1. Teaching Aptitude questions in UGC NET exam
    1. Nature of teaching
    2. Methods of Teaching
    3. Evaluation systems
    4. Higher education
    5. Value education
  2. Research Aptitude: MCQs and future strategy for UGC NET
    1. Ethics in research
    2. Thesis writing
  3. Communication questions & strategy for UGC NET/JRF
    1. Barriers to communication
    2. Classroom communication
    3. Types of communication

Teaching Aptitude questions in UGC NET exam

Analysis of UGC NET/JRF Paper-I

In previous exams In January-2017 NET exam
Each year minimum 6 MCQs from teaching theory and 1-2 MCQs on higher education.
  • Seven questions on education theory and one question on higher education.
  • Thinkers and theories asked e.g. Jean Piaget, Verstehen model etc.
  • No ‘thinkers’ or ‘theories’ unlike past exams, and possible to arrive at answer quickly via elimination.
  • Therefore, difficulty level- mostly easy.
  • From “Higher education” 1-2 questions.
  • Sometimes very factual e.g. how many regional offices does UGC have? Match the names of following obscure universities with their location
  • Relatively easier, because no trivial type factual Qs.

How to prepare teaching aptitude for future  UGC NET/JRF exams?

  • First three modules of IGNOU B.Ed (ES331,332,333) are sufficient to handle most of the MCQs. (Free download CLICK ME)
  • Each year ~2-3 questions from “higher education in India”. Bit of internet searching and notes making is sufficient esp. from MHRD and UGC websites.
  • Value education and open education are in syllabus but not asked regularly. And if at all they’re asked- very easy questions from common sense. Doesn’t require special preparation.

Anyways, let’s solve the MCQs asked from this topic in UGC NET/JRF exam in 2017, January.

Nature of teaching

Q) Which of the following set of statements represents acceptable propositions in respect of teaching-learning relationships? Choose the correct code to indicate your answer.

  1. When students fail in a test, it is the teacher who fails.
  2. Every teaching must aim at ensuring learning.
  3. There can be teaching without learning taking place
  4. There can be no learning without teaching.
  5. A teacher teaches but learns also
  6. Real learning implies rote learning


  1. (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v)
  2. (i), (ii), (iii) and (v)
  3. (iii), (iv), (v) and (vi)
  4. (i), (ii), (v) and (vi)

Real learning is not rote learning. So (IV) is definitely wrong, by elimination we are left with 1 and 2.
“Learning” can take place without teaching- i.e. via self-study courses, and life experiences such as failure in love and competitive exams. So, IV is wrong. Thus, we are left with answer 2.

Q) Assertion (A): Learning is a life long process.
Reason (R): Learning to be useful must be linked with life processes.
Choose the correct answer from the following code:

  1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  3. (A) is true, but (R) is false
  4. (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Both correct but R doesn’t explain A. hence answer “2”

Q) One of the most powerful factors affection teaching effectiveness is related to the

  1. Social system of the country
  2. Economic status of the society
  3. Prevailing political system
  4. Educational system

As such if there is inflation and teacher not getting sufficient salary, then teaching effectives will decline but from the given alternatives, fourth seems most appropriate.

Methods of Teaching

Q) In which teaching method learner’s participation is made optimal and proactive?

  1. Discussion method
  2. Buzz session method
  3. Brainstorming session method
  4. Project method

IGNOU B.Ed ES331 ch.8: In project work- student has an important role to play starting from planning stage to reporting stage. It provides him experiential learning. So 4 is the appropriate choice. Because he can be proactive. And optimal – because instructor is there to correct him.

Counter argument:
Discussion method is also optimal and proactive.
Counter of counter argument:  but for shy and introvert students, it may not be proactive.

