Current Affairs for UPSC: Economy, Agriculture & Environment from NovW3- Farm Laws repealed, PayTM IPO, Glasgow Summit

MrunalCurrent Affairs1 Comment

Mrunal's Win22 Series for Economy Updates for UPSC Prelims & Mains 2022

Economy Current Affairs from Nov-Week3

  • 1A1-Money-💳:- EcoPill1B2:Bad Loans: RBI Jayant Kumar Dash WORKING group on digital lending thru websites/app. need a separate law for regulating this. Setup Self-Regulatory Organisation (SRO). Money must be transferred from lender to borrowers account directly in Bank- so as to keep a trace of evidence / black money etc.
  • 1B-Bank Classification & Loans🔪:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Nov tax devolution to states front-loaded for capex push. One liner that Advance instalment given so they can develop infrastructure.
  • 1B-Bank Classification & Loans🔪:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ What’s behind the recent startup IPO rush
  • 1B-Bank Classification & Loans🔪:- EcoPill1A1-Digital Payments: Nigeria launched its non-interest-yielding central bank digital currency (CBDC) — the eNaira. CBDC pilot projects are underway in at least 17 other countries. Pros and cons Already covered in Mrunal’s Free Win21 Lecture Series available at (केंद्रीय बैंक द्वारा वैधानिक मुद्रा को काग़ज़ी स्वरूप से नहीं लेकिन डिजिटल रूप में छापना)
  • 1c👨🏿‍💻SEBI-Sharemarket:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Crypto Bill may be in Winter session. Let them actually table the bill
  • 1c👨🏿‍💻SEBI-Sharemarket:- Paytm (One 97 Communications, CEO Vijay Shekhar Sharma. Other partners . China’s Alibaba-Ant group (6%), Japan’s SoftBank and Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway) launched INDIA’S LARGEST initial public offering (IPO) that raised Rs 18,300 crore from investors. Stag (Male Deer) Investor – buys shares in IPO (initial public offering in the primary market) with hopes of selling it at a very high price on LISTING in Secondary market. Often they get lucky with almost 80-100% profit but Gameplan failed in Paytm. Primary market Rs.2150 but but on day1 of listing (in the secondary market), it fell by almost 25%. Reasons 😥 1) General slowdown in the share market because of the high inflation and American interest rate/fed tapering concerns 😥 2) high valuation of Paytm share price but institutional investors (Mutual Fund, Pension Fund etc) not very confident of the growth prospects of this company. To put this simply for layman- HDFC bank can give loan and its share is priced at ₹1500 whereas Paytm (a Payment Bank, can’t give loan) demanding ₹2150 share price. Previously Paytm had superiority because of the mobile wallet system, but mobile wallets no longer necessary thanks to UPI-Bhim. Paytm’s own filling to SEBI says they may never become profitable! 😥3) startup bubble, no free lunches in economy- said Raghuram Rajan. Cashback discount is given to build subscriber base to create hype- ultimately startup founders recovered all the cashback money from retail investors (who lost 25% on listing day). 😥4) this could also negatively affect the future IPOs of Startup Companies / tapid reponce to Govt’s disinvestment. 😥5) Ethical- Retail investors frenzy applying IPO, playing sharemarket with the hopes of 25 dinn me paisa double. At some point they were bound to pay for excess greed. (Paytm IPO में डूबा निवेशको का पैसा- कंपनी की मुनाफ़ा क्षमता के हिसाब से बहूत ऊँचे दाम पर बेचा गया था। स्टार्टअप का गुब्बारा फूटेगा एसा डर. बिना मेहनत के 25 दिन में पैसे डबल करने की लालच रखने वाले आम निवेशकों ने भी अपने नैतिक मूल्यों पर सोच विचार करना चाहिए की लालच बुरी बला है)
