Current Affairs for UPSC: Polity Governance from November Week2: All India Judicial Services & More

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  • all India judicial services: Under the Constitution, the power to make appointments to the lower judiciary vests with the states. Currently, states conduct their own exams based on vacancies. AIJS was first mooted in the 1950s – All India recruitment exam for lower judges similar to IAS/IPS. Later Supreme Court also justified the demand for it but 😥1) language barriers if South Indian person appointed in the lower judiciary of Hindi belt?→ counter argument even IAS/IPS required to learn the local language so judges can also do it. 2) West Bengal, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Uttarakhand opposed AIJS fearing dilution of the federal structure (IAS और IPS की तर्ज़ पर ही अखिल भारतीय न्यायिक सेवा की परीक्षा हूँ और उसे निचली अदालतों के जजों की भर्ती हो इस प्रकार का सुझाव50 से चल ही रहा है और सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने भी इस पर सकारात्मक राय दी है किन्तु कुछ आलोचक मानते हैं कि ऐसा करने पर भाषा की कठिनता हो सकती है जैसे कि दक्षिण भारतीय जज को उत्तर भारत में नियुक्ति दी जाए किन्तु अगर IAS IPS अफ़सर स्थानिक भाषा सीख सकते हैं तो ये जज भी सिख सकते हे। पश्चिम बंगाल जैसे कुछ राज्यों को इसमें संघवाद कमज़ोर होने की डर लगता है क्योंकि निचली अदालतों में जजों की नियुक्ति राज्य के अधिकार क्षेत्र में)
  • election- Religious identity over caste identities: where is political parties have realised that it is difficult to win election merely with caste equations like AJGAR= Ahirs, Jats, Gurjars and Rajputs or KHAM = Kshatriya, Harijan, Adivasi and Muslim. So they have started to draw the circle wider bye expanding core voter base on “Hindu Identity” e.g. Congress Leader Rahul Gandhi visiting temples, AAP leader Arvind Kejriwal announcing subsidy for senior citizen on Ayodhya pilgrimage (विपक्ष को लग रहा है कि जातिगत समीकरणों के उपयोग मात्र से चुनाव जीतना मुश्किल इसलिए अपना चुनावी आधार बढ़ाने के लिए वह हिंदुत्व के बडे आकार के छतरी तले अपनी जाति आधारित वोटरों को लाना चाहते हैं। उदाहरण के रूप में राहुल गांधी की मंदिर यात्रा और अरविन्द केजरीवाल का अयोध्या यात्रा के लिए सब्सिडी घोषणा करना )
  • GPSC: E-SARKAR APP LAUNCHED ON PILOT BASIS by Gujarat governmentto make administrative works paperless, quick and easy for citizen.
  • GSM2-IR/Polity: religion versus the state When a state cedes its authority to religious forces then it is difficult to regain the authority back. Because giving too much space to religious or other extra-constitutional forces inevitably weakens the state. There is no end to accommodating such forces. Each concession compels the next demand. The power of religious groups undermines the much needed social and economic modernisation that most developing societies badly need. It also complicates the state’s pursuit of its national interests on the global stage. 2015: Tehreek-eLabbaik Pakistan (TLP) party founded by Islamic groups following Barelvi sect. Their ideology is the protection of the Prophet’s honour and a vigorous defence of Pakistan’s controversial blasphemy laws. 2) TLP was mobilised to weaken the Nawaz Sharif government in 2017. The then opposition leader Imran Khan actively supported the TLP’s protests against Sharif. 3) Now same group TLP organising protests against Prime Minister Imran Khan firing submachineguns against police man and demanding expulsion of French ambassador over the cartoon controversy. 4) Imran cannot accept the demand because France is major donor to Pakistan and permanent member of the UN Security Council. 