..please reconfirm..

      1. fir kya hain ? NGO ?

        1. BSF , ITBP , SSB , CRPF , CISF all these are Central Police Force (CPF) or Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) . Central Police force are those forces which are headed by police officers(IPS).

          Paramiltary forces are those forces which are headed by Miltary officers. There are two paramiltary forces Assam Riffles and Special Frontier Force.

          There is another one – Indian Armed Force (IAF)which consist Indian Army , Indian Navy , Indian Air Force , Indian Coastal Guard.

          CAPF/CPF – CRPF , CISF , BSF , SSB , ITBP
          Paramiltary – Assam Riffles , Special Frontier Force.
          Indian Armed Force – Indian Army , Indian Navy , Indian Air Force , Indian Coastal Guard.

          1. Vk please go through BSF,CRPF et al websites. I also cited various reason in comments below.

        2. They are called as central armed police forces… Assam rifles are called as paramilitary.

          1. though it is a very basic information, but here is a special link for you . Go to India . gov . in > Topics > Defence > Paramilitary Forces and have a look at the list (instead of looking at snippet of wikipedia and hurrying for posting a comment)

          2. Paramilitary forces?

            Different books give different definitions of what is meant by “Paramilitary forces”.
            For example, some would say Paramilitary = those fall under Home ministry and not under Defense ministry. E.g. CRPF, BSF, ITBP etc. Others will counter it saying forces like IB and CBI also fall under Home ministry but by no means they’re paramilitary.
            In 2011, Government of India made the formal definition: Paramilitary force =headed by Military officer (and not an IPS officer).
            CRPF, BSF, ITPB etc are all headed by “Director Generals” but these director generals are actually IPS officers (and not military officers.) Hence going by that definition, we are left with only three “real” paramilitary forces

            Assam Rifles
            Special Frontier Force
            Coast Guard

            Ok then

            what are CRPF, BSF, ITBP, CISF and SSB? =these are “Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF).”
            Then what are RAW and IB = they are intelligence gathering agencies (internal and external)
            Then what are CBI and NIA= they are law enforcement agencies.

            Taken from https://mrunal.org/?s=paramilitary+forces So I think it needs clarification!

        3. @ Caligula

          Do you think it is a facebook post where you can reply to a humble clarification with a non-sense question?

          Or there are only two types of organisations in India, either paramilitary or NGO?

          Rather than accepting the error somebody pointed out in your reply, you are trying to imitate the guy.

          Not expected from an Aspirant at this level.

          1. @ Amit, correctly said..everybody’s comment reflect the type of personality they are…..like caligula’s comment shows his insecurity…non sense…having low self confidence…

          2. BSF . nic . in , front page . CRPF . gov . in Read DG message . ITBP site . I don’t think you should dictate others ethos. So unbecoming . Stay in your boundaries, wishing you happy life.

          3. take t easy amit..thtz perhaps caligula’s way of replying i jz waned him to reconfirm his knowledge nd i guess the purpose z served..

        4. They are CAPF: Central Armed Police Force.(CRPF, BSF, ITBP, SSB, CISF, RPF, NSG, SPG)

          Paramilitary Forces are only three: Assam Rifles, Special Frontier Force, Indian Coast guards.

          1. Please refer to each force website . Also go through my comment below.


          1. Can’t help . Apologies .

    3. zero line found between trripura and bangladesh

      1. Dheeraj zero line is every country’s border line.

  2. Please suggest a good hindi essay book.

  3. MRUNALsir, i am facing problem in viewing the archives(econmy,science&tch,envrnmnt). pls fix asap….

    1. Avinash, I think you’re referring to the menu problem, where it quickly collapses before a person is able to click the link to any of those sections. I’ve updated the theme coding just now. please clear the browser cache, try again and let me know if problem persists.

      1. its working now….thank u sir

      2. this is the problem in your site, last time this happed to me as well. when I noticed it passed about 15 days without any update ,and I usually see the same page, by chance I opened your site on friend’s computer then I noticed there were many post.
        please fix this problem.

  4. Sir are you gona publish articles for remaining Eco Survey chapters???

  5. My answer in brief for question number 10.

    Q. We have just enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another (Jonathan Swift. Current context- Love Jihad controversy in India, ISIS/Shia-Sunni in Middle East.)

