[Location Factors] Wheat, Corn industry in USA, China, Canada

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  1. Prologue
  2. Wheat: Prairies, Canada
  3. Rice: China
  4. USA corn & livestock belt
  5. Corn Belt: Geographical Factors

Prologue

So far under the [Location Factor] article series, we’ve see timber, paper-pulp, fish, wool, cotton, textile, silk and jute industry.

  • Now let’s take a look at wheat, corn, rice, milk, meat, vegetables and wine. Since UPSC syllabus contains separate topic of Indian agriculture, I’m not dwelling much into Indian food crops: wheat, corn, rice or food processing here.
  • This article contain lot of place-names from USA. Because books mainly use American dairy-meat industry to explain the “location factors”. To get a better grasp over the topic, keep refering to American map simultanously while reading the article. click me for a large political map of USA
  • Disclaimer as usual: I haven’t bothered much to dig internet, this is mere compilation of wisdom, a few big examples from books. It is your job to dig further as and where necessary.

Wheat: Prairies, Canada

Factor Impact
Soil
  • The prairies = temperate grasslands. centuries of grass rotting has produced fertile soil
  • high phosphorus content= good for wheat
  • topography suitable for wheat cultivation because wheat cannot tolerate stagnant water
  • Flat terrain= machines can be employed @every production stage (=useful because population is scarce=laborers hard to find, and expensive to hire, unlike Asia).
Land Holding
  • in the early days of colonization, land was abundant in the Canadian prairies
  • European settlers seized opportunity, bought large farm holdings @throwaway prices=> farms have area of several thousand acres.
  • Since farm is large=mechanization possible= don’t need many farm-workers.
labour
  • Canada =less population density =hard to find cheap labour, but since farm holdings are large and on flat terrain=most of the work is mechanized.
Transport
  • Railroad connectivity via Canadian Pacific Railway
  • Many branch lines are constructed to connect even the remotest farm regions with the mainline = easy to send your produce to market.
  • most of the wheat moves by rail through Rocky Mountains to Vancouver /Prince Rupert for export
Storage
  • Grain elevator storage facilities along the railway lines: here wheat is cleaned, graded, processed and stored.
  • storage complexes and milling operation @bulk of the bulk location, where Railways intersect major waterways
Government Policy
  • Canadian wheat board, a statutory body= sole purchaser and seller of foodgrains for export.
  • The board coordinates movement of wheat to major terminals.
  • Farmers are given schedules to send their wheat to nearby railway station.
  • This system minimizes price fluctuations/distribution inefficiencies
  • + provides quality control for exported wheat.

wheat canada vs india

Rice: China

Concentrated South of Yangtze River
Climate mild temperature, good rainfall= can grow two crops on the same farm in a year
Soil Suitable for rice cultivation + as we saw earlier in the silk article, the waste from sericulture is used as fertilizer.
Water good rainfall + irrigation from Yangtze and numerous other rivers and streams
Labor obvious
Technology with government help, farmers now

  • use diesel operated special tractors to plough rice field
  • Mechanical rice planters to plant the rice seedlings.
  • high yielding seed varieties
Transport Yangtze river=inland transport, connects many important markets/cities.+good railway network.

Government policy

Let’s examine the factors why China is leading producer of Rice? (Other than soil, climate)

  1. When Mao assumed control of the nation, he emphasized more on food crops rather than cash crops. (Because famine was a problem in China)
  2. Therefore, he setup an Agriculture collective system
hierarchy in Agriculture collective system
tier size (Approx.) function
  1. commune
3000 households supervision and coordination of tiers below it
  1. brigade
300 households Leasing land to “team”, soil conservation, Road construction, small scale plants, reforestation and other local Administrative functions.
  1. team
30 households Producing crop as per the ‘quota’ given to them.

Later more reforms were taken viz.

  1. Work points/cash: farmers were given these rewards for producing more than the quota given to them.
  2. “Responsibility system”: farmers leased land directly from collectives, if they produced more than “quota”, they could use/sell the surplus on their own.
  3. Loans directly made to farmers (instead of brigade/teams). Private ownership of agro-machinery allowed.

Rice cultivation China vs. India

  1. China has more area under irrigation
  2. China grows food crops grown on its best lands. India grows cash crops (Cotton, sugarcane, Jute) on its best lands.

