Mrunal’s Daily Current Affairs-UPSC-May-21-2021: CoviSelf Kit, Notified disease, Cecil Rhodes, Citizen fact-finding committee

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Polity⚖️

  • (GSM2) Role of civil society: Citizen fact-finding committees. 1) They were set up even before the the Independence example- Gandhiji took help of the volunteers recorded the statement of Champaran Indigo farmers (1917) and their expectations by the European cultivators → submitted to Lieutenant Governor of Bihar, Sir Edward Gait → he set up a formal enquiry committee with Gandhi as one of its members. 2) After the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919): British government setup William Hunter Commission. But Indians were dissatisfied with his report so Congress set up its own fact-finding committee. 3) After independence, Citizens from their fact-finding committee to expose the fake-encounter killings during the naxal movement And emergency (1970s), Mumbai riots after the Babri Masjid demolition (90s). Benefits? 1) citizen groups conducting enquiries and publishing reports =⏫ democratic and legal consciousness. Helps bringing the truth. 2) They are not taking the law into their hands or encouraging vigilante justice. 3) cost-effective, rapidly mobilised, and encouraged civic participation. Challenges? 1) Sometimes they are conducted with vested interest. Activist first starts a campaign → Joint politics. 2) They do not have the the training like police officers for judges to investigate and analyse the evidence In a professional and scientific manner 3) They are self-constituted without any backing of government /law/regulations. So it is an extra constitutional parallel judicial system. They may not contain voices of all the people in the region / affected by the issue. 4) Anti-CAA riots in Delhi (2020): Various fact finding Committees/reports by citizen groups. But, the Solicitor-General of India Opposed their reports in the Delhi High Court. Victims should go to competent authority= police / courts to seek justice, and not to such informal “Fact finding committees”. नागरिकों द्वारा बिना संविधान या कानून अनुमति के बनाई गई अनौपचारिक तथ्य खोज समितियां- आजादी से पहले भी वही थी जैसे चंपारण में गांधीजी की समिति, जलियांवाला बाग के बाद कांग्रेस की समिति, आजादी के बाद भी नक्सलवाद, फर्जी एनकाउंटर, बाबरी मस्जिद के बाद हुए मुंबई दंगे, इत्यादि पर ऐसी तथ्य खुद समितियां बनी है. फायदे- इससे नागरिकों में चेतना बढ़ती है, सच्चाई सामने आती है, शांतिपूर्वक वे अपनी समस्याएं सरकार मीडिया व अदालतों के समक्ष पेश कर सकते हैं. जनभागीदारी बढ़ती है. नुकसान/चुनौतियां/विपक्ष में तर्क: तथ्य को समिति सदस्यों को पुलिस और न्यायाधीशों की तरह पेशेवर तालीम नहीं मिली होती कि कैसे तथ्यों/सबूतों को देखा जाए जांच आ जाए. यह जरूरी नहीं कि उस इलाके के सभी लोगों की आवाज/ प्रतिनिधित्व ऐसी समिति में हो. सॉलिसिटर जनरल ने भी दिल्ली हाईकोर्ट में नागरिकता संशोधन कानून के विरोध में हुए दंगों के बाद बनी इस प्रकार की समितियों के विरोध में मंतव्य पेश किया है.
  • Economy?

  • Income Tax existing website www.incometaxindiaefiling. gov.in to be replaced with new www.incometax.gov.in
  • Central Board of Direct taxes extends the deadline to file income tax returns (ITR) till September 30, due to a Corona second wave. कोरोना संक्रमण की दूसरी लहर के चलते आयकर फॉर्म भरने की तारीख को पीछे धकेला गया है
  • Thatcherism: British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1980s) Started selling various Government companies under British Railways. Then next British Prime Minister John Major (1990s) privatised the British Railways. 2021: British government now plans to Put the railway network under government control. A new Great British Railways organization will own All the railway tracks and infrastructure. It will run a single website for booking of the tickets and setting the time table. Private companies can continue to operate the Railways but under the aegis/directives of this Government organisation. 80 और 90 के शतक में ब्रिटिश सरकार द्वारा रेलवे का निजीकरण किया गया हालांकि अब वापस भी सोच रहे हैं कि एक सरकारी संस्था बनाकर रेलवे की पटरिया/समय तालिका/टिकट बिक्री की प्रक्रिया सरकार के नियंत्रण में रहे. हालांकि सरकारी रेलवे पटरी पर निजी क्षेत्र की रेलवे को चलने दिया जाएगा.
  • Science?

