[Modi Diplomacy] Part 2/3: Chinese President Eleventh (haha) Xi Jinping’s India Visit

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Mains Answer Writing Mrunal IR
  1. Mindmap: Xi’s India Visit
  2. Strategic Agreements
  3. Economy pacts
  4. Transport related
  5. Energy, Environment
  6. Tourism, People2People
  7. Overall
  8. Side-Topics
    1. India without Tibetan Leverage
    2. Xi’s Sri Lanka visit
    3. India vs China: defense comparison

Mindmap: President Xi’s Visit to India (2014)

xi jinping india visit outcome

Mindmap: Xi Jinping India visit Outcome

Strategic Agreements

Inch towards miles

  • Fancy term by Modi
  • Inch (India and China) towards Miles (Millennium of Exceptional Synergy).
  • With every inch we cover, we can rewrite history of humanity.
  • With every mile we cross will go a long way in making this planet a better place.

Border issues

  • 2013: Both the countries have signed a Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) in 2013 to ensure peace and tranquility at the LAC.
  • 2014, Aug: National Security Advisor Ajit Doval went to China to finalise the arrangements for Chinese President Xi Jinping’s visit to India.
  • Next stage: Exchanging maps Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  • During Modi-Xi Meeting: Lot of ‘bolbachchan’: will resolve differences through Panchsheel, A climate of mutual trust and confidence is made; we respect each other`s sensitivities and concerns; and, peace and stability etc.

Narendra Modi:

  • Requested Xi to resume the stalled process of clarifying the LAC (Line of actual control) and an early settlement of the boundary question.
  • Discussed China’s stapled visa policy for Arunachal Pradesh and Trans Border Rivers.
  • Agreed that he’ll not allow Anti-China activities in India (e.g. Tibet militant groups)
  • Until we find out final solution to border problem, both sides will maintain peace and tranquility in the border areas.

Chumar Standoff

Map Chumar India China standoff

  • Where? Chumar village inLadakh area, Near Himachal Pradesh border. China says its our land, they keep coming here on foot and through helicopters. Even constructing a road, though Indian army destroyed it recently.
  • Why in News? Because the Chinese soldiers entered here during Xi’s visit.
  • But 72 hours after the Joint statement of Modi and Xi, the Chinese troops began withdrawal.
  • Recent reports say, they’ve also ceased the road construction work here.

UN reforms

  • We’ll strengthen the central role of United Nations. This goes along with Modi’s stand that we need to get out the G4, G20 etc. mentality.
  • China supports India’s wish for UN reforms and UNSC reform.
  •  Developing countries need to be given greater voice in UN Decision Making. We’ll work closely @BRICS, G20 etc to achieve this.

Exercise to get 8-pack abs

  • fourth joint army training at a mutually convenient time,
  • We’ll hold navy/airforce joint exercise
  • Area of cooperation: peace-keeping, counter-terrorism, naval escort, maritime security, humanitarian rescue, disaster mitigation, personnel training, and think tank communication.
Routine lip-service
Terrorism Both Agreed for zero tolerance against terrorism.
Smuggling will share information about cross border illegal trade in narcotics, weapons, wildlife.
Maritime cooperation for security, anti-piracy, freedom of navigation
Nuke weapons yes we’ll work for disarmament and arms control.
Turmoil countries Bilateral consultations on Afghanistan, West Asia, Africa, Central Asia and Counter-terrorism.

Economy pacts

Import export

  • China will take steps to facilitate entry of Indian products in China, thereby balancing the bilateral trade. (Right now India has large trade-deficit with China, ~35 billion USD).
  • For above purpose, China will establish strong links between Indian IT companies and Chinese enterprises, smooth registration of Indian drugs, releasing Indian movies in Chinese cinema, selling Indian tour packages to Chinese and so on.
  • Commercial Bank of China will give loan to IndiGO for new aircrafts.
  • MoUs signed between China’s Export Import bank vs SBI, ICICI, for giving billions USD in loans and importing Chinese products in India.
  • MoU between Reliance and Huwei

Infra / Industries

China to setup two industrial parks
Gujarat Power equipment
Maharashtra Automobile parts.
  • These two industrial parks will be similar to the Chinese manufacturing hub Shenzen.
  • China will invest US$ 20 billion in next five years in Indian infra. (Japan pledged 35 billion$ in investment + 50 billion Yen as loan)
Sister pacts
Sister states Guangdong Gujarat
Sister cities Guangzhou Ahmedabad

Above will cooperate for trade, environment, education, health, science, tourism.