US corn Belt & livestock belt

  • It extends nearly thousand miles from Central Ohio to Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota and eastern Nebraska.
  • In the heart of US Corn Belt, most of the revenue is earned from beef and pigs. Some large-scale operation have more than one lakh cattle at a time.
  • Therefore some observers label the corn belt as “feed grain and livestock region”

American farmers prefer to grow corn because of two reasons

  1. corn gives high yield per acre compared to wheat
  2. It is effective for fattening animals.

We already saw that location away from market:= product is ‘concentrated’ to compensate for transport cost. Same happens here.
Corn=>fed to cattle/pigs/poultry=>meat exported.

Corn Belt in United States of America

Geographical Factors
factor effect
soil, climate chernozem soil= good for corn. Soil-climate suitable
market
  • Most of the corn produced=used for fattening animals=> animals sent to slaughterhouses in Chicago and Omaha.
  • Railroad transport well developed.
government policy
  • Federal Government spends billions of dollars per year in subsidy to corn farmers.

Labor factor in Corn belt

  • only small labour force needed because planting+harvesting =highly mechanised
  • once seeds are planted, no labour needs arise other than spraying pesticides for weed control and fertilization but that too is done with help of aero planes because farm holdings are so large.
  • for harvesting, outside contractors with crew and machines are hired.
  • This has led to new type of farmers known as suitcase farmers: they live more than 30 miles away from their farm, in large urban cities.

These farmers also grow soya bean, because

  1. Soyabean =high amount of protein=good for fattening animals
  2. Soyabean = hundreds of industrial and commercial uses from plastic, cosmetic and candy

In the next article will discuss the geographical factors of affecting the location of milk and dairy industry in USA, Europe and New Zealand.

Mrunal recommends

127 Comments on “[Location Factors] Wheat, Corn industry in USA, China, Canada”

  1. Remarkable work sir

  2. Thank u sir for this Remarkable work…..

  3. Hi mrunal and all cse 2014 aspirants,
    UPSC have declared dates for 2014 exam.
    Prelims– 24 aug 2014
    Mains– 14 dec 2014

    1. Good new timing of exams

    2. I also saw that news. but why that mcuch delay? any clue?

      1. General Election – 2014 may be one reason…very less time b/w pre n mains…

    3. really??..where you found this news?? upsc announced?

  4. Dear Mrunal,

    Could you please suggest some reference text for the purpose of GS paper? There are lots of material floating around on net and some of the bulky books are being recommended by various forum. It would be great help if you could provide few pointers on this, we could use them as reference or supplements.

    Thank you!

  5. Above request was in reference to Geography part only.

  6. hi, when I can expect my cse prelims 2013 results . please mrunal let me know about it. and I don’t know how to start practicing and learning for mains sitting at home please guide me I am homemaker

    1. on 27th july

  7. IS IT TRUE THAT UPSC PRE WILL BE IN AUGUST 2014.

    1. u can check UPSC webcite. it is given there in examination section

  8. RESULT UPSC PRE COMING TODAY,,,,,,

    CUT OFF GENERAL 241
    OBC 218

    BEST OF LUCK…..

    1. Has UPSC made u official spokesperson?.. Shut your mouth till result is out..

      1. Dear lucky….
        If u r doing preparation for UPSC….try to improve ur behaviour which plays big role in ur personality and ultimate ur thought process.I do not know which words hurt u so much that u r using words like SHUT UR MOUTH…….May be i m wrong and have no hesitation to say sorry if u really hurt…What i wrote above heard from some friends…..BE human beings Dear…..I know u can give me suggestion with other words also….Improve tolerance in ur nature….Thanks…nd Sorry once agains if hurt u…..

        1. Dear KD.

          lets try to be human first:
          lesson1: lets not spread baseless ridiculous rumors on this great site just because you heard something.. because every body hears something daily like cutoff>250.

          lets Improve behaviour:
          Lesson2: lets be sensitive to lakhs of aspirants who are waiting for result today and already gone through lots of ridiculous lies and baseless cutoff predictions, and atleast spare them for the day of result.

          lesson3: learn to shut the mouth at appropriate time and place as it can play big role in your personality and civil life.