  • 2020: Corona self-test kit was first approved in the US, Europe, S. Korea. 2021: CoviSelf= India’s first home-based, self-use rapid antigen test for Covid-19 by MyLab Discovery Solutions company. Approved by INDIAN Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Can be bought without a prescription from pharmacies and online. Test will require the user to download an app on their mobile phone, but will not need a healthcare professional to collect a swab sample. Sample taken using a nasal swab (not the deep nasopharyngeal swab) to reduce the discomfort. CoviSelf will provide results in 15 minutes. ?Benefit? 1) This self-testing kit cost Rs 250. Much cheaper than RT-PCR test costs (Rs 400 to Rs 1,500), rapid antigen test in laboratory (Rs 300- 900). 2) Rapid result. Self Testing. Presently the labs are burdened with so many samples they are unable to give the result in time. ?Challenges/criticism? 1) Results may not be reliable. Because inexperienced persons may collect the sample incorrectly. If the low viral load in the body at the time of the sampling, then also false negative. 2) Rapid antigen tests sometimes give false negatives. 3) If a Covid-infected person is asymptomatic and tests negative, the he’ll get a false sense of security, will not wear mask and infect other people. 4) If person gives wrong address in the mobile app then health workers will have difficulty in contact tracing. घर बैठे स्वयं जान सके कि आपको कोरोना संक्रमण हुआ है कि नहीं -उसके लिए कोविसेल्फ़ नामक कीट-आईसीएमआर ने मंजूरी/अनुमति दी है. परंपरागत टेस्ट से यह ज्यादा सस्ता है. जल्दी से परिणाम देता है. हालांकि, यदि व्यक्ति सही तरीके से सैंपल नहीं लेता तो भले वो कोरोनावायरस लेकिन टेस्ट से पता नहीं चलेगा. यदि वह झूठा नाम पता मोबाइल ऐप में लिखेगा तो स्वास्थ्य कर्मी उसे ढूंढ नहीं पाएंगे- इत्यादि चुनौतियां.
  • Corona transmission: Indian government advisory 1) Droplets coming from the nose/mouth of Infected person can travel up to two metres. 2) Aerosols Could travel up to 10 metres. 3) Surface transmission: Touching objects touched by infected person= Less chances of transmission compared to droplet/aerosol. 4) people should keep their indoor spaces well- ventilated,by keeping doors and windows open. Otherwise the virus aerosol will get Concentrated in in small space and increase the chances of infection. कोरोना संक्रमित मरीज के मुंह और नाक से निकली बूंदे 2 मीटर तक फैलती है जबकि हवा में उड़ रहे एरोसॉल्स के द्वारा वायरस 10 मीटर तक फैलता है. किसी सतह पर छूने से वायरस फैलने का डर पहले ज्यादा था हालांकि बाद में विविध परीक्षणों से यह कम पाया गया है. घर की बंद हवा में वायरस की मात्रा को बढ़ने से रोकने के लिए खिड़की दरवाजे खुले रखने की सरकार ने सूचना दी है The Health Ministry declared Mucormycosis (black fungus infection) as a “notified disease’ under Epidemic Diseases Act. Implications 1) Mandatory for states to report Each and every case to the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP). 2) Other examples of notified disease – cholera, leprosy, plague, TB and AIDS. अधिसूचित रोग- यदि केंद्र सरकार किसी बीमारी को “अधिसूचित” घोषित करता है तो फिर राज्य सरकारों के लिए अनिवार्य होगा कि ऐसे हर एक केस का डाटा केंद्र के साथ साझा करें.
  • Microsoft will stop the Internet Explorer browser from 2022. It’ll be replaced by Microsoft’s “Edge” browser
  • Ethics GSM4☯️

  • Gender stereotypes: Lego Toy company has announced it will produce 11 new toys with individual hairstyle and has no specific gender. So, children can decide who they want the toy to be – male/female/LGBTQ. otherwise, Children are pushed into strictly-gendered categories — girls are supposed to wear pink and play with dolls, boys should love race cars and the colour blue. No one’s allowed to cross over from one category to the other, Hence child is subjected to ridicule by people e.g. boy playing with dolls. लिंग संबंधी रूढ़ियां कम करने के लिए तथा समलैंगिकों की समाज में स्वीकृति बढ़ाने के लिए लीगो खिलौना कंपनी ने 11 नए खिलौने बनाए जिनको कोई लिंग नहीं दिया गया. यह खेलने वाले बच्चे पर निर्भर करेगा कि वह किस प्रकार की कल्पना के साथ उसे खेलना चाहता है.
  • Cancel Culture: Cecil Rhodes was an 18th century British mining tycoon and politician. He had mining operations in South Africa. Rhodesia region named after him. he vigorously supported imperialism and colonisation. He provided funds for Rhodes scholarship in Oxford University. Consequently his statue is placed in the Oxford University. Now activists are demanding its removal. Oxford University said 1) Removal Of the statue will create financial challenges. 2) We will prefer to focus our time and energy one more important issues. सेसिल रोड्स नामक एक ब्रिटिश उद्योगपति जो हमेशा ब्रिटिश हुकूमत की साम्राज्यवाद और उपनिवेशवाद की तरफदारी और वकालत करता था. ऑक्सफोर्ड यूनिवर्सिटी/विश्वविद्यालय में छात्रवृत्ति भी देता था. विश्वविद्यालय में स्थित उसकी मूर्ति को हटाने की मांग कुछ आंदोलनकारी कर रहे थे किंतु विश्वविद्यालय ने बताया मूर्ति को हटाने में भी वित्तीय समस्याएं हैं, तथा विश्वविद्यालय प्रशासन अपना समय और ऊर्जा इससे ज्यादा महत्वपूर्ण चीजों में इस्तेमाल करना पसंद करेगा.
  • PIN-GK?️

  • Death: Former Rajasthan Chief Minister Jagannath Pahadia, the first Dalit CM of Rajasthan.
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