More Bolbachchan

WTO have common interests in Doha round. So will cooperate to ensure treaties are made in our favour.
Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED) to explore new areas for economic cooperation, joint projects, smart cities.
Joint Economic Group to facilitate bilateral trade and economic cooperation.

Transport related

Chinese Cooperation in Indian Railways

  • Training 100 people for heavy haul transport
  • Chennai-Bangalore-Mysore section: it’s speed will be increased to 160 kmph
  • Redevelop two rail stations on pilot basis.
  • High speed rail project- feasibility studies + financing part.
  • Setup Railway University.

BCIM corridor

  • will connect Kunming (SW China)- Kolkata (India) – Mandalay (Myanmar) –Dhaka|Chittagong (Bangladesh)
  • Southwest China = landlocked, poor. In recent times many knife-stabbing attacks made by Uighur extremists [Ethnic minority  in Xinjiang province in North West region].
  • China hopes, BCIM corridor will boost trade-tourism, thereby reducing poverty. Then, youth will remain in mainstream. Extremists will find hard to get new recruits and supporters.
  • December 2013, had official talk with India in this regard.
  • 2014: Modi and Xi too discussed BCIM corridor and agreed that it’ll bring collective prosperity

Maritime Silk road (MSR)

  • Xi invited India to join Maritime Silk road (MSR) initiative. Click me to know more about this project.
  • But Modi remained non-committal, saying it requires mutual trust, stability, respect, free flow of commerce and ideas.
  • In other words, if China opens up its economy to indian goods and services, helps reducing India’s trade deficit, maintains peace @border region, then we’ll consider joining M.S.R.

Energy, Environment

  1. Nuke Energy Pact: Will start consultations between the Department of Atomic Energy of India and the China Atomic Energy Authority.
  2. Will promote clean energy.
  3. Common stand on climate change CBDR i.e. first world should spend more money and efforts. We’ll work together @UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2015 to ensure this.
  4. Disaster Management: Better sharing of flood-season hydrological data, and emergency management

Tourism, People2People

Tourism years
2015 Visit India year (in China)
2016 Visit China year (in India)
  • During these phase, both sides will do tourism promotion to increase no. of visitors.
  • China will help India promote its tourism products in China, particularly the routes associated with Chinese monk-scholar Xuan Zang (Hiuen Tsang)’s India journey of 7th century.

Kailash Mansarovar:

Map-Kailash mansarovar Nathu la

  • The existing route goes through Uttarakhand.
  • China agreed to opening a new route through Nathu-La to Kailash Mansarovar. It’ll give following Benefits:
  • Road quality is better. Less bumpy rides for older pilgrims.
  • Route is safe even in rainy season. Less danger of landslides and blockades.
  • Will help more pilgrims to travel at shorter duration.
  • Counterview: north Indians will first have to travel to sikkim and from there to Mt.Kailash so journey expense will increase.

Exchange offer on TV

  • 2015-19: we’ll exchange 200 youth per year.
  • Exchanges between the museums and other cultural institutions.
  • China will host Indian Buddhist art exhibitions.
  • China will partner in Delhi International Book Fair 2016.
  • Will mutually support teaching national languages in each other’s countries- Chinese in India and Hindi in China.

Bollywood Movies aka South Indian remakes:

  • MoU for joint production of movies.
  • China will be a guest in Indian International Film Festival 2014.

Finally, Xi invited Pranab to visit China, so that we can return favor of harassing Chinese civil service aspirants.


India became more assertive:

  • During Japan visit Modi indirectly refereed “countries with an 18th century expansionist mind-set: encroaching on other countries, intruding in others’ waters, invading other countries and capturing territory.”
  • Same way, Pranab signed Oil exploration and defence deals with Vietnam.
  • Thus, India became more assertive, pursuing its course without worrying about Chinese reaction.
  • During Xi’s visit- positive outcomes on border, economy and culture.
  • Chumar resolved tacitly, without creating lot of media bravado.