    A. When we understand true spirit of religion, there is no hatred but only love and compassion. It is us who interpreted religion as an identity and create all the trouble.
    It is inevitable in society to have differences. When a fault line is deep enough to form groupings consolidating their identities, hatred generates. Out of this hatred for others, people unite under specific identities and societies are run Eg: when British came we forgot all our differences for independence. When they left, minute differences became the reasons for conflict i.e communal forces start operating. So conflict is inevitable. We cant create a society without any conflicts or differences. What we can do is to minimize the violence by generating a culture of tolerance and willingness to understand others.
    Religion is a high end philosophy (about compassion, empathy, love). How can it create hatred?
    Because people, in an enthusiasm to preach their message confront other religions and try to establish their supremacy over others. In this meaningless pursuit they forget the message itself and create nuisance and unnecessary violence.
    It will continue till our education system reforms by including critical aspect of religion in its curriculum and teach how foolish it is to fight for identity thus providing some means to attain true secularism.

    1. totally agree with u …. every religion must be taught in classrooms in a well respected manner…. also instead of preaching tolerance towards other mutual respect should be preached….
      as Vivekanand quoted, “As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!” and “Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me.” Despite the brevity of his speech, it voiced the spirit and sense of universality of the parliament”. But it is also unfortunate that the people accusing other on Love Jihad are becoming rigid and exclusive in mentality. these are also supporters of the religion which is regarded as the most flexible and inclusive religion…….

  6. Is there any rule/regulation that no PSC/Public Sector Exams can be held with dates clashing with UPSC Exams? Anybody??

  7. i am writing about the topic international cooperation is not a zero sum game
    Today we are living in a global village community because today we are able to get information about any topic discipline matter whether related to international or national importance, regarding science and technology and new discoveries related to any field.
    But for the development of the developing or under developing counties the cooperation between the the developed countries is importance because these countries can spend more money on the Research and development of new technologies as compared to developing or under develop countries.
    For example NASA the space organisation of America has developed the technologies related to space exploration and with the exchange of ideas also help other countries to promote there space research.
    By exchanging the technology of the nuclear power generation with India. It help to get rid of the problem of power deficiency but in return we should not give them right to exploit our environment and people by accepting there unusual conditions.
    Same apply to the China although India want that the China exchange their technology related to Bullet Train Nuke Power Generation so in return we should not kept quite related issues like trade security such as extrusions in Indian territory and string of pearls which china is developing at strategic points around the India
    So whether we need the exchange of technologies for international cooperation we should not give them advantage in the barter system.


  8. Sir
    Please can you provide this matter in Hindi language also?
    Sir if you will provide than we Hindi mediun will very thankful

  9. Hi any one preparing for hcs

  10. The day each one of us gets a toilet to use, I shall know that our country has reached the pinnacle of progress ~ Jawaharlal Nehru

  11. Is it somethin like “no man’s land”?

  12. Yeah Kapsy, You rae right..bsf,itbp etc are not paramilitary forces. These are Central Armed Police Force. Only Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Force are paramilitary forces.Difference between Paramilitary Forces and CAPF is that Paramilitary Forces are led by Army Officers whereas CAPF is led by IPS.

  13. Sir, I belong to rural region so I am facing difficulties to get matter and suggestion on basics of 4th paper(ethics, integrity and …..). Please provide in such manner as ECONOMY . Definitely this will help students like I

  14. dear sir,

    Noramally I normally save PDF from your site to read it in future but from sept 2014 i am not able to do so because whenever i open the saved PDF one message comes which says “There was an error processing a page. There was problem reading this document (135).”

    Please guide how to fix this problem as i have tried both PDF and google chrome’s discussions and actions. also pleease let me know how i will be able to the archives.

    thanking you for your all help (past, present and future).

  15. Mrunal Sir, will you be providing guidance on RAS 2013, BPSC and UKPSC exams?


  16. Plz upload upsc prelim optional paper of history;geography;economic. useful a for mpsc mains

  17. Pls help me to solve below question…
    The number of lock of a suitcase has 3 wheels. The person who owns the suitcase has forgotten the exact triplet of numbers required to unlock the suitcase. How many futile attempts at the maximum he would have to make before he succeed in unlocking suitcase??????????

    1. Let the man randomly choose a combination of numbers.
      Now total no. of attempts is 10*10*10 =1000(Assuming each lock has digit 1-9). Therefore in worst case scenario , he can make at most 999 guesses wrong as there is one correct lock code. Therefore maximum no. of futile attempts is 999.