  • 1c👨🏿‍💻SEBI-Sharemarket:- Sebi releases investor charter for investor protection and complaint redressal. To be covered in Mrunal’s Free Win22 Lecture Series available at (सेबी द्वारा निवेशको का अधिकार पत्र)
  • 1c👨🏿‍💻SEBI-Sharemarket:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Sebi tweaks ‘fit and properperson’rule
  • 1c👨🏿‍💻SEBI-Sharemarket:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ How buyback using retro tax refund helps Cairn. Retro tax already explained Already covered in Mrunal’s Free Win21 Lecture Series available at
  • 2-Budget-Taxation💼:- EcoPill2-Budget: Fiscal Challenge: SC ordered COVID Ex gratia Rs 50,000 to next of kin of those who died due to Covid-19. It is not mandatory that death certificate must mention “covid” as cause of death. However Gujarat state government has set up ‘Covid-19 death ascertaining committee’, to scrutinise the claims before releasing the money. SC pulls up Gujarat Govt for going contrary to the SC directions. 🤔Points to Reflect: 😥 1) State governments do not on enough money from taxation so it is difficult for them to release the money esp. Gujarat, Bihar- with liquor ban 😥 2) State governments provide businessman with land at token price (e.g. 100 hectare land for token price of ₹1 for 99 years)- for industrial development, renewable energy etc. Along with concessions in the property tax, land revenue etc. Therefore states do not have enough money for emergency. 😥 3) Way forward? need to improve Insurance density, insurance penetration, calamity insurance. (कोरोना से जो व्यक्ति मरे हैं उनके नज़दीकी परिजनों को 50, हज़ार रुपये देने के लिए मृत्यु प्रमाण पत्र में ‘कोरोना से मौत’ एसा लिखा होना अनिवार्य नहीं है एसे सुप्रीम कोर्ट के आदेश का गुजरात सरकार पर सीधा पालन करने की जगह अलग से समिति बनायी है जो की जाँच करेगी कि वास्तव में लाभार्थी कोरोना से मरा था कि नहि, इस पर सुप्रीम कोर्ट नाराज़ है। 🤔 राज्य सरकारों के पास कराधान में आमदनी वैसे भी कम होती है और औद्योगिक प्रोत्साहन के लिए फ़्री में ज़मीन देना- जिसके चलते वित्तीय क्षमता कम होती। लोग स्वयं ही अपना बीमा ख़रीदें या सरकार द्वारा सभी लोगों के लिए पहले से ही आपदा बीमा ख़रीद लिया जाए)
  • 2-Budget-Taxation💼:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Tax Chori Panama PANDORA SHOWS how offshore entity. (असल में कुछ पकड़ने दो)
  • 3A-Intl-Trade🤝:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA) at GIFT City has recommended changes in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Act, 2005, to make the sector attractive. (वो तो ऐसे भी हवा भी सुझाव दे सकते हैं कराधान के कानूनों में सुधार होता कि और विदेशी निवेश भारत आ सके )
  • 3B-Intl-Org 🤝:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ IP rights waiver on Covid essentials: Govt engaging EU, others ahead of WTO. Let the meeting happen.