China stopped worrying

After Modi’s US visit, Chinese official newspaper concluded following:

  • India will pursue non-aligned yet all-round foreign policy.
  • Therefore, India will not develop ties with USA, at expense of China.
  • Although border issues unsorted but it’ll not hamper cooperation in trade and Development between India-China.
  • China should worry more about USA’s “Pivot to Asia” strategy, under which:
    1. Japan- ~40,000 American soldiers to be stationed
    2. S.Korea: ~30,000
    3. Australia: 2500
  • India will not be in the picture frame of USA’s “Trans-pacific partnership (TPP)”. Hence USA (And not India) will act as an obstacle to China’s economic rise.


  • Earlier reports indicated, Xi would announce 100 billon$ investment.
  • During Xi visit, 16 agreements yet just 20 billion investment. (Japs giving 35).
  • MSR did not materialize.
  • Hard to believe that Chumar incident happened without Xi’s knowledge and approval. Perhaps it was Xi’s way of showing displeasure over Pranab signing oil deals with Vietnam.


India without Tibetan Leverage

Gist of the matter: Chinese are cozying up with Tibet. So in long term, we may not have Tibet issue to arm-twist China to get things done.

China vs Dalai lama

Before nowadays
  • Chinese official would call him “Splittists” and his followers as “terrorists”
  • Making polite references to Dalai lama in their Government newspapers.
  • Acknowledging Dalai Lama’s religious status.
  • Talking with his envoys- on how to bring him back to Tibet.
  • Tibetan protests and self-immolations increasing in 2008 because of Beijing Olympic and media attention.
  • Security was tight.
  • Migrant Han Chinese controlling Tibetan economy.
  • Government pumped billions in infrastructure.
  • Tibetan economy growing at 12%, Junta back to business and jobs. Hence protests declined.
  • Security is reduced.
China looked at Tibet as a ‘trouble’ region. China portraying Tibet as a Buddhist tourist destination.

India’s position on Tibet:

  • India diplomats sheltered Dalai Lama and Tibetan refugees as some sort “leverage” against China.
  • But India has already recognized to “One China” and does not recognize a “Free Tibet”. So most of the leverage is gone.
  • And once Dalai Lama returns to Tibet, the leverage will vanish entirely.
  • Benefit: If Dalai Lama returns to China, then it may lead to clearing of some historical burden of misunderstandings, China may stop cozying with Pakis and the secessionist leaders in North East. (Because Chinese use that as leverage against India)

Xi’s Sri Lanka visit

Xi visited Sri Lanka, while on his way to India:

  1. Called Sri-Lanka a “Pearl in the Indian Ocean”. But maintained that China has no plans of “containing” India through any so called “strings of pearl strategy”.
  2. Opposed Foreign intervention in Sri Lanka’s internal affairs. (e.g. India and UNHRC)
  3. Invited Sri-Lanka (And Maldives) to join Maritime silk road (MSR)
  4. Began FTA negotiation with Sri Lanka.
  5. 30 agreements
  6. Since 2009: in invested ~4 billion in Sri Lankan infra.. Additional $1.4-billion port city development project + several infrastructure projects.
  7. Final phase of power plant in Noracholai, in Shri Lanka’s North-west.

Will Sri Lanka really benefit from sitting in China’s lap?

  1. Chinese gives loans at expensive interest rate to Sri Lanka. While India spend truckload of money in grants. (i.e. no need to repay).
  2. Sri Lanka owns ~200 billion loan money to China.
  3. FTA with China will ruin Sri-Lankan economy. Because Cheap Chinese goods will flood their market. And in return, Sri Lanka doesn’t have much to export to Chinese consumers!
  4. On the contrary,  Sri-Lanka gained immensely with CEPA with India.
  5. Sri Lanka tried to play “China card” against India, but they should remember, that during natural and man-made disasters, only the immediate neighbor will come to rescue.

India vs China: defense comparison

Sector China India
Defense budget >130 billion USD ~38 billion USD
Troops 2.2 million 1.3 million
Submarines 56( 5 nuke powered) 14(1 nuke powered)
Warships 75 (1 aircraft carrier under trial) >30 (2 aircraft carriers)
Fighter jets >1600 >550
Battle tanks >7000 >3000
Missiles Large arsenal

  • ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missiles)
  • SLBM (submarine launched): upto 7200 kms range
Limited arsenalNo ICBM and SLBMAgni-V (5000 kms) but still under testing.

