Mrunal’s Current Affairs Weekly: Polity, Governance, IR/Diplomacy from July Week2 for UPSC IAS/IPS

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🗞 Current Affairs 2021: polity and governance from July Week2

  • 6-Rights-Issue🧕: Cow slaughter ban: A NEW Bill to protect cattle tabled in the Assam Legislative Assembly. It prohibits beef-trade in areas “predominantly inhabited by Hindu, Jain, Sikh and other non beef-eating communities”, or “within a radius of 5 km of any temple or sattra (Vaishnavite monasteries). [असम में नया गौ-हत्या प्रतिबंध विधेयक। हिन्दुओं की आबादी जहाँ ज़्यादा हो विस्तार में गोमांस की बिक्री पर प्रतिबंध। इसी प्रकार से मंदिर के पाँच किलोमीटर विस्तार में भी कत्लखाने/ गौ मांस बिक्री पर प्रतिबंध]
  • 6-Rights-Issue🧕: Population control: Uttar Pradesh Population (Control, Stabilisation and Welfare) Bill, 2021, proposes that any citizen who “violates” a two-child policy not only be barred from contesting local bodies polls , applying for government jobs, getting promotion in government jobs, and even receiving government subsidy.😰 Criticism? 1) Total fertility rate in Uttar Pradesh has been falling to 2.7 in a decade, even before taking such coercive measures. 2) critics argue that coercive measures are unnecessary and it is being used for instigating political religious colors. 3) shortage of health infrastructure. Vasectomy/tubectomy conducted in unhygienic conditions = ⏫changes of death [उत्तर प्रदेश राज्य सरकार का आबादी नियंत्रण विधेयक जिसमें दो से अधिक बच्चों वाले नागरिकों को स्थानीय चुनाव नहीं लड़ने दिए जाएंगे, सरकारी नौकरी में भर्ती /बहाली /पदोन्नति में मनाई, सरकारी योजनाओं में सब्सिडी मिलने पर भी प्रतिबंध. हालाँकि आलोचकों का यह कहना है कि बिना किसी प्रकार की दंडात्मक कदमों के बावजूद भी उत्तर प्रदेश में धीरे धीरे आबादी नियंत्रण में आ रही है लेकिन अनावश्यक रूप से धार्मिक राजनीति खेलने के लिए इस प्रकार के कानूनों को बनाया जा रहा है.]
  • Federalism: Small states demand: ‘Kongu Nadu’, the informal name for western part of the Tamilnadu. Although ‘Kongu Nadu’ is neither a place with a PIN code nor a name given formally to any region. It is a commonly used name for part of western Tamil Nadu. In Tamil literature, it was referred to as one of the five regions of ancient Tamil Nadu. There were mentions of ‘Kongu Nadu’ in Sangam literature as a separate territory. New political controversy / allegation that BJP may be trying to carve out a separate state from Tamil Nadu. We need not apply too much brain here unless you are a candidate from Tamil Nadu and going to appear for the UPSC interviews in upcoming days (पश्चिमी तमिलनाडु के लिए तो कोंगुनाडु शब्द प्रयोग होता है। यह अलग राज्य बनाने के मामले में राजनीतिक पक्षों में विवाद चल रहा है। हालाँकि इसमें बहूत दिमाग़ ख़र्च करने का फ़ायदा नहीं है सिवाय कि आप इस इलाक़े के निवासी है और UPSC इंटरव्यू साक्षात्कार के लिए जा रही है)
  • Judiciary: Sedition: “criminal law, including anti-terror legislation, should not be misused for quelling dissent or for the harassment of citizens. Supreme Court plays the role of a counter-majoritarian institution to protect the rights of socio-economic minorities. While it is important that prisons are de-congested because they are highly susceptible to becoming hotspots for the virus, it is equally important to examine why prisons are congested in the first place. The criminal law, including anti-terror legislation, should not be misused for quelling dissent or for the harassment of citizens,” – SUPREME COURT Judge Justice D Y Chandrachud (भारतीय जेलों में अपराधियों की ज़्यादा भीड़ के चलते कोरोना संक्रमण की जोखिम बढ़ती है हालाँकि गौर करने का विषय यह भी है कि जेल में अपराधियों की संख्या इतनी ज़्यादा क्यूँ है? क्योंकि कई बार सरकार विरोधी आंदोलनकारियों को भी राजद्रोह के मामले में गिरफ़्तार करके जेल भरी जाती है। राजद्रोह क़ानून का उपयोग आम नागरिकों की उत्पीड़न के लिए नहीं होना चाहिए- ऐसी सब बातें सुप्रीम कोर्ट के न्यायाधीश चंद्र्चूड ने कही)
  • Legislature: Speaker in Vidhan Sabha: MAHARASHTRA Legislative Assembly has been without a Speaker for most of this year. 2021: it concluded its two-day Monsoon Session without electing a Speaker. The Maharashtra Chief Minister has responded that A) election to the Speaker’s post would be held at an appropriate time after complying with Covid protocols. B) Article 93 for Lok Sabha and Article 178 for state Assemblies state that these Houses “shall, as soon as may be”, choose two of its members to be Speaker and Deputy Speaker. But, Constitution and the Assembly rules do not specify a time-frame for filling a vacancy in the post of Speaker. [महाराष्ट्र विधानसभा में स्पीकर का पद लगभग एक वर्ष से ख़ाली है हालाँकि मुख्यमंत्री ने बयान दिया है कि संविधान में कोई समय सीमा तय नहीं है कि कब तक स्पीकर का स्थान भरा जाये।]
  • Legislature: Deputy Speaker: The tradition for the post of the Deputy Speaker going to the Opposition party started during the term of Prime Minister Morarji Desai. However in the recent years, Deputy Speaker position has been given to ruling party allies rather than to opposition party.[प्रधानमंत्री मोरारजी देसाई के समय से डिप्टी स्पीकर का पद विपक्ष के सांसद को देने का रिवाज़ शुरू हुआ हालाँकि वर्तमान वर्षों में शासक पक्ष के साथी पक्षों को ये पद दिया जा रहा है।]

🗞 Current Affairs 2021: diplomacy in international relations from July Week2

  • 3B-Intl-Org 🤝: SCO vs Taliban: Shanghai cooperation Organisation: members = China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and India. The SCO has four observer states — Iran, Afghanistan, Mongolia and Belarus. SCO position in Afghanistan 1) China-Russia did not oppose US intervention in Afghanistan in 2001. They had no quarrel with America’s immediate goal of ousting al Qaeda. 2) Presently China and Russia happy with America humiliation in Afghanistan. 3) however, long-term implications of American retreat from Afghanistan = negative security implications for China and Russia as well because Taliban may support the terror groups in those countries. 4) while Taliban leaders have given verbal assurance that they will respect the borders and internal matters of the neighbouring countries but their previous record is not inspiring confidence. 5) Afghani leaders not always in cordial terms with Pakistan, have some border disputes etc. So, enemies-enemy-is-my friend logic pe there is opportunity for India to collaborate with them. शंघाई सहयोग संस्थान के बड़े सदस्य चीन और रूस वैसे तो 2001 में अमरीका के अफ़ग़ानिस्तान आक्रमण से ख़ुश थे क्योंकि वे भी तालिबान का ख़ात्मा चाहते थे. किंतु जब 2021 में अमेरिका ने अफ़ग़ानिस्तान से अपनी सेना को वापस बुला लिया है तो रुस और चीन के लिए भविष्य में समस्या है क्योंकि उनके स्थानीय आतंकी समूह को तालिबान मदद कर सकता है।

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