- [Block-1] Disaster Management
- [Block-2] Cleaning India and Ganga
- [Block-3] Yearbook type
- [Block-4] Energy related
- [Block-5] International
- Hudhud national bird of Israel. (IUCN status: Least concern)
- Oman suggested this Cyclone name to IMD.
- Hits Eastern coast ~mid-October 2014. Last year Phailin too came at same time.
|Born||@Bay Bengal, West-Central region.|
|Catalyst||deep depression over north Andaman Sea.|
|Army||Lifejackets, engineer task forces on standby at Ranchi, Allahabad and Secunderabad.|
|Airforce||C-17 Globemaster and five An-32 transport aircraft, Chetaks, Mi-8 helicopters, Mi-17 medium-lift choppers|
|Coastguard||17 ships, two air cushion vessels and 13 aircraft in Eastern|
|NDRF||Evacuated >10000 people.|
- Coastal states should Prepare a “Blue book” for standard operating procedure during cyclones.
- Target zero human and cattle casualty. Move them to safe location well ahead of time. If they refuse, use police/military-FORCE.
- Stop usage of rail lines, airways and highways in the area
- Alerts on the ports and fishing areas
- Backup/Stand-by system for electricity and communication system.
- Empty the dam reservoirs to accommodate cyclonic water.
- Use doppler radar for close monitoring.
- Keep NDRF, armed forces and Navy on standby. Control rooms @District HQ.
- Equip them with large wood and metal cutters.
- Storage and food, drinking water, medicines and other relief material
- Toll free numbers, Ham-radio operators, satellite phones to help people.
- Andhra Pradesh Government thinking of “Green-Cess” to rebuild forest and mangroves.
- Separate insurance products for disasters, similar to agro.insurance products.
- Modi visits Visakhapatnam, did not declare Hudhud cyclone as a national calamity, only gave Rs.1k crore assistant=>juntaa angry.
- BUT There is nothing termed as ‘National Calamity’ either in the Disaster Management Act 2005 or in any other disaster management related notifications. (says Ex-Vice-Chairman of NDMA).
- Title “National calamity” doesn’t give state Government more financial assistance.
- Even Uttarakhand Tsunami (2013) wasn’t declared national calamity, only Rs.1000 crore given in interim relief.
- But afterwards, Union gave crores in indirect funding for rehabilitation. Even world bank and ADB came to help.
- So it’s a bogus misconception that if Hudhud not declared national calamity then state Government won’t get help.
- 2 way communication, even when all other communication-channels are down during disaster.
- Local, regional and global connectivity between members.
- No cost. Except initial assembly.
- If Ham-radio every 5 km=> entire Andhra Pradesh could be covered. Much more efficient handling of Hudhud.
- Even datafiles and images can be shared- IF in small size.
- India Written exam=> police verification =>license after 1 year delay. In USA its done in 3 days.
- All these precaution are laughable because terrorists buy SIM cards with much ease.
Andhra Pradesh Government done following
- setup facebook page to receive complaints about milk and petrol hoarding.
- Setup www.hudhud.ap.gov.in for damage assessment.
- Collecting destruction photos via whatsapp and facebook.
- Creating volunteer network using Facebook and Twitter
- Rallying up the college students in relief distributions.
- Army led resruce and relief ops. In Kashmir floods.
- More than 13k lives saved, 3k provided shelters.
- Army too used social media applications such as Twitter, Facebook and WhatsApp to reach out to the flood-affected people of Jammu and Kashmir
- The BSNL worked on a war footing to restore the telecom network.
- New National action plan for floods forecasting. (till now we are using program from 1953).
- A separate disaster management plan for hill states- against cloudbursts and floods.
- When water level recedes flood areas- diseases spreads. Need floating clinics, and dispose man and animal carcasses soon.
- SC says Army was doing “commendable” work but current rescue operations were too inadequate for such a huge disaster.
- Many refuse to leave their houses fearing looting by scavengers. Army’s headache increased – in delivering food-ration to such people.
- Army’s own arms-ammunitions washed away in floods. While grenades became useless but rifles can be reused by oiling.
- Court records destroyed. There was no online/cloud backup. Need judicial computerization ASAP across India.
