[Model Ans in हिंदी & English] UPSC GSM3-2019/Q8: Contributions of Sir M.Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan

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  1. Question from Mains-2019: Visvesvaraya and Swaminathan
  2. Related questions in the past
  3. Body1: Visvesvaraya and Water Engineering
  4. Body2: Swaminathan and Agriculture Science
  5. Mistakes in Visvesvaraya Swaminathan Answer
  6. Model Answer in Hindi: Visvesvaraya & Swaminathan

Question from Mains-2019: Visvesvaraya and Swaminathan

  • Syllabus Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Q. How was India benefited from the contributions of Sir M.Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively?
  • जल इंजीनियरी और कृषि-विज्ञान के क्षेत्रों में क्रमश: सर एम. विश्वेश्वरैया  और  डॉ. एम. एस. स्वामीनाथन के योगदानों से भारत को किस प्रकार लाभ पहुंचा था ?
  • 10 marks, 150 words. Asked in UPSC Mains General Studies Mains Paper3 (GSM3) 2019.

Related questions in the past

  • Last year they had asked about the contribution of an individual Indian scientist.
  • GSM/2018: Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics‘ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics.

Contributions of Sir M. Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan

Body1: Visvesvaraya and Water Engineering

  • Every year India celebrates Engineer’s Day on September 15, the birth anniversary of Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, the engineering pioneer of India.
  • He was chief engineer of the Krishna Raja Sagara Dam project in Mysore,
  • He invented automated doors that regulate the water overflows from dam. He patented the floodgates.
  • These inventions improved dam design, irrigation facilities in India, also saved thousands of people from ravaging floods, especially in Hyderabad, Mysore, Maharashtra and Odisha. 
  • In 1955, M. Visvesvaraya was awarded ‘Bharat Ratna’ for his exceptional contribution to the water engineering of India.

Body2: Swaminathan and Agriculture Science

  • In 1960, when India was facing mass shortages of food, M S Swaminathan along with Norman Borlaug and other scientists developed the HYV (high yielding variety) of wheat and rice and introduced to farmers under the “Green Revolution”. It helped making India self sufficient in food grains.
  • As the director general of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), he also mentored Young agri scientist and expanded the network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras.
  • He has been awarded Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan for his services.

This is a 150 word question requiring too short notes on two individual scientist. So, a well thoughtout introduction and conclusion is not required as such.

Mistakes in Visvesvaraya Swaminathan Answer

  • Negativism is not required that “sadly we have not been able to produce more such great scientist after their death, presently, there is a brain drain of talented scientist from India.” or that “Green revolution resulted into excessive use of chemical fertilizers which harmed our soil and environment.”
  • Type: Fact-based theory Q. Because these persons’ achievements are older than 3 decades.
  • Difficulty Level: Medium. While every serious aspirant knows about Swaminathan and Visvesvaraya but they may not have enough content to fill 150 words with specific key terms. So, majority of the candidates would have written vague answers around green revolution and dam construction.
  • Expected Score: 4/> out of 10.

Model Answer in Hindi: Visvesvaraya & Swaminathan

विश्वेश्वरैया एवं जल इंजीनियरिंग

  • भारत के इंजीनियरिंग अग्रणी मोक्षगुंडम विश्वेश्वरैया की जयंती पर प्रति वर्ष 15 सितंबर को अभियंता दिवस के रूप मनाया जाता है।
  • वे मैसूर में कृष्णा राजा सागर बांध परियोजना के मुख्य अभियंता थे |
  • उन्होंने बांध से पानी के बहाव को नियंत्रित करने वाले स्वचालित दरवाजों का आविष्कार किया।
  • उन्होंने बाढ़द्वारों का पेटेंट कराया था।
  • इन आविष्कारों ने भारत में बांध की बनावट एवं सिंचाई की सुविधाओं में सुधार किया, साथ ही हैदराबाद, मैसूर, महाराष्ट्र और ओडिशा में हजारों लोगों को बाढ़ से बचाया गया|
  • 1955 में, एम. विश्वेश्वरैया को भारत के जल इंजीनियरिंग के क्षेत्र में उनके असाधारण योगदान के लिए ‘भारत रत्न’ से सम्मानित किया गया।

स्वामीनाथन एवं कृषि विज्ञान

  • 1960 में, जब भारत अनाज की भारी कमी का सामना कर रहा था तब, नॉर्मन बोरलॉग एवं अन्य वैज्ञानिकों के साथ एम. एस. स्वामीनाथन ने गेहूं और चावल की  अधिक उपज देने वाली किस्म विकसित की एवं  “हरित क्रांति” से किसानों का परिचय करवाया | इसने भारत को खाद्यान्न में आत्मनिर्भर बनाने में मदद की।
  • भारतीय कृषि अनुसंधान परिषद के महानिदेशक के रूप में, उन्होंने युवा कृषि वैज्ञानिको का भी मार्गदर्शन किया और कृषि विज्ञान केंद्रों के नेटवर्क का विस्तार किया।
  • उन्हें उनकी सेवाओं के लिए पद्म श्री और पद्म भूषण से सम्मानित किया गया है।

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