5) Ultimately Imran forced to surrender to the demands of TLP like releasing the imprisoned leaders, unfreezing their bank accounts etc. (जब राज्य या सरकार या राजनीतिक संगठन धार्मिक संगठनों को बोहोत ज़्यादा जगह/अवकाश/समर्थन देना शुरू करता है, उनकी हर छोटी छोटी बात को मानना तुष्टीकरण करना शुरू करता है तो राज्य की शक्ति क्षीण होती है। पाकिस्तान में कट्टरपंथी TLP जिसका पहले विपक्ष के नेता इमरान ख़ान ने नवाज़ शरीफ़ की सरकार गिराने के लिए काफ़ी इस्तेमाल किया अब वही TLP प्रधानमंत्री इमरान विरोधी प्रदर्शन कर रहा है कि फ़्रान्स के राजदूत को पाकिस्तान से देश निकाल दिया जाए क्योंकि फ़्रान्स ने मोहम्मद पैगंबर के कार्टून बनाकर अपमान हो रहा है। ऐसे प्रदर्शन के दौरान आंदोलनकारियों ने पाकिस्तानी पुलिसकर्मियों पर मशीन गन से गोलियां भी चलायी और उन्हें मार दिया। हालाँकि पाकिस्तान सरकार के लिए फ़्रान्सीसी राजदूत को देशनिकाल मुश्किल क्योंकि फ़्रान्स से उन्हें काफ़ी आर्थिक मदद मिलती है और फ़्रान्स संयुक्त राष्ट्र सुरक्षा परिषद का स्थायी सदस्य हैं। इसलिए अब T L P कि आंदोलन को ख़त्म करने के लिए उनके नेताओं को जेल से छोड़ा जाएगा उनके बैंक खातों पर प्रतिबंध हटाया जाएगा इत्यादि।)
  • MADRAS High Court on quashed the 10.5 per cent special internal reservation provided by the Tamil Nadu government for Vanniyars, a most backward caste (MBC) community, stating that it is ultra vires to the Constitution because 1) no quantifiable data on on population, socio-educational status given. 2) In most of the Districts in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Vanniyar community population is very less. So, if 10.5% reservation is given to the Vanniyar caste all over the state, they would automatically get selected in the educational institutions or in the government employments without there being any competition 3) Candidates of other MBCs would find it difficult to get admission in the Educational Institutions and in the Government employment for the reason that their reservation would be decreased from 20% to 9.5% (तमिलनाडु राज्य सरकार ने अति पिछड़ी जातियों में से एक वनीयार समुदाय को अग़ल से साढ़े 10% आरक्षण दिया था जिसे मद्रास हाईकोर्ट ने रद किया हे क्योंकि इस समुदाय के पिछड़ेपन के बारे में कोई मात्रात्मक डेटा सरकार ने पेश नहीं किया था ज़्यादातर ज़िलों में इनकी आबादी बहूत कम है तो यदि अलग से आरक्षण दिया जाए तो बिना कोई ख़ास स्पर्धा के इनके सभी उम्मीदवारों को एडमिशन और सरकारी नौकरियां मिल जाएगी जिससे कि अन्य उम्मीदवारों को अन्याय होगा।
  • Polity/Role of Pressure groups: Madhya Pradesh Public and Private Property Damage Resolution and Recovery Bill, 2021: will allow the administration to recover upto twice the cost of damages caused to public and private property by an individual or a group during communal riots, protests and rallies. Uttar Pradesh & Haryana also have similar laws. 🤔Points to Reflect: socho, how much nuisance would have been going on in the name of protests, that state governments are forced to enact such law! It shows that pressure groups in North India are routinely engaging in violence/destruction to get their demands. (उत्तर प्रदेश और हरियाणा के बाद अब मध्य प्रदेश सरकार भी ऐसा क़ानून बनाने जा रही है कि आंदोलनकारियों ने जो सार्वजनिक या निजी संपत्ति का नुक़सान किया हूँ उसका दोगुना जुर्माना माना वसूला जाएगा। यदि उत्तर भारत में एक के बाद एक राज्य सरकारें ऐसे क़ानून बना रही है तो वो दर्शाता है कि दबाव समूहों हिंसा और तोड़फोड़ को अपनी बात मनवाने का एक साधन के रूप में इस्तेमाल कर रहे हैं।)
  • SUPREME Court on set aside the Calcutta High Court order imposing a total ban on use of firecrackers during festivals such as Kali Puja, Diwali, Chhath Puja, Jagadhatri Puja, Gurpurab, Christmas Eve and New Year’s Eve this year, terming it an “extreme order”. (कलकत्ता हाईकोर्ट ने सभी प्रकार के उत्सव में पटाखे जलाने पर सम्पूर्ण रूप से प्रतिबंध डाल दिया जिसको सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने हटा दिया है क्योंकि ये एक “चरम आदेश” है)
  • Polity/Election-Defection: Tripura State government passed a rule that an MLA must serve minimum five years before he is eligible for the Rs 34,500 pension. Otherwise many MLA defect from one party to another in a few months/ resign/by-election and continue to put burden on the public finance. (विधायक यदि पाँच साल पूरे नहीं करता तो उसे पेंशन नहीं मिलेगी त्रिपुरा में। पक्ष पलटू विधायकों को भी सबक़ सिखाने की तरकीब)