- Defense Food Research Laboratory (DFRL), Mysore is supplying ready-to-eat (RTE) food to victims.
- Modi himself in-charge of a rescue-relief committee. Celebrated in J&K instead and gave ~750 crore. Thinking of directly sending money to victim’s bank account but Omar unhappy, wanted 44k crores.
- Kashmir willow trees = cricket bats. But flood water destroyed the Raw wood stock in factories.
- Uttarakhand state government created an mobile APP with digital mapping of Rudraprayag district. It’ll help pilgrims get weather updates and emergency contact on mobile phones. All state governments need to do similar.
|Patna Stampede||Someone shouted about fallen electric wire. Resultant stampede killed 100s. How to prevent such man-made disasters?
To clean India by 2019 on Gandhi’s 150th Birthday.
|Rural ministry||1.3 lakh cr.+|
|Urban ministry||60k.crore +|
|Corporate||CSR funding under Companies Act 2013|
|Total||~2 lakh cr.|
- First phase till Diwali- to generate mass movement
- Eradication of manual scavenging
- solid waste management- convert waste to wealth
- Build toilets
- Penalties like Singapore (although no decision yet).
- Roping in religious leader like Baba Ramdev, Sri Sri, Muslim clerics and Catholic bishops et al.
- Roping in celebrities like Salman, Sachin, Priyanka Chopra, Kamal Hasan et al.
- Lack of sanitation =>diseases=>poverty=>bogus human Development. Therefore, cleanliness campaign should be extended to include health care too.
- Most Indians are good at cleaning their surroundings and then, equally adept at dumping the refuse.
- Manual scavenging yet to be abolished on ground despite SC order.
- Must de-stigmatise the act of cleaning. (from labelling the employee as “Kachre-walla” to “safai-walla” mindset)
- Break the caste-occupation link.
- Safai Karmacharis be given permanent job and medical protection like firemen.
- Citizen vigil group.
- Total Sanitation Campaign and Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan= Decentralised, community-led strategies=> but became hardware-supply target-driven programmes => low coverage and usage. Modi must not repeat the same strategy.
- Building toilets alone will not solve the problem of sanitation. It must be kept clean otherwise no one will use.
- Schools don’t have enough funds to hire separate employees for cleaning toilets and IF students are made to do this work, Media would sensationalize it in negative manner.
- States like Kerala- after achieving high sanitation coverage – still faced poor health outcomes due to lack of treatment facilities when pits fill up. (problem of secondary issues like treatment to filled pits after constructing toilets)
- Total sanitation campaign and Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan: Government hoped it’d be “decentralized community driven program” but they became hardware-subsidy driven solutions. (i.e. financial help to build toilets). But dirty/non-functional toilets = no one uses.
- Must imbibe the behavioural change i.e. you’ve to flush the sakaari toilet after using. Need to combine Modi’s social-media followers + PR-machine with Panchayati raj leaders.
- Too many heads, lack of coordination. Potholes in roads + leftover construction material lying on roadsides=> dirty water & garbage will accumulate. But who is to be held responsible- Road contractor or safai Karmchari or Both? No proper accountability and punishment mechanism.
- Celebrity campaigning turned to Photo-opportunity. Will they regularly revisit the area to ensure its kept clean?
- Need comprehensive policy for sanitation. Perhaps a law like MNREGA, RTI and RTE to make clean toilets a “legal-right and responsibility”.
|Madrid and Barcelona||controlled pedestrianisation|
|Singapore||prohibitive litter fines.|
Effective sanitation service delivery is critical not only for health outcomes, but also for dignity, livelihoods, safety and security. Elaborate 200 words.
- Since mid-80s: “Ganga Action Plan (GAP)” but Epicfail.
- 2008: Ganga declared national river.
- 2014: Modi’s “Namami Gange” to clean Ganga by 2019.
|Yes it can be||No it can’t be|
|Ganga rejuvenation plan||By Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation|
|Ganga cleanup authority||
- Ashes can’t be immesered on shallow banks anymore.
- Flowers and coconut offerings will be mesh-trapped=> recycle=>holi colors + compost.
- No sewage pipe will have an outlet into the river.