Evaluation systems

Q) Assertion (A): Formative evaluation tends to accelerate the pace of learning.
Reason (R): As against summative evaluation, formative evaluation is highly reliable.
Choose the correct answer from the following code:

  1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  3. (A) is true, but (R) is false.
  4. (A) is false, but (R) is true

IGNOU B.Ed ES333 Ch.2

  • Teacher asking question during the class, giving homework etc. is “Formative evaluation”. So, yes, it’ll help accelerate the pace of learning.
  • Term-end exam at the end are “Summative evaluation”. It’s meant for assigning grades and judging effectiveness of instruction. So it’s more reliable tool for evaluation than “Formative”.

So by common sense- A is right but R is wrong.

Q) Effectiveness of teaching has to be judged in terms of

  1. Course coverage
  2. Students’ interest
  3. Learning outcomes of students
  4. Use of teaching aids in the classroom

Student’s Learning outcomes will be high, if teaching was done in effective manner. Hence 3 is most appropriate.

Higher education

Q) Which of the following are the demerits of globalization of higher education?

  1. Exposure to global curriculum
  2. Promotion of elitism in education
  3. Commodification of higher education
  4. Increase in the cost of education

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

  1. (a) and (d)
  2. (a), (c) and (d)
  3. (b), (c) and (d)
  4. (a), (b), (c) and (d)

Exposure to global curriculum can’t be said to be a ‘demerit’. So “A” is wrong and by elimination we are left with answer-3.

Q) Which of the following statements are correct about deemed universities?

  1. The Governor of the State is the chancellor of deemed universities.
  2. They can design their own syllabus and course work.
  3. They can frame their own guidelines regarding admission and fees.
  4. They can grant degrees.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

  1. (A), (B) and (C)
  2. (B), (C) and (D)
  3. (A), (C) and (D)
  4. (A), (B), (C) and (D)

Indianexpress May 2016: UGC has allowed the promotor of the deemed universities to be chancellors. So “A” is wrong. By elimination, we are left with answer-2.

Value education

Q) The purpose of value education is best served by focusing on

  1. Cultural practices prevailing in the society.
  2. Norms of conduct laid down by a social group
  3. Concern for human values
  4. Religious and moral practices and instructions.

By common sense, answer should be 3.

Research Aptitude: MCQs and future strategy for UGC NET

In previous exams In January-2017 exam
Each year minimum 6-7 MCQs from research methodology subject 7 this time.
Internal structure is like this:

  • 1-2 questions from research types.
  • 1 from research steps
  • 1-2 from data collection and sampling.
  • 1 from thesis writing.
  • They don’t regularly ask questions from “ethics” and “seminar, symposium, workshop” each time. (which is a blessing in disguise because no standard material available for it!)
  • asked about ethics
  • Did not ask about workshop-seminar.
Overall easy to moderate level difficult. same

How to prepare research methodology?

You DON’T HAVE TO read Kothari’s whole book, but do selected chapters only:

  1. Introduction…especially the diagram on page10- routinely they ask this sequence.
  2. Defining the Research Problem
  3. Research Design…Skip after topic 3.8
  4. Sampling Design.
  5. Measurement and Scaling Techniques
  6. Data Collection
  7. Data preparation…and memorize formulas for optional subject paper II and III.
  8. Descriptive statistics…only upto topic 8.1.4. and and memorize formulas for optional subject paper II and III. No need to do sum. Only formulas asked there.
  9. Sampling: do only up to sampling and non-sampling errors. (i.e. upto topic no.9.2)
  10. Testing of Hypotheses: only unto the topic “10.3 testing the hypothesis”

…SKIP Chapter 11 to 17
19.Report writing: important chapter. Especially between point 19.5 to 19.11

Anyways, let’s solve the MCQs asked in January 2017’s NET paper, from Research Methodology topic.
Types of research
Q) The principal of a school conducts an interview session of teachers and students with a view to explore the possibility of their enhanced participation in school programs. This endeavor may be related to which type of research?

  1. Evaluation Research
  2. Fundamental Research
  3. Action Research
  4. Applied Research

Action research is a systematic process of solving educational problems and making improvements. Hence 3 is most appropriate because Principal wants to ‘improve’ the participation of teachers and students. (Ref: This google book)

Steps of Research

Q) Which sequence of research steps is logical in the list given below?