  • Polity- Right to mother tongue: Punjab Learning of Punjabi and Other Languages Act, 2008 by the state government for learning of Punjabi as a compulsory subject by students studying in classes 1 to 10, ELSE ₹2 lakh rupees fine on the school (पंजाब के स्कूलों में कक्षा १-१० तक पंजाबी मातृभाषा अनिवार्य रूप से नहीं पढ़ाई गई तो स्कूलों को दो लाख रुपया का जुर्माना होगा)
  • Polity: reservation in private sector jobs- 1) HARYANA GOVERNMENT notified 75 per cent reservation for locals in private sector jobs offering a monthly salary of less than Rs 30,000, with effect from January 2022. 2) Karnataka and Maharashtra also planning similar laws. 😥 freedom of profession, right to move and reside anywhere in India. 😥 Company cannot hire the best talented person due to such domiciled requirement. 😥 politicisation of the migrant issue instead of creating jobs for the youth. 😍 Nobel 2021 for Economics: immigrants donot depress wages for native-born workers. He found that incomes of the native-born can benefit from new immigration due to demand for goods and services by the immigrants. 30,000 से कम तनख़्वाह वाली नौकरियों में स्थानीय लोगों को ७५% आरक्षण का हरियाणा सरकार का क़ानून जिसके विपक्ष में कुछ कर दिए गए हैं। क्योंकि ये भारतीयों के रोज़गार और स्थानांतर के मौलिक अधिकारों के ख़िलाफ़ है और 2०21 के नोबेल पारितोषिक विजेता अर्थशास्त्रियों ने भी साबित किया है कि प्रवासी मज़दूरों से स्थानीय लोगों को भी फ़ायदा होता है
  • Polity: Remote voting for migrant workers- Presently a citizen can vote only in the constituency where he is registered as voter. Police/army/IFS et cetera maybe given postal ballot because they are posted away from their constituency. Chief Election Commissioner said that concept of remote voting will be done by the 2024 elections i.e. migrant worker can vote remotely away from his home town constituency. EC & IIT-Madras doing trials using Blockchain technology & a prototype EVM machine. (प्रवासी मज़दूरों के लिए रिमोट वोटिंग/ दूरस्थान से मतदान के परीक्षण चुनाव आयोग द्वारा किए जा रहे हैं)
  • Polity-Governance: President of India has advised that GOVERNORS MUST cut down on visits to their home and spend more time visiting Raj Bhavans of other states to ensure best practices are shared among them. (राज्यपाल/गवर्नर अपने गृह राज्यों की मुलाक़ात पर जाते हैं तो उन्होंने दूसरे गवर्नर की भी शुभेच्छा मुलाक़ात लेनी चाहिए और एक दूसरे की अच्छी प्रशासनिक अनुभवो को साझा करना चाहिए)
  • GSM2 Polity: comparing Constitution- Chinese President had two years term limit but 2018: Xi JinPing removed term limit. Latest meeting of the Communist party he is likely to get third term reappointment. Communist party also release the declaration stating that he is the third most giant leader after Mao and Deng (हालाँकि चीन में राष्ट्रपति का कार्यकाल दो बार तक सीमित था लेकिन शी जिनपिंग ने उस बाधा को हटा दिया था और अब वे तीसरी बार भी राष्ट्रपति बनेंगे)
  • Polity: Combative federalism →General consent for CBI. 🤔 National Investigation Agency (NIA), which is governed by The NIA Act, 2008, has jurisdiction across the country. But the CBI is governed by The Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946, and must mandatorily obtain the consent of the state government concerned before beginning to investigate a crime in a state. The consent of the state government can be either case-specific or general. 🤔 “general consent” is normally given by states to help the CBI in seamless investigation of cases of corruption against central government employees in their states. Almost all states have traditionally given such consent. 😥But Eight states have currently withdrawn consent to the CBI: Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, and Mizoram. 