          NOM..

          1. lol
            GR8……

          2. Well so much for your prophecies. The result aint out yet :P lolzz..

    2. when will be UPSC CSE-P results declared?

  9. @ KD

    result is coming today dat even i heard from some officials but cut off is 241 dat i did’t came to knw …..
    Who told u abt cut-off so high ??
    I guess its rumour n if not den only god help us !!

    1. @ Kartik

      Mine also heard from some friends in Delhi..
      i m in range of 230 to 240..
      So very nervous..GOD only help me now.

  10. @ kD

    Eeeewwww …….!!!!!
    If u heard from frd’s den its fine :-)
    Source is not credible n hence we ll hav benefit of doubt , so just chill n relax till evening if its coming today !!!
    N yes one more thing , a universal truth FOR MOST OF D PPL if not for all

    Civil services ” anishchittao ka khel hai ”
    Is c.s is a game of uncertainties !!

    So lets pray dat almighty n hav faith in OURSELVES !!
    God bless all !!

    1. ITS NOW CLEAR 249

  11. UPSC cutoff for general will not go beyond 230…

    1. NO 230 IS ALSO NOT POSSIBLE..ACCORDING TO MOST OF THE WEBSITE’S SURVEY MORE THAN HALF OF THE ASPIRANTS HAVE SCORE BETWEEN 190 TO 22O…SO LETS SEE WHAT THE UPSC DECIDE..

      1. half of the aspirants wont clear prelims. only the top 5 percent clear prelims.

      2. I just called UPSC….They told RESULT will come in 2-4 Days…..U can call at 011-23387410

  12. @ lucky

    We like in democracy , we have rights to debate , discuss …. So if u dont like it n dese arguments raises ur temperature n tone den u better keep ur mouth shut !! Wont be dat much more appropriate ??

    If above statement hurts ur ego den m sorry but i didnt intend dat way , wat m trying to emphasise is we must give considerations n respect to other ppl’s view also ….
    Atleast life has taught me dis lesson !

    Rest upto u , no hard feelings for u !!

    @ mrunal sir

    Sir plz post mains strategy now , its high time now though we all know it requires lot of time for ur quality reasesrch !!

    1. dude..u are really funny..are u KD..coz that post was for KD and not for u..n there is a difference btw democracy and idiotocracy..those who spread false rumors and panic among serious candidates that too at the day of result has to think twice..

      1. Bravo lucky! You handled these KD & Karik stuff so well

  13. @ lucky

    first of all i already said i didnt intend to insult u and above all i said sorry also…..
    n dat i didnt knw dat comment was meant for KD coz i access dis site on my iphone !!

    anyways in todays environment around d globe i hardly find any distinction between democracy and idiotocracy if i go by d definition of democracy. Todays reality is totally in contradiction wid dat…….. on top of it wen u talk of realizing it , all honchos say start a political movement, take part in election n wat not , realizing the joke dat for even registering a political party u requires nomination by few MP’s( our protector is our devour) ……….. dey say “right to recall” cant work coz shear size of dis democracy…… and for babus of bureaucracy , one upsc chairmen said dont knw why wen dey enter d service dey r so dedicated n brilliant but within a span of few years dey turn corrupt and inefficiency bounds dem….. all are not but den many suffers from Appleby’s ” action shyness ” …………. moreover my illusion wid developed world got at an ebb wen i came to knw less den a million in US are millionaire in comparison to senate more den 54% members are millionaire ……… and if developed world is promoter of peace and tranquility den abreast dey finance war in congo to plunder its wealth of twice d gdp of US $23 trillion………..

    yes u ur right den
    we do live in idiotocracy !

  14. sir please tell me about territorial army examination syllabus .
    and books for it .

  15. Holland and netherlands represents the same country. Plz correct it

  16. @Lusky

    Hey Lucky…
    I understand ur emotions and tensions.. But be calm. Everything will be good.

    But yes, Its a public forum, and KD is also worried just like you.

    Be empathetic, that should be the main goal of every human being.

