• Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s Green hydrogen mission:
  • 1) 125 GW by 2030.
  • 2) ₹8 lakh crore in total investments and will result in creation of over 6 lakh clean jobs.
  • 3) Replacing fossil fuels with Green Hydrogen in hard-to-abate sectors like steel, heavy trucks, shipping, etc.
Type of Hydrogen Produced from
Grey Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels
Blue Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage options
Green Hydrogen produced using electrolysers powered by renewable power sources

Polity- Freedom of Speech against Pvt Citizens

Polity- Freedom of Speech against Pvt Citizens

vertical and horizontal application of fundamental rights Art 19

Matter Vertical Approach Horizontal Approach
Can citizen file complain against pollution harming his ‘right to life’? Yes he can file against State/Govt Yes he can file against a pvt company/individual
Untouchability, Bonded Labour, human trafficking Yes Yes
Can citizen file complain for ‘freedom of speech’ Yes against Government. Yes against pvt companies e.g. Kangna vs Twitter^^^
  • ^^^previously, there was confusion about this (^^^) mater. So now, supreme court gave the clarity.
  • In other words: freedom of speech available to both against Government and against other private citizen/orgs.


BIND Scheme

  • EcoPil5-INFRA: Broadcasting Infrastructure and Network Development (BIND)
  • it is a scheme by the Ministry of information and broadcasting to
  • 1) expand coverage of All India Radio’s FM channels to more than 80 per cent of the population,
  • 2) distribute 8 lakh DD Free Dish DTH set-top boxes (DTBs) to people living in remote areas
  • 3) to develop high-quality content for both domestic and international viewers
  • 4) Purchase of OB (outside broadcast) news vans and upgrade of DD and AIR studios to make them HD-ready.
  • Benefits:
  • 1) combat terrorist-naxalite propoganda
  • 2) Global soft power image like BBC-UK

Merger of Film Bodies

  • EcoPil5-INFRA: Broadcasting: Merger of bodies: BEFORE Ministry of information and broadcasting had following bodies:
1) Films Division
2) National Film Archives of India
3) Children’s Film Society of India
4) National Film Development Corporation.
Body number 123 are merged into #4.
So only National Film Development Corporation.

However, Critics argue this cost saving exercise will not help the amateur movie industry who get funding/subsidy from Government.

Demographic issues

  • EcoPill6: HRD/Population: Japanese government is offering young families in Tokyo 1 million yen (about $7,600) per child to move to the hinterland. Reason: 1) over congestion in Tokyo 2) need for workers in rural areas due to ageing population. But not many Tokyo citizens are interested to move away because they like the glamour, variety and freedom of city life

Environment/Pollution: Heat Dome

  • A heat dome occurs when an area of high-pressure traps warm air over a region, just like a lid on a pot, for an extended period of time.
  • The longer that air remains trapped, the more the sun works to heat the air, producing warmer conditions with every passing day.
  • Heat domes generally stay for a few days but sometimes they can extend up to weeks.
  • Topic in news because of this problem in Europe.

Ethics : attitude towards women

  • Case Study#1: Drunk man urinated over woman in Airplane. Airline staff didn’t do enough to help/stop. What will you do as DGCA to prevent reoccurrence
  • Case Study#2: attitude towards women: Woman accuses CISF of strip-searching her, creates social media outcry. CISF say we only asked her to remove jacket for metal detector. as CISF Commandant, how will you resolve?

Quote: I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. — Evelyn Beatrice Hall

History/Culture: Missing monuments

Due to urbanisation / encroachment 50 centrally protected monuments went missing such as –

Missing Monument State
Guns of Emperor Sher Shah, Tinsukia Assam
Ruins of Copper Temple, Paya, Lohit Arunachal Pradesh
Kos Minar, Mujesar, Faridabad Haryana
Kutumbari Temple, Dwarahat, Almora Uttarakhand
Rock Inscription, Satna Madhya Pradesh
Old European Tomb, Pune Maharashtra
12th Century Temple, Baran Rajasthan
Telia Nala Buddhist ruins, Varanasi UP
  • History/Culture: West Bengal government demands national status for Gangasagar Mela