😥 So, CBI will not be able to register any fresh case involving officials of the central government or a private person in the state without the consent of the state government. “CBI officers will lose all powers of a police officer as soon as they enter the state unless the state government has allowed them. 🤔Way Forward: 1) if somehow CBI can prove that case is connected with Delhi, then it can go to West Bengal to arrest a person. 2) Union government could amend the law. (झगडालू संघवाद- बिना राज्य सरकार की अनुमति के CBI ने किसी राज्य में लोगों के ख़िलाफ़ भ्रष्टाचार के मामलों में कार्रवाई नहीं कर सकती। कुछ ग़ैर BJP राज्यों ने इस प्रकार की अनुमति बंद कर दी है- ऐसे ही आरोप लगाकर की भाजपा द्वारा CBI का राजनीतिक दुरुपयोग हो रहा है)
  • Separation of powers/ Interstate boundary disputes: Both Andhra and Odisha government claimed ownership of Kotia region. 2006: Supreme Court held that inter-state boundaries did not fall within its jurisdiction and only Parliament could resolve them. But there has been no resolution since. 2021: Supreme Court ordered both the states to resolve the matter by themselves. Separately, Assam-Mizoram police firing & Deaths. 🤔Points to Reflect: Parliament should proactively fix this problems. (दो राज्यों के बीच सीमा विवाद का हल केवल संसद कर सकती है सुप्रीम कोर्ट नहीं ऐसा सुप्रीम कोर्ट का बोलना है)
  • Polity-Judicial Delay1: 1997 Uphaar theatre fire tragedy killed 59 in audience→2021: nearly 25 years later the owner Bansal brothers get 7 year jail. Reasons 1) Proper legal framework missing for fixing dual liability in such manmade disasters— in civil law by granting compensation to victims and in criminal law by ensuring the guilty are punished appropriately. 2) tempering with the evidences by the rich person to derail the process. न्यायिक विलंब- सिनेमा घर में आग लगे तो पीड़ित को दीवानी मुआवज़ा और अपराधी को फौजदारी सज़ा मिलनी चाहिए इस बारे में क़ानूनी ढांचा कमज़ोर है और अमीर लोग सबूतों से छेड़-छाड़ करते हैं
  • Polity-Judicial Delay2: 1971: Sasadhar Biswas borrowed Rs 3,000 from Rama Devi. But he didn’t repay the loan. 2021: SC delivered verdict after 50 years! Because Sasadhar Biswas Loopholes in Civil Procedure Code 1908 to continue status quo by filing appeals against every verdict to auction his land, illegally constructing a house on the land etc. 🤔Points to Reflect: 1) justice hurried is justice buried 2) justice delayed is justice denied. 3) filling up the vacancies of the judges alone will not solve the problem as long as civil procedure code is amended to discourage such loopholes/delays. उधारी में दिए गए 3000 रुपये लौटाने के केस में पचास साल बाद सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने फ़ैसला सुनाया है। तो ज़्यादा न्यायाधीशों की भर्ती इस समस्या का समाधान नहीं जब तक क़ानून में ही इस प्रकार की छेदों को बंद किया जाए जिससे वक़ील बार बार मामले की अपील में जाते रहते हैं
  • HC Judges “Punishment” transfer: Article 222 of the Constitution makes provision for the transfer of a Judge (including Chief Justice) from one High Court to any other High Court. But, as per SC judgements- No transfer order can be issued by the President without the advice of the chief justice of India. So Supreme Court collegium decides the selection/transfer matters of HC Judges. Controversy- Madras High Court has total 75 judges and Meghalaya High Court has four judges. So, when a judge of Madras High Court is transferred to Meghalaya High Court, some persons, consider it as a punishment posting to a less significant HC. 😥Controversy: 2019- Madras HC Justice Tahilramani was transferred to Meghalaya then she resigned. 2021: Justice Sanjib Banerjee, Chief Justice, Madras HC, to Meghalaya HC. He was in news because of certain judgements – 1) against govt’s social media intermediary guidelines 2) against Puducherry BJP accessed voters’ phone numbers linked to their Aadhaar cards. 3) Against EC officials must be “booked for murder” for organising polls in Corona wave 2.0- SC observed that HCs must be cautious in censuring officials. 🤔Points to Reflect: 1) some judges argue that no High Court is inferior and therefore there is no punishment posting, a judge must be ready to serve anywhere in the country! If everyone refuses to serve in Meghalaya then how will Meghalaya High Court work!? 2) since the process to remove/dismiss a judge is very lengthy and cumbersome, so sometimes SC collegium resort to transfer the person. (सजा के रूप में हाईकोर्ट के जज का तबादला)