    Wish you luck..
    Shree

  17. @ KD & Kartik

    Hope everything turns out good for both of you

    Shree

  18. mrunabhai and frnds
    This is big news and no joke.Today I spoke to a head clerk in the upsc examination department who happens to be an acquaintance and he has given me some real news.He said that the paper scanning of all candidates got over a couple of days back and the excel sheet with all the category wise cut-offs has been prepared by the official staff in the competitive exam department.They are awaiting the final signatures of the chairman on the data after which they will go ahead and make the information public through their site.Foll additional details given by him
    1. UPSC CSE GENERAL cutoff 231
    2.UPSC IFOS GENERAL cutoff 196
    3.UPSC not to give prelim marks to candidates (just like last year).They will do it after the whole process is over.
    4.Approx 12800 candidates shortlisted for mains

    He did not know the details about the cutoff for SC ST OBC and PH candidates and he said that the results will be put up on site in next 4-5 days subject to availability of chairman.
    I must say that we can take him seriously as earlier also he has told me certain things in advance which have turned out to be true.I do not intend to speculate anything and as i rely on his info i thought of sharing it with you all.
    Thnx

    1. wow! does this head clerk give you the questions of the exam also ?

    2. oh come on dhruv!!

      ur disloyal(for UPSC)-“Whistle-blowing”-head clerk uncle is misleading you..

      take care.

  19. dear sir,

    I am working as P.O in a bank, I don’t get much time to devote for my studies. plz guide me how to prepare for UPSC exam.

    1. Hi Neha…. I too got a job in Bank as PO in IBPS2… But did not receive the Appointment letter as of now(IBPS2)…what u will suggest me…will I be able to manage… Hopefully I’ll clear the prelims n wil write the mains this December …

  20. Ur work s really awesome….

  21. Posting my comment again as earlier one is awaiting moderation since almost 5 hrs

    mrunalbhai and frnds
    This is big news and no joke.Today I spoke to a head clerk in the upsc examination department who happens to be an acquaintance and he has given me some real news.He said that the paper scanning of all candidates got over a couple of days back and the excel sheet with all the category wise cut-offs has been prepared by the official staff in the competitive exam department.They are awaiting the final signatures of the chairman on the data after which they will go ahead and make the information public through their site.Foll additional details given by him
    1. UPSC CSE GENERAL cutoff 231
    2.UPSC IFOS GENERAL cutoff 196
    3.UPSC not to give prelim marks to candidates (just like last year).They will do it after the whole process is over.
    4.Approx 12800 candidates shortlisted for mains

    He did not know the details about the cutoff for SC ST OBC and PH candidates and he said that the results will be put up on site in next 4-5 days subject to availability of chairman.
    I must say that we can take him seriously as earlier also he has told me certain things in advance which have turned out to be true.I do not intend to speculate anything and as i rely on his info i thought of sharing it with you all.
    Thnx

    1. @dhruv
      if that’s true then the cut-offs have substantially gone up.

      1. what is the cut off for obc (civil services) …… i m scoring 220 …. whether it is safe or not

    2. @Dhruv
      After reading your post I have stopped reading any book. Bcoz I am not going to get such high score. Thanks anyway for sharing the information and best of luck to all.

      1. dnt do dis coz here most of d ppl r free n simply they r passing thr free tym,,, whtever score u hv eep studying

    3. Assuming your revelations are true, how did your ‘source’ TRUST you with secrets? I mean when you go to any lengths, to prove your authenticity, by giving minute details, how on earth did some find you trustworthy?

  22. @DHruv
    I do not know how reliable is ur source but sure i m that ur prophecy abt cut off is going to be wrong…. Dear frnd upsc clerks or officers are bound to confidentiality clause….i wud luv to know how u correct u r??

    1. @vikrant
      u r right buddy..even i am eagerly waiting to see how authentic his info turns out to be..but as i said, he has given me info earlier also about the new pattern of the mains 2013(4 GS papers and removal of 1 optional) and postponement of mains to first week of December while as per the initial schedule it was to be conducted from Nov 8..on both occasions he gave me the details few days prior to the official announcement on upsc site..so lets wait n watch:)

      1. is ur source ur relative?
        how come ifos cutoff is so less when they have only 85 vacancies and about 1500 would write mains?
        i never saw any of ur comment about syllabus change that time here?
        there r tons of rumors already!!