  1. Problem formulation, Analysis, Development of Research design, Hypothesis making, Collection of data, Arriving at generalizations and conclusions.
  2. Development of Research design, Hypothesis making, Problem formulation, Data analysis, Arriving at conclusions and data collection.
  3. Problem formulation, Hypothesis making, Development of a Research design, Collection of a Data; Data analysis and formulation of generalizations and conclusions.
  4. Problem formulation, Deciding about the sample and data collection tools Formulation of hypothesis, Collection and interpretation of research evidence

As per the diagram given on page 10 of C.R. Kothari’s Research Methodology book, the correct sequence is

  1. Define research problem
  2. Review literature
  3. Formulate hypothesis
  4. Design the research
  5. Collect data
  6. Analyse data
  7. Interpret and report.

So from the given options, #3 is the most appropriate sequence.

Q) In doing action research what is the usual sequence of steps?

  1. Reflect, observe, plan, act
  2. Plan, act, observe, reflect
  3. Plan, reflect, observe, act
  4. Act, observe, plan, reflect

Action research includes following phases: observe, reflect, plan, act.
But there is no such option. So, if we start the loop from plan-> then it’ll be plan-act-observe-reflect.
In that case, answer choice #2 is the most appropriate. (Ref: this google book:)

Research Data collection

Q) Among the following, identify the continuous type of data:

  1. Number of languages a person speaks
  2. Number of children in a household
  3. Population of cities
  4. Weight of students in a class

From page 118 of C.R. Kothari’s Research Methodology book (3rd Ed.): Broadly there are two types of data

  1. Discrete: means they won’t have any decimal or fractional values. Only whole numbers (integers) like 15,16,22,51 lakh. So option no. 1 to 3 are of that nature.
  2. Continuous: they can have fractional and decimal values. Weight can be 55.5 kilo or 60 and 1/2 kilo. So 4 is the answer.

Research Methods
Q) Below are given two seat – research methods (Set-I) and data collection tools (Set-II). Match the two sets and indicate your answer by selecting the correct code:

Set-I Set-II
A Experimental method i Using primary and  secondary sources
B Ex post-facto method ii Questionnaire
C Descriptive survey method iii Standardized tests
D Historical method iv Typical characteristics tests

Answer codes

Codes A  B  C  D
1 ii  i  iii  iv
2 iii iv ii i
3 ii  iii  i  iv
4 ii  iv  iii i
  • In descriptive survey method- we’ve to use questionnaires (Because it’s ‘survey). So c-ii. Automatically the answer is -2. but let’s consider other sets as well:
  • Historical method- we have to use primary and secondary sources.
  • In experimental method- we can collect data in a way that permit standardized tests.
  • Unable to find any specific thing on ex post-facto method’s research tools. But all in all, 2 seems to be the appropriate choice.

Ethics in research

Q) The issue of ‘Research ethics’ may be considered pertinent at which stage of research?

  1. At the stage of problem formulation and its definition
  2. At the stage of defining the population of research
  3. At the stage of data collection and interpretation
  4. At the stage of reporting the findings.

As per this google book: Definition of “Research ethics”: it concerns with issues related to what is appropriate in conduct of research. This involves consideration of how research should treat the people who form the subjects if their investigation. So answer  either 1 or 2.

Thesis writing

Q) In which of the following, reporting format is formally prescribed?

  1. Doctoral level thesis
  2. Conference of researchers
  3. Workshops and seminars
  4. Symposia

In doctoral level thesis, the reporting format is formally prescribed. C.R.Kothari’s entire chapter no. 19 is devoted to this. Hence answer is 1.

Communication questions & strategy for UGC NET/JRF

In previous UGC-NET/JRF exams This time in January 2017
Each time, they’d ask 6 MCQs from communication topic. No changes in that pattern.
Earlier, they would stretch it ‘mass communication’ and ask GK questions like

  • Barkha Dutt is anchor of which channel
  • what is the motto of Hindustantimes,
  • when was All India radio established etc.
  • Which TV channel showed xyz EXIT poll
thankfully now the examiner has confined to “classroom communication” related MCQ only.
The communication MCQs in August 2016 paper was quite easier This time communication MCQs far tougher and unusual. Not given in the standard books, not coming in the routine reading.