      1. Sorry , Assumption is that each lock has digit 0-9

    2. at max 9, minimum 0

    3. max 8 because he will succeed at(n-1) time i.e 9-1=8.

    4. answer is 10*10*10-1=999

      possible combinations are 000,001,002……….999…..one of them is correct. so we have 999 unsuccessful attempts

    5. It is B.
      For each of the wheel you have 10 options (0-9).There are three wheels so in total there will be 10X10X10 options. Of these, only 1 is correct, so the wrong options are 10^3 -1

      If this doesn’t help, let me further clarify with a simpler example suppose there are two wheels and the wheels have only the nos. 0,1,2.
      In that case the first wheel can take any one of the 3 values and so does the 2nd wheel. In total there will be 3X3 combinations. These are -:
      0 0
      0 1
      0 2
      1 1
      1 2

      If the correct key is say, suppose 22, then the no. of wrong options are 9 -1 = 8
      Hope this helps

  18. solution :

    total no. of possible triplets : 10*10*10 = 1000 (we can have each digit from 0 to 9 as a possible digit in the code; hence 10 options for each place)

    Max futile attempts = 1000-1(successful attempt)
    = 999

  19. caligula- though your source seems okay but Mrunal sir show all the forces to be central armed police forces by going through the definition by govt. of india in 2011. Now did Mrunal sir misinterpret the definition ????

  20. Options given for this que. are (A)10^3 (B) 10^3 – 1 (C) 30 (D) 256

    1. For each wheel he has 10 options (0-9)…hence for 3 wheel he has total 10*10*10=10^3 options to choose but one of them is correct……. so total no of wrong choice are 10^3-1(B).

    2. Soni, exact triplet is confusing (My assumption was 000 111 222.. .. ..999), so i answered 9 futile attempt. But as many has cleared triplet being synonymed for permutation. Anyways in prelim i would have answered 9 (By giving it priority over any other option, but in its absence 999 remains the second most appropriate choice)

  21. I cant understant this problem, if anyone can then pls explain……

    1. if the three wheels each have digits from 0 to 9 then total number of permutations or triplets in this case would be 10X10X10 = 1000. and one of them is the correct triplet which opens the lock… so obviously maximum number of futile attempts can be 1000-1= 999

  22. Can someone plz explain for me the concept of the “racio of material and labour” in the ongoing debate on the NREGA.

  23. Answer is (B)
    Explaination: Total possible combinations=10^3
    Max total futile attempts = 10^3-1

  24. I think it will be 10^3 – 1.. for 1st wheel, there are 10 numbers 0 to 9..for each selection in first wheel there will be 10 possible selections in 2nd wheel..so total 10×10..for each of these 10×10 selections, one number out of 10 in the third wheel can be selected..so total no of arrangements 10x10x10..only one out of these is the correct one..so futile attempts 10x10x10 – 1 .. please let me know if this is the correct answer

  25. When will UPSC Prelims 2014 result will publish?

    1. W…..A….I….T……Pre result in last week of October.

      1. IFoS Mains will start on 22/11/2014. so prelims result will be declare as early as possible.

  26. Amaavasya ki raat ko

  27. it should be the second option B as there are 10 (0-9) number on each wheel total number that can be formed is 10x10x10 and there will be only one valid code so the total futile attempts should be 10^3-1

  28. This is not a counter argument to all of them who are differentiating paramilitary with capf on hard lines. A simple definition of paramilitary is, a force with light artillery. Military posses heavy artillery. It is my request to new aspirants that please get rid of these intricacies. Following is a line from UPSC syllabus “The nature and standard of questions in the general studies paper will be such that a well educated person will be able to answer them without any specialization” . I have mentioned already “A good general informative view will obtain good marks”. So please dont come up with a fact that they are headed by IPS, whereas i can also tell you that how many IPS are present in each force (8-10) . For the first time i had to check whether or not bsf,itbp et al are para or not, i gave you the proof (India . gov . in website) . Every official in govt, any minister will categorize them as paramilitary, They dont file FIR (even though headed by police man) DDR or anything as they transfer case to nearest police station. They have quarter guard, canteen same like army . Anyhow it was my last comment on this site as i consider my fun trip is over. I still recommend many aspirants this website for beginning their preparation, but god save them who take every fact and information a noble word. Nothing is totally correct , nothing is totally wrong, we always move towards perfection.

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