Mock Questions

Answer following in 200 words each

  1. Unless the LAC issue is clarified, India-China cannot move towards Millennium of Exceptional Synergy. Do you agree? Justify your stand.
  2. Success of a bilateral visit, cannot be measured in financial terms alone. Elaborate.
  3. Discuss India’s strategic and economic interests in joining Maritime silkroad  and SCO.
  4. List the measures announced during President’s Xi’s India visit for trade deficit, infrastructure and tourism.

Mrunal recommends

66 Comments on “[Modi Diplomacy] Part 2/3: Chinese President Eleventh (haha) Xi Jinping’s India Visit”

  1. dear sir we r waiting for capf ac answer key….still..!!!

  2. Someone please tell me how to sustain the momentum? :(

    1. Jab tak result nhi aa Jata, tab tak to bahut mushkil hai bhaalu bhai.
      Everyone’s facing the same problem.

    2. Still if u want a suggestion, here it is……
      It’s difficult to maintain one’s speed in this monotonous schedule. So one should eat a lot and sleep a lot and increase his mass. Thus P=m.v shall remain constant.

      1. lol…..u are damn funny :D

      2. i apreciate your sense of humor :D

        1. Damn you. Now I need to charge and bash someone.

      3. HAHAHHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAH…………………you just made my day bro

        best suggestion i have ever read here…..

  3. Knoweldge and humour . Perfect receipe by mrunal bhai to explain things just simple as it is. Superb.thanks sir.

    1. Indeed, Its been like one year I stumbled across this and I have been following this blog eversince, Its like Serendipity(for me)! and I am in love with this blog and Mrunal Sir’s Approach to monitor it. I start my day by visiting mrunal.org and finish my day by visiting mrunal.org. Informations mentioned here are plenty and thorough, at the top of everything content presentation is appreciable. I hope Sir will monitor this blog same way till I am selected.
      Thanks again.
      A sincerer Admirer.

      1. Sneha “PATHAN”!!! What sort of name is that?

        1. the same sort as lord dufferin

  4. yaar yeh pm and unki wife… ko jhoola kyo jhulate hai…. chahe japanense pm ho ya chinese… dono ne jhoola jhoola india mei

    1. sirf yehi dikhane ke liye ki agar tum humko nacha sakte ho( by pakistan, sco) to hum vi nacha sakte hai(by jhoola)…..

  5. There are no Uyghur people in Kunming, Yunnan or any part of SW-China.
    Uyghurs dwell in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in NW China. Uyghurs have an islamic background.
    Xinjiang shares its border with Pakistan, Afghanistan and a few more nations.
    Poor economy, nearly zero connectivity and entirely different demography (compared to other parts of China) compliment the extremism.


    2. Correct Siddhant. Mrunal, pls note this and edit the article accordingly.

  6. the conversation between the leaders in the pic is too funny …… i m 11th jinping….lolz

    1. Mrunal mentioned that here because “By pronouncing like that(like 11th ping) an anchor of Doordarshan got suspended,it was corrected immediately,but why she was suspended???

      1. i know the whole episode….but the way xi jinping called himself 11th jinping in the supposedly talks was funny!

  7. mrunal sir , is there any seprate article for ganga and coal blocks?

  8. Everytime Mr.Modi is in a bilateral meeting, the mou’s are signed related to gujrat mostly , what about other states?

    1. From what I understand, this is because investors feels safe about their investments in Gujrat only. Not only foreign but domestic investors too. Remember Tata Nano plant in Bangal or collection of ‘Rangdaari’ in U.P. & Bihar.

  9. How rude of me , i totally forgot to thank Mrunal. Thank You Mrunal and keep up the good work…………….

  10. Is dere smone who z gonna face ISRO exam for tech assist. on 12 oct??? Plz reply, i need sm help…

  11. I think IN Has Two active Aircraft Carrier in its arsenal , INS Vikramaditya and INS Viraat While Prez Xi Jinping Has only PLAN Liaoning under his sleeves .

    In an Interview with Srilankan Prez Rajapaksha , He mentioned that Indian Inc. were invited for infrastructure tenders in Srilanka but were too lazy to work on it. So instead SL Govt. gave a larger amount of work to the Chinese. Can’t blame SL for it, they too have to survive this economic problems of there own.

