- Cotton and textile industry
- Climate factors
- Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Osaka, Japan Industry
- Ahmedabad, Gujarat
- Coimbatore, Tamilnadu
- Manchester & Lancashire industry
- American cotton industry
- Chinese textile industry: Shanghai
In the previous article, we saw the factors responsible for location of Lumber, Paper Pulp and Fishing industry (click me). Now let’s check some industries based on natural fibers.
Cotton and textile industry
- Cotton as a raw material=lightweight, non-perishable.
- Cotton to yarn/textile =hardly any weightloss.
- Therefore, proximity to raw material site=not essential, doesn’t offer great cost-saving in transportation. (unlike sugar, cement or steel industry)
- Result=other factors become more important in industrial location viz.
- nearness to market
- nearness to waterbody (for dyeing, bleaching)
- Energy to run powerlooms and textile machines
- cheap labour supply
- availability of capital/finance
Climate as factor
- In dry climate, the cotton-threads will break quickly during spinning. Machine halts, you’ve to join the threads again to restart operation=not good for mass production.
- on the other hand, humid climate= thread will rarely break. So, cotton textiles were setup near costal areas. (e.g. Mumbai, Osaka, Lancashire).
- Today we’ve humidifiers that can artificially increase the air-moisture in factory/workshed= you can setup factory anywhere, run it efficiently, irrespective of climate outside.
Anyways, let’s examine from desi-videsi cotton industries
let’s look @some more cotton mills
Although in the 80s, most of the Ahmedabad mills fell sick and closed down. Industry shifted towards Surat-Khambhat region of Gujarat.
Manchester & Lancashire industry
|Climate||moist Westerlies =humidity=threads don’t break|
|Raw Material||Cheap Cotton from its colonies (India, Egypt).|
|Water||Streams from Pennine hills=soft water for dying bleaching.|
|Labor||By 1600 production of a fabric called “fustian” started in England.
Fustian makers settled in this region because humidity helps in cotton spinning.
|Market||Demand in Europe + Lancashire faces American ports.|
The decline of British Textile Biz.
- After WW2, Britain lost its colonies one by one, dirt cheap cotton=no longer available.
- during 20th century cheaper imports from Hong Kong, Japan and other parts of Asia. Even the former colonies of Britain also started using those cheaper clothes, so Lancashire=no longer receiving large orders.
- Business moving towards coastal areas for better opportunities in shipbuilding, marine engineering, soap, heavy chemicals industries.
- Hence, Textile industry fading away, old factories are refitted for production of light-engineering items. (Reason? = industrial inertia, we will see that in Iron-steel industry article later on.).
American cotton industries
|New England region||Cotton belt in south|
|6 States located in the North East corner of US||North Carolina, South Carolina ,Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi. Include parts of Texas and California.|
|Proximity to Boston and New York= ports and domestic market.||large cotton growing areas: US cotton belt is 1200+kms broad and 4000+kms wide.|
Chinese textile industry: Shanghai
Observe the map and think about the factors that are helping Shanghai
|Factor||How does it help?|
|Climate||port city=humid=threads don’t break|
|Raw Material||Yangtze-kiang delta=good for cotton cultivation|
|Water+ Energy||Yangtze river|
|Labor||of course available|
Apart from Shanghai, Cotton also produced in the areas around Hwang-Ho valley, Sichuan, Nanjing, Beijing and thanks to labor availability (and domestic demand), textile industry is found in those places as well.
In the Next article, we’ll see the factors affecting location of Silk Industry.
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respected mrunal sir,
i have one doubt, “why the establishment of cotton industry near to its raw material site, not saving too much transportation cost.” i am not able to find out the logic with the factor “weight loss”. can you give some more light on it
Dhanyawad MRUNA bHAI
Dhanyawad MRUNAL bHAI
its urgent please help bhai log!i am not able to open any pdf in egyankosh for the last week,can any body help?
upsc declared csat date as 24-08-2014 is they going online
respected mrunal sir,
in the article, the statistic from central silk boards= shows the nation contribution in “cotton prod. “,,
is it same for the “silk production”. if it is not please provide the statistic of “contributions from nations in silk sector”. .
Hi mrunal !
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as upsc will take csat 2014 in august are they going to change age- means instead of august, 1984 will they keep it sept, oct or directly jan. 1985. plz tell me this is my last attempt coz my dob is 23 oct. 1984
since prelims in 2014 is on 24 august,is it possible that upsc can change date of birth criteria to 1 october instead of 1 august..i am worried as that will be my last attempt as my date of birth is 28th september 1984,kindly reply
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You are really working very hard. Can you please tell how could we prepare the topic ” changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.”
I have gone through ncert but getting very diverse information
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can u discuss 1st topic of geo,sailent features of world physical
Very good job done sir! Hail u!
sir , i just wanted to know that in UPSC civil service exam ……….being geography as an optional ……..in case of location factors of industries we do not need to concentrate on other countries industries as it is not incorporated in syllabus …….but then too you included in the above articles i am little bit confuse about this stuff could you please clear my doubt . I mean to say is it necessary to read the location factors of those stuffs around the world or at least developed countries???????????
kindly reply sir
Great Insight Mrunal Sir!!
it will be nice if you give us a pdf version of this article.
In the article, nearness to raw material has been mentioned as a non essential factor. However it is also shown that big cotton industries or regions developed in locations near to raw material availability.
Just to clarify whether nearness to raw material availability is a essential factor in setting up of cotton industry or not.
This is the link of world market share of countries
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Very interesting to read………
It is becuase for cotton textile,raw material is needed in abundance,thus mostly located near the cotton growing regions.
Requirement of raw material in abundance, and lowering transport cost are two different things.