  • 4a-agro👨‍🌾:- EcoPil4A-Agro: PM Modi to repeal three farm laws 1) The Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020, which is aimed at allowing trade in agricultural produce outside the existing APMC (Agricultural Produce Market Committee) mandis; 2) The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020, which seeks to provide a framework for contract farming; 3) The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020, which is aimed at giving certain relief to food processing companies from the stockholding limits during inflation. Salient features of the Acts explain in detail in Mrunal’s Free Win20 Series ( REASONS for removal of 3 farm laws: 1) farmers were protesting fearing exploitation at the hands of MNCs similar to ola-uber drivers and zomato delivery boys. Govt was unable to convince them. 2) 😥) farm laws were for all practical purposes dead from 2021-Jan: because Supreme Court had stayed farm laws implementation “until further orders”. The apex court never heard the matter again even after an expert committee. 😥) problems in federalism: state governments complaining that union government is encroaching upon their legal domain. 😥) protest sites were creating problem of traffic, movement of other citizens, incidents of lynching. 😥) removal of stock limit in the Essential commodity act was creating problem for the government in controlling the pulses inflation. 😥) the present lockdown was preventing government from doing other set of reforms in agriculture such as urea subsidy electricity subsidy etc. 🤔 ) protesting farm leaders were demanding new set of reforms e.g make a new law to make MSP a legal right, similar to the National Food Security Act. but this is financially difficult for the union government. But now the protesters will return to their homes so farm leaders will not be able continue the protests for MSP-legal right in an effective manner. 🤔 ) RSS feared agitation was impacting social cohesion of Hindus & Sikhs in Punjab, affecting the election outcome. 😥 Unofficial reasons: 1) Punjab election, strong possibility of the BJP joining hands with former chief minister Amarinder Singh 2) Preventing he rise of Rakesh Tikait in Western UP before UP election. 3) Modi was worried about his global image after Comedian Vir Das, Greta Thurnberg & Pop-star Rihanna supported farmers. 😍 Way forward: 🤔 Modi government can ask BJP-ruled states to reform their APMC laws to deregulate farm produce trading and enable contract cultivation. Once they do it, other states are bound to follow sooner for competitive federalism. 😍) lesson for the ruling party/Union Executive that being that the process of economic reforms has to be more consultative, more transparent and better communicated to the potential beneficiaries. It is this inclusiveness that lies at the heart of democratic functioning of India. It takes time and humility to implement reforms, given the argumentative nature of our society. But doing so ensures that everyone wins. तीन किसान क़ानून जिसके प्रमुख बिंदु हम पहले ही 2020 के भी वीडियों में पड़ चुके हैं उसको मोदी सरकार ने हटा दिया। किसान विरोध प्रदर्शन कर रहे थे कि हमारा शोषण होगा बहुराष्ट्रीय कंपनियों द्वारा और सरकार उन्हें आश्वस्त नहीं कर पा रही थी. सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने भी जनवरी महीने से इन कानूनों को स्थगित करवा दिया था. राज्य सरकारें भी सहकारी संघवाद हनन का आरोप लगा rhi थी। आंदोलनकारियों के चलते यातायात परिवहन भीड़ द्वारा वध करना ऐसी समस्या। किसान नेता न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य को क़ानून अधिकार बढ़ाने की माँग कर रहे थे लेकिन मोदी सरकार के लिए वित्तीय रूप से करना असंभव । अब जो पुराने किसान क़ानून ही हटा दिए तो आंदोलनकारी घर वापस लौट जाएंगे तो किसान नेता MSP वाली बात पर ज़ोरदार प्रदर्शन कर नहि पाएँगे। पंजाबी हिंदू सिख सौहार्द में दिक़्क़त आ रही थी जिसे BJP के लिए चुनाव जीतना मुश्किल। मोदी को अपनी वैश्विक छवि की चिंता थी क्योंकि Greta जैसे मशहूर विदेशी आंदोलनकारी किसानों का समर्थन कर रहे थे! हालाँकि भविष्य में BJP शासित राज्य सरकारें किसान नेताओं को विश्वास में लेके इसी प्रकार के क़ानून ख़ुद भी तो पास कर सकती है उसके बाद अन्य राज्यों पर भी दबाव बनेगा कि वे भी ऐसे क़ानून पास करे। भविष्य में कृषि सुधार और आर्थिक सुधार से पहले सरकार ने ज़्यादा लोगों को विश्वास में लेना चाहिए ये इस मामले का सबक हे।