  12. “Finally, Xi invited Pranab to visit China, so that we can return favor of harassing Chinese civil service aspirants.”
    I enjoy so much reading articles on this website, never feel the burden of preparing for such a gruesome exam.
    Hats off to your style, Mrunal.

  13. @ Mrunal…one small correction ….Chumar …..not in Himachal, its J&K

    1. vj, u are correct….
      Mrunal sir plz make necessary changes…
      Chumar is in J&K…….

      1. actually it is in china :)

        1. actually Aditya it is in India, It will be in India………

        2. Oh yes! and Beijinjg is in India.

  14. Is there any one who is going to appear in civil services mains from hyderabad. now i am posted there . plz help. this is new city and i have no idea about it

  15. one small correction too…China does’t have any aircraft carrier …
    one soviet junk(it was officially declared by Russians as Junk, not like ours Admiral Gorshkov which was retired from service n thn put on sale) the procured n gv it the name ‘Liaoning’ n tht too is a landing deck not a fighting carrier deck.

  16. please someone ask MODI to stop visiting anywhere for 2-3 months :p …. cant cram more MoUs

  17. Mrunal,

    You are doing a great work. Thanks for all the guidance. Pls remove the Recent comments tab to the left of article series. These comments are very disturbing when we are reading the content over your page. Give a seperate link to the recent comments so that viewers can go through it seperately.

    TANKS IN INDIA- >5000

    1. yes, thank Raj for point out.
      Correction in the defense table:
      China-1 aircraft carrier under trial.
      India two aircraft carriers and number of tanks more than 3000.

  19. Thank you very much sir! As always you make our study so simple and interesting. Your explanations are just awesome and to the point.

  20. Hi Mrunal. The Uighur insurgency is in Xinjiang Province, West China and not in S.W China as mentioned. Kunming is in the Yunnan Province. It was only the site of a major terrorist attack by Uighur extremists in 2011. Yunnan is mostly composed of Han Chinese and not Uighurs.Please make the necessary corrections.

    1. update:
      Southwest China = landlocked, poor. In recent times many knife-stabbing attacks made by Uighur extremists [Ethnic minority concentrated in Xinjiang province of North-West China].
      China hopes, BCIM corridor will boost trade-tourism, thereby reducing poverty. Then, youth will remain in mainstream. Extremists will find hard to get new recruits and supporters.

  21. Hey Mrunal,
    Pls remove this humor on President’s name. Its poor that you are making such.
    We should respect their president. After all they are way ahead of us in most of the fields.

    1. Then u don’t need to visit this site in this case.
      And anyway it’s not derogatory, it’s just light humour. So don’t act like an old hag and kindly shut up.

    2. Ques: Hey, Do u think suvek uncle deserves attention?
      Ans: No, because he is an uncle.

  22. mrunal sir

    governance in india laxmikant should buy or not ?????

    1. Sanu,
      Laxmikanth is worthy to buy. Go through Topic-by-topic, you will be master f polity.. :)

  23. Can we change optional after prelims now?? Pls tell, if there is any chance to alter the subject??

  24. Hello sir …. for UPSC point of view … from which article ( from this website ) to be followed in sequence for economics preparation for GS ( right from basics )

    1. Its already given, go thr NCERT and corresponding subject in RameshSingh followed by related current affairs topics.
      Hope this helps

  25. I have problem in downloading cgl 14 tier I admit card…..can anyone help me..

  26. Dear Mrunal Sir……..I had applied for SSC CGL-2014 as they had increased age limit for three posts…….but now the admit card is showing”over aged”……..I have found multiple such complaints on internet……..how should I raise this issue with SSC?? Please guide me …….?? Thanks

  27. raghav… me too .
    and my admit card is also showing “Over Aged” . Any chance to appear in exam.
    my doy 1982 category : OBC

    guide to raise this issue with SSC.

    Thanks in Anticipation

  28. Video’s on public administration made by me.

    These videos are short and try to cover as much detail as possible. — So, please checkout friends. If you like then do ask me to make more videos on later topics. I would love to share knowledge like Mrunal Sir. I know that I’m not perfect, but something is better than nothing. Feel free to comment and let me know what changes you want.


    And thank you Mrunal sir, you are awesome :D :D

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