1. Prologue
  2. G9/P1: Indian Geography: Mines, Minerals and Coal
  3. G9/P2: Indian Geography: Petroleum & Gas Reserves & Pipelines
  4. G9/P3: Nuclear Energy in India: Uranium, Thorium, Plants & Liabilities
  5. G9/P4: Indian Geography: Steel & Cement Industries


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 4th April, continuation of the Indian geography segment with Mines and Industrial topics. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into three parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G9/P1: Indian Geography: Mines, Minerals and Coal

Indian Coal Reserves

  1. Mines, Minerals and physiography of India
  2. Metallic- non-metallic minerals
  3. Energy resources
  4. Shield regions – chhota nagpur plateau and Dharwad plateau – metallic, non-metallic minerals source
  5. Rift valley regions-  Damodar and Mahanadi valley – coal reserve
  6. Marine transgression regions – petroleum reserve
  7. 5 mineral rich regions of India: Northern belt, Central belt, South east belt, South west belt, North west belt,
  8. Meaning of pyala lakes
  9. Mineral reserves in India: Iron ore, copper, bauxite, Mica, Limestone, Chromite.
  10. Energy Reserves in India: Coal.
  11. Types of Coal and their properties: Bituminous, Lignite, Anthracite and peat coal reserve in India
  12. Problems of Indian coal
  13. Under-ground coal gasification: features and benefits.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/nIjjh7sJjUA

G9/P2: Indian Geography: Petroleum & Gas Reserves

Geography Indian Petrolum & natural gas reserves

  1. Petroleum reserves and Sedimentary basin in India
  2. New petroleum exploration
  3. Petroleum refining industries: PSU, private, Joint venture.
  4. Natural gas reserve in India and LNG terminals
  5. Basin centered gas
  6. Benefits of Basin centered gas
  7. Pipelines: domestic and international.
  8. TAPI, IPI pipeline: routes, benefits, challanges
  9. Deep sea pipeline: Iran-India
  10. Russia-India pipeline
  11. Energy security in India- domestic & global challenges
  12. ONGC videsh: procurement
  13. Kelkar panel on energy security
  14. Strategic reserve of crude oil
  15. UPSC Prelims questions from this topic.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/nxO-gIKruOE

G9/P3: Nuclear Energy in India

Geography Nuclear plants in India

  1. Thorium, Uranium reserves in India
  2. Composition of natural uranium, Uranium processing
  3. Nuclear energy mechanism: Fission and fusion process
  4. Comparison: heavy water reactor and light water reactor
  5. Moderator in nuclear reactor
  6. Comparison: Light water and heavy water
  7. Issue with energy generation from  Thorium
  8. India’s 3 stage nuclear plan by Homi  Bhabha
  9. Pressurised Heavy water reactors of India
  10. Working of Pressurised Heavy water reactor
  11. Nuclear energy generation: Zirconium
  12. Uranium pallets and fuel assembly
  13. Sources of Zirconium
  14. Nuclear energy generation: helium
  15. Mechanism of moderator and control rod
  16. Re-processing of fuel
  17. Prototype-fast breeder reactor
  18. Thorium reactors
  19. Indian reactors and IAEA
  20. Kudankulam reactor
  21. India’s nuclear agreement with other countries
  22. Nuclear plant with foreign assistance
  23. Core raw material for nuclear energy generation
  24. Problems associated with nuclear-energy
  25. Nuclear liability law: arguments in favour and against, recent breakthroughs.
  26. Past UPSC questions from this topic.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/UCeRZZVf9yk

G9/P4: Indian Geography: Steel & Cement Industries

Geography Iron, Steel & Cement Plants in India

  1. History of steel industries in India
  2. Location factors for steel industries: Raw material based, Port based, Market based steel plants.
  3. Major steel industries in India, their plants and resources
  4. Vishakhapatnam steel plant
  5. Mini steel plants
  6. Status of steel industries in India
  7. National steel policy 2005
  8. Indian steel industry: challenges and potential
  9. Indian cement industries- raw material and location factors.
  10. New opportunities for cement industries

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/ahMVbMDHr3I
Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel For more lectures on UPSC General Studies.