1. Mains GS Papers Topicwise from 2013-2022
  2. Mrunal’s Model Answers for UPSC GSM-2020 Paper
  3. Mains GS Paper1: History, Social Science, Geography
  4. Mains GS Paper2: Polity, Governance,International Relation
  5. Mains GS Paper3: Economy, Environment, Sci-Tech, Internal Security
  6. Mains GS Paper4: Ethics, Integrity, Attitude

Mains GS and Essay Papers Topicwise from 2013-2022

Mains GS Paper1: History, Social Science, Geography

  • Indian culture covers the salient features of Literature, Art Forms, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history include the significant events, personalities, issues during the middle of the eighteenth century until the present
  • Various stages and important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country
  • History of the world includes events, forms and effect on the society from 18th century like world wars, industrial revolution, colonization, redrawal of national boundaries, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc
  • Salient aspects of Diversity of India and Indian Society
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and remedies
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world including India
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes

Mains GS Paper2: Polity, Governance,International Relation

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
  • Health, Education, Human Resources
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
  • Role of civil services in a democracy
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • India and its neighborhood- relations
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora
  1. [Full Length Mock] UPSC Mains GS2: Set#1 with model Answerkey: SC guidelines on Section 498-A
  2. [Economy/GSM2] Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) vs WTO: MFN-Forward, Standstill & Ratchet, India’s stand, with Model Answers in Hindi & English
  3. [AW/GSM2] Art of Answer writing: Uniform Civil Code (UCC)- 3 Mock Questions & Model Answers in Hindi & English
  4. [AW/GSM2] Art of Answer writing: Regulatory Bodies autonomy & independence: Model Answers in English & Hindi
  5. Lecture/GS2: Natural Fiber Textiles vs SDG; Bulk Drugs & API Industry- Govt Policies
  6. Lecture/GSM2: Polity- Referendum in India? Lessons from BREXIT, Columbia & Scotland
  7. Lecture/GSM2: Polity- Refugee & Asylum Framework in India? Lessons from EU-Refugee Crisis
  8. Lecture/GSM2: Polity- Parliamentary Secretary, Office of Profit: Constitutional origins?
  9. Lecture/GSM2: Polity- Directly Elected Mayor system in ULBs, Private Member’s Bill- merits of
  10. Lecture/GSM2: Polity- Regulatory Bodies: Algo-Trading vs SEBI, MCI vs NMC?

Mains GS Paper3: Economy, Environment, Sci-Tech, Internal Security

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology;
  • Indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  1. [AW/GSM3] Internal Security: Preventing Lone Wolf & Hate Speech on Social Media: Mock Questions with Model Answer Writing
  2. [GSM3/Disasters] Human Stampede Prevention, Role of Science Tech (GSM3) & Code for Media (GSM4) With Model Answer Writing
  3. [AW/GSM3] Economy: Give Fiscal stimulus for 6-Quarter GDP dip & GST troubles of MSME/Small Traders? Critically Examine. Model Answer Included
  4. [Economy] WTO Buenos Aires Summit #EPICFAIL: Model Answers for UPSC Mains GS2 & GS3
  5. [AW/GSM3] Carbon Imperialism vs Economic Cost of Renewable Energy vs Social Cost of Thermal Powerplants: Model Answers in Hindi & English
  6. [Summary] Economy#4A: Agriculture Credit & Inputs (Part 1/3) for Descriptive Exams gist of Survey Vol1&2, NITI 3YRs & SDG30
  7. [Summary] Economy#4A: Agriculture Extension & Research, GM Crops (Part 2/3) for Descriptive Exams gist of Survey Vol1&2, NITI 3YRs & SDG30
  8. [Summary] Economy#4A: Agriculture Output Selling (3/3): Price Deficiency Payment (PDP), MSP, APMC & Food Management gist of Survey Vol1&2, NITI 3YRs & SDG30
  9. [AW/GSM3] Tomato Inflation, Organic Farming, Pulses Inflation: Mock Questions & Model Answer Writing for UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam
  10. [AW/GSM3] Art of Answer writing: Minor Forest Produce (MFP) significance & challenges for Tribal economy: Model Answers in English & Hindi
  11. [Economy] GSM3: New Metro Rail Policy 2017: Investment Models, PPP vs EPC, DFBOT, VGF with Model Answers in Hindi & English
  12. Lecture/Rao forGSM3: Rao’s Economic Reforms, Impact of Liberalization & industrial Policy
  13. Lecture/GSM3- SENDAI Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction & India’s updated NDM Plan 2016
  14. Lecture/GSM3: Pollution- Kigali Amendment, India- a Rejectionist Power in SDG, Paris, ICAO?
  15. Lecture/GSM3/Agri: Pulses inflation: Arvind Subramanian report, PPP procurement, higher MSP, DBT?
  16. Lecture/GSM3/Agri: GM Mustard, DMH-11 Hybrid should we adopt in India? GEAC report? Cartagena Protocol?
  17. Lecture/GSM3/Budgeting: Why Plan-Non plan merger? Is Revenue-Capital classification sufficient?
  18. Lecture/GSM3/Budgeting: Why Budget advanced to 1st February? Merits, Rationale, Summary
  19. Lecture/GSM3/Budgeting: Why change Financial Year of India instead of 1st April-31st March?
  20. Lecture/GSM3/Economy: GST-Proposed Framework, Benefits, Challenges- Summary
  21. Lecture/GSM3/Poverty: UBI- Universal Basic Income for Indian Poor: Benefits, Challenges- Summary

Mains GS Paper4: Ethics, Integrity, Attitude

This paper includes questions to check the candidate’s’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his/her problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him/her while dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects and covers area:

  • Ethics and Human Interface- Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships
  • Human Values- lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values
  • Attitude- content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration- Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance
  • Probity in Governance- Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information; sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption
  • Case Studies on above issues.
  1. [Download] ALL UPSC GSM4 Question Papers (Topicwise) from 2013-22 with Analysis & Future Strategy
  2. [Full Length Mock] UPSC Mains GS4: Set#1 Ethics, Integrity, Aptitude incl. Case Studies on Blue Whale Game, Gender Equality, Artistic Freedom
  3. [Full Length Mock] UPSC Mains GS4: Set#2- Ethics, Integrity, Aptitude with case study on recruitment, Ostracism, Friendship & More
  4. [AW/GSM4] Art of Answer writing: Transparency of Rules Act (TORA) vs RTI vs Citizen Charter for Transparency, Accountability & Good Governance
  5. Lecture/Rao forGS3&4: LPG Legacy= Growth NOT Redistributed? Crisis Mgmt using Kautilya?
  6. FREE Complete Lecture Series on Ethics by UPSC Topper Kavan Limbasiya (IRS)
  7. More Case Studies and Articles