  • Polity-Legislature: RS Secretary General is appointed by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha from amongst those who have made their mark by long years of service in the Parliament or State Legislatures or the Civil Service. Usual practice is to appoint a law expert. 😥 existing secretary general Replaced within 2 months by an Ex-IRS officer who is accused of being pro-BJP. (राज्य सभा के महासचिव दो महीने में बदल कर एक भूतपूर्व IRS अफ़सर को नियुक्त किया गया उस पर विवाद चल रहा है)
  • Governance/ pressure groups: NSA Doval Speech: new frontier of war or fourth generation warfare is civil society” since conventional wars have ceased to become an effective instrument for achieving political or military objectives because conventional wars tend to be very expensive. When the civil society that can be subverted, suborned, that can be divided, that can be manipulated to hurt the interest of a nation। (सिविल सोसाइटी, पर्यावरण किसान के नागरिक अधिकार इत्यादि के दबावसमूह ही युद्ध नीति की चौथी पीढ़ी है। क्योंकि पारंपरिक युद्ध बहूत ही महँगा होता है इसलिए आज कल शत्रु देश सिविल सोसायटी के माध्यम से माहौल बिगाड़ने की कोशिश कर रहे हैं। CAA/Farm Law protest मैं हिंसा क्या इस तरफ़ इशारा कर रही है? )
  • Secularism: Comparing Constitution: Bangladesh-1979 General Zia-ur-Rehman got the constitution amended in to remove the word “secularism”. His Successor General Ershad declared Islam as the “state religion” in Bangladesh. 2011: Sheikh Hasina restored “secularism” in the constitution. Because of so many decades of radicalisation certain groups have become very strong. Present crisis of destruction of Hindu temples. (बांग्लादेश के संविधान में एक धर्मनिरपेक्ष शब्द हटाया गया था फिर वापस लाया भी गया था)
Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

2 Comments on “Current Affairs for UPSC: Polity Governance from November Week2: All India Judicial Services & More”

  1. Sir mai 2023 ki tayyari kar raha hu. I want to study economy from you. I have access to Unacademy subscription only for 2 months given to me by my friend. In your latest economy course for 2022, you said that the 2023 aspirants should not watch this course as many things will get outdated. I will not be able to buy the subscription later to attend your course for CSE 2023. What should I do? please help me. If I attend your course for 2022, what changes would I have to make later? I am targeting 2023. Please help me.

  2. Sir good evening
    My name is Suresh, I belong to OBC moreover I am almost 32 years 6 months old I have not learnt anything about CSE exams related syallbus yet ,will it be possible me to crack this exam in very last attempt and there is no situation at my home in which I could study calmly as I had been married since 2014 since then everything was well in between both of us,but in 2018 something had happed with me she got deceived me and since then I got disappointed and I have 2 child(one in 2016 and another in 2019 f )now the problem is that I want to clear this exam anyhow and I think I would but she is not allowing me to do so. sir what to do plz suggest me something otherwise I think I will lost this opportunity from my life I’m very disappointed the only hope is your suggestion/support required.
    Kindly help me to get through it.

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