      2. So, why csat 2014 is on August? why that much delay? so whether they will postpone the date of mains too? any idea?

        1. its because of elections..
          and no..there is no postponement of mains…its on Dec 14…as mentioned in the site…

        2. 2014 election factor..

          1. i think upsc going online as they took few exams online this year

        3. Actually,UPSC exam is one of few the exams where one should not keep certainty regarding timing and dates comparing from one year to another.Next year ” delay ” in Prelims might be due to Elections,or might be UPSC thinking to reduce the overall time span of the whole exam process(so initiating it from 2014!).
          So,mantra for success is integrated preparation for prelims and mains so that the ” less” time between Prelims and mains don’t bother you……….

      3. @Dhruv
        After reading your post I have stopped reading any book. Bcoz I am not going to get such high score. Thanks anyway for sharing the information and best of luck to all.

        1. Dont go by the rumour. If you wait until the result, not many days u’d loose..

          1. @Jameel
            Thanks… but Dhruv is saying it so confidently. I feel like I am out of race :(

      4. hi dhruv
        hows ur result buddy….

    1. A) It should be “ridiculously” not stupendous. THere is a world of difference.

      B) IOB stands to make a whole world of money, both as an institution and corrupt individuals, from this scheme.

    2. Baba, Look at it in this way, You are paying for the MBA in Banking & Finance along with an assured job!
      If that is ridiculous for you, try IBPS PO 3, you won’t be robbed off any amount that way. :)

  23. EXCUSE ME! Please stop this nonsense…… Mrunal Sir is working hard to provide us with some useful stuff and we,creating rumors….Does it make any sense?
    Please focus on coming mains, don’t get tensed. Whatever be the result accept it fully.
    All the best

  24. @dhruv
    first of all thanx…
    bt i dont think and i hav a strong feeling too that its not correct info… if ur source is knowing the cut off of CS and IFoS for general and he is also knowing abt the no of candidates qualified then i dont think he might not be knowing abt other category cut off.
    also as u told that the least has been prepared with category cut off then he must b knowing…
    and 231 cut offf i dont think so…
    rest u know, ur source knows and above all UPSC know…

  25. when will the CSE 2013 pre result be out???

  26. IBPS i asking for preference choice for 21 banks….i dont know what to fill….need your help….kindly guide sir !!…will be thankful to you!!

    1. What actually is your target? If you wish to leave the Bank job after some time, list all the banks with no bond amount and then in the increasing order of the bond amount !
      P.S- You can keep ECGC at first position.

  27. plz if anyone has the correct and authentic information , then plz tell us the cutoffs of all the categories … if u dont have … then plz dont spread rumors ….. i have the score of 220 (obc category ) whether it is safe or not ….. plz tell . people r saying about 231 (general ) …. it is causing distress ….

    1. dont believe in any rumor spreading anti-social elements…
      UPSC is the only authority u have to trust upon…
      wait for some days….
      emotional intelligence is the key factor for us…so lets practice till results announced….

    2. Donot be panik….U r safe as per my intelligence guess…..I had last year experience….Wasted 2 months….So NAR HO NA NIRAS KARO MAN KO,KUCH KAM KARO….

      1. Kuldeep ji,

        Just wanted to ask you, what kind of experienced you had? I mean whether you underestimated your score because of the keys available in net and got something beyond that? Could you please tell what score did you expect initially and what was your final score?

        1. @Nik,

          Initially i calculated score 162 with different keys but final score was 192.So you can never believe in these keys fully…..according to different keys my 6/7 decision making questions were wrong but later i found all (7/7) correct as per UPSC keys…..

    3. @leevisyadav
      what is causing distress??
      dude even if we assume cutoff to be 231 for gen and if u r really getting 220 in obc then u must be celebrating
      as obc cutoff will be atleast 18-20 mks less than gen

      1. yes u r right ….. but a free floating anxiety is flowing ….. as it becomes a case of borederline ….. nevertheless thanx for confidence building words ……

        1. sorry spelling mistake ….. borderline

  28. i just called Mr.Mukhopaday(DEPUTY SECRETRARY) UPSC and asked about Result..He told before Friday….Eeeeeeee suddenly, i asked abt CUT OFF….he told “wo kaise bata sakte hai”…..
    So just wait…..

    1. Lol.. “wo kaise bata sakte hai”

      Thank you for Information

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