- A Ganga Vahini Corps (ex-servicemen + NGOs) to keep vigil.
- Ganga ghats will be beautified under River Front Management.
- Programmes for afforestation, aquatic life and medical plants.
- Cleanup of Ganga and its tributaries under one umbrella.
- Ganga Manthan dialogue with stakeholders: spiritual leaders, NGOs, Policy makers, academicians, Environmentalists etc.
- Committees setup for sand mining, industrial pollution etc.
- Continue analysis of sediments and water quality.
- Focus: ‘aviral dhara’ (uninterrupted flow) and ‘nirmal dhara’ (clean flow) of Ganga.
New hydel projects must follow 3 rules:
- Minimum quantum of environmental flow
- Longitudinal river connectivity
- Aviral dhara- continuous flow from river.
- Ganga basin-5 states: industries to install emission monitoring systems.
- Border: LAC 100kms, BRO permitted
- Naxal: forest land 5ht. Convert for public buildings
- Web portal for file clearance
- GIS system forest clearance
- CAMPA bodies (compensatory afforestation), training, awareness
Criticism of fast-track
- Coal energy production increase=> environment hurt
- We need 33% forest cover but Border, Naxal area= general approval given=>forest destruction.
- Green law panel (TSR Subramanium) => further dilution
- Provided under BD act 2002.
- 1 chairman, 6 members, 1/3rd of them SC-ST-Women
- Can demand fees under Nagoya protocol for Biodiversity database assess to private companies.
- Some PRIs yet to setup these bodies. Fear erosion of authority.
- Forest mafia and officials don’t cooperate, want to rip-off all minor produce themselves.
|CSR for wildlife corridors||
|Elephant killer trains||
|Green law panel||
|Indira Paryavaran Bhavan||
- Indian standard Time = Allahabad at 82.5 degree longitude
- but if north-east India follows this timeline, they will see sunrise at 4:30 AM and sunset= ~3:30PM => their offices will have to burn tubelights to run till “office hours” end at ~5PM => higher electricity bill.
- During British Raj, Assam had a separate Chaibagan timeline. They want similar mechanism (separate timezone) from India.
- pro: planning commission- separate timeline will save a lot of energy in North East, maximum utilization of sunlight.
- anti: practical problems in coordinating schedule of railway and airlines. A committee by Department of science and technology says cost: benefit not that great.
Solar mission revamped
|Who?||Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)|
|Total||15,000 MW renewable energy by 2019, March 31.|
US-China climate deal
- Paris Conference 2015, will decide post-Kyoto framework.
- EU already announced deep emission cuts by 2025.
- Hence US-China had to announce something before Paris- to claim moral high ground and positive media-coverage, hence this treaty.
|World’s largest carbon emitter (29%)||2nd largest (15%)|
|20% of energy will be made from renewable sources viz Nuke, solar and wind.||—|
Both will cooperate in following:
- Carbon capturing and sequestration (CCS)
- Smart urbanization
- Reduce Hydroflorocarbons (HFC) use in fridge and AC.
- We hardly emit 8% of world GHG.
- Can make 18% of total electricity from renewable sources by 2030. (present 6%)
- Can’t manically pursue clean energy. If we want to achieve ~9% GDP growth rate- have to rely on the cheap coal power.
- 2x wind energy in next 5 years
- 20,000 MW Solar energy by 2020
- Doubled the clean energy cess on coal.
- 1MW solar parks on canal banks, Ultra mega solar projects
- Coal washeries, super critical coal technology
|Global Apollo program||
|Mantle plumes theory||
- This concludes the [Revision] Series for Mains-2014. No further articles in this series.
- All the revision notes are archived at Mrunal.org/UPSC#CSE-2014
- I had plans for doing revision articles on polity, IR but humanly impossible in the given time limit (just 12 days left when I write this).
- Besides majority of those topics covered neatly and indexed properly at Mrunal.org/Polity and Mrunal.org/Diplomacy respectively.
- same way History, geography at Mrunal.org/history and Mrunal.org/GEOGRAPHY.
- Best Prayers for the serious players, बाकी तो UPSC और भगवान मालिक है, बस इतना याद रहे, एक साथी और भी था.