How to prepare communication topic for future exams?

  • Basic theory can be done from NIOS’s Mass communication material [click me for free download].
  • In past, if a person prepared for UPSC civil services, he could automatically clear SSC and bank exams without separate preparation. But in recent years both SSC and IBPS(Bank) exams have differentiated themselves in such manner that even SSC topper may have difficulty clearing IBPS and vice-versa. Because in SSC- trigonometry and quadratic equations asked- which is not in IBPS, and in IBPS high level DI and syllogism asked which is not in SSC.
  • Same trend is being followed by the UGC-NET these days.
  • They want to reduce the edge enjoyed by UPSC/SSC/State-PCS Coaching-walla candidates against those ordinary college students purely interested in research fellows and assistant professors jobs.
  • Hence UGC asking these tough / abstract MCQs from research, teaching and communication- to differential itself from the ordinary competitive exams [and therefore, the readymade guidebooks for UGC-NET are becoming less useful than in the past)
  • Still, the cost benefit for chasing Masscomm GK / abstract theory is bad. Because, there is no single book or source from where majority of the question can be solved. It’s better invest time and energy in reasoning, data interpretation and ICT topics.

Anyways, let’s solve the communication MCQs asked in January 2017’s UGC NET paper1.

Barriers to communication

Q) When verbal and non-verbal messages are contradictory, it is that most people believe in

  1. Indeterminate messages
  2. Verbal messages
  3. Non-verbal messages
  4. Aggressive messages

When A person says “Everything is okay” but her face shows frustration – is revealing contradictory verbal and non-verbal cues. When such contradiction exists, we typical believe the non-verbal cues more than the verbal message. (Ref  this google book)

Classroom communication

Q) The typical feature of information-rich classroom lecture is in the nature of being

  1. Sedentary
  2. Staggered
  3. Factual
  4. Sectoral

An information rich lecture is supposed to prompt the student make notes recording keydata, facts and people (names and dates) with a view to reading up on these later.
So accordingly, 3 is the most appropriate choice. (Ref: This google book)

Q) Positive classroom communication leads to

  1. Coercion
  2. Submission
  3. Confrontation
  4. Persuasion

Since term no. 1 to 3 denote negative things, 4 seems to be the appropriate outcome.

Q) Classroom communication is the basis of

  1. Social identity
  2. External inanities
  3. Biased passivity
  4. Group aggression

Unable to find a strong reference for this. Or maybe I’m not looking at the right source. Seems these uncle-ji professors are framing questions from their own unpublished and unsubstantiated research papers (ghost-written by their research students). This is becoming ridiculous as UPSC’s art and culture Prelim-MCQs Agrahatta and Pattakilla– which are also asked from God knows where.

Types of communication

Q) Expressive communication is driven by

  1. Passive aggression
  2. Encoder’s personality characteristics
  3. External clues
  4. Encoder-decoder contract

In expressive communication, we always reveal every gut feeling, do our own thing, do what comes naturally and are totally honest without considering the consequences to others in the situation .
Accordingly, “2” seems to be the appropriate choice. (Ref: this google book)

Q) Effective communication pre-supposes

  1. Non-alignment
  2. Domination
  3. Passivity
  4. Understanding

This Google book lists the presuppositions for effective communication

  1. Resect other person’s model of world because your interpretation of reality may be quite similar to or differ from the recipient. So this hints at #4: understanding.
  2. Person with most flexibility of behavior will have most influence. Does it mean non-alignment?

But, Difficult to conclusively say- may be 1 or may be 4.
Any corrections in the Answerkey? Do post in the comments but with authentic reference and explanations.
Visit Mrunal.org/UGC for more study material and solved papers for UGC-NET / JRF exam.