  • 4a-agro👨‍🌾:- EcoPil4A-Agro: Farm-law repeal: ANTI Arguments 😥 1) Cropping patterns will remain skewed in favour of rice and wheat, with the granaries of the Food Corporation of India bulging with stocks of grain. The food subsidy will keep bloating and there will be large leakages. The groundwater table in the northwestern states will keep receding and methane and nitrous oxide will keep polluting the environment. 😥 2) Farmer will be continued to be exploited at the hand of APMC traders and consumers will suffer food inflation from middlemen commissions. 3) The latest Situation Assessment Survey of the NSO reveals that the income of an average agri-household in India was only Rs 10,218 per month in 2018-19. Even if we add another Rs 500 per month under the PM-KISAN scheme, still it’s insufficient for decent Standard of living. APMC needs to be reformed. 4) we may witness freebies being showered in the runup to state elections, followed by more freebies before the General Election in 2024. This competitive populism can give some succour to the poor in the short run, which they deserve, having suffered badly during the pandemic period, but in the long run this will harm fiscal deficit. कृषि अर्थशास्त्र के विशेषज्ञ प्रोफ़ेसर अशोक गुलाटी का मानना है कि ये ३ कृषि क़ानून हटाने से क्या क्या नुक़सान होंगे। गेहूं और चावल की फसलों की पैदावार पर ज़्यादा ज़ोर दिया जाएगा जिसे असल में भुजल क़िल्लत, वायु प्रदूषण, जमीन प्रदूषण होगा इत्यादि। हालाँकि इस मामले का मिलता जुलता प्रश्न UPSC Mains-२०२० पूछ चुकी है और उसका मॉडल आंसर भी मे अपलोड कर चुका हूँ (
  • 4a-agro👨‍🌾:- EcoPil4A-Agro: TRIBAL district of Dangs in Gujarat will formally be declared an organic farming district because all farm are completely free from chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Earlier Sikkim became the hundred percent organic state after the state assembly passed a law prohibiting the entry of chemical fertilizer/pesticides. (जैविक खेती जिला- जहाँ मानव निर्मित रसायनों का प्रयोग वर्जित हो)
  • 4c-GDP/Inflation🧅:- EcoPil4C-GDP/Inflation: Inflation: 1) Stagflation = High inflation, low GDP growth, high unemployment. 2) core inflation = headline minus food and fuel. Then Indian express explains long winded data analysis we will not study because let 📙📙ES22 come. (महँगाई मुद्रास्फीति)
  • 4c-GDP/Inflation🧅:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Data for 7.3 crore registered workers across 36 states/UTs (as on Nov 11) let 📙📙ES22 come. We’ll study from there.
  • 4c-GDP/Inflation🧅:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ e-Shram portal — the country’s first centralised database of unorganised workers seeded with Aadhaar. 7 of 10 informal workers SC, ST, OBCs; more than half work in the farm sector. Let 📙📙ES22 come next year.
  • 5-Infra-Energy🔌:- EcoPil5-INFRA: Energy: shale oil also called ‘tight oil’. is found in smaller batches, and deeper than conventional crude deposits. Its extraction requires hydraulic fracking- meaning creation of fractures in then pumping water-guar gum mixure to get the shale’s released. 😥 India has some deposits in Barmer Hills (Rajasthan), Cambay basin in Gujarat and the Krishna Godavari basin in Andhra Pradesh. But challenges regarding the technology and deposit size. although foreign companies like Cairn exploring in Barmer. 😥 when the crude oil price declines the demand of shale gas declines much faster- thus turning project unprofitable. So reliance exited from American Shale-gas business. Thus, Indian companies are not getting the technology or experience in the Shell gas drilling business.
  • 5-Infra-Energy🔌:- EcoPil5-INFRA: Mining- Goa has two important sources of livelihood- 1) Tourism. 2) Mining. During Portuguese rule, mining rights given to businessmen for perpetuity. 1961: Liberation of Goa- Mining leases with a finite time period- expired in 2007. Afterwards litigations related to corruption in mining rights allocation, environment damage. So for the last few years mining industry has came to almost standstill. Resulting into job loss and business loss. So resumption of the mining is one of the main agenda in the election campaigning in Goa. (गोवा में खनन प्रतिबंध को हटाना चुनावी मुद्दा है)
  • 5-Infra-Energy🔌:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Green push: Gencos can sell renewable power to discoms under thermal deals. Technical rules poor cost:benefit. Sufficient to know that it will help the renewable energy market. कोयला बिजली उत्पादक किसी से अक्षय ऊर्जा ख़रीद के बिजली आपूर्ति कंपनीयो को बेच पाए उसकी सब तकनीकी नियमों में बदलाव होते rhete हे। हमारे लिए इतना जानना काफ़ी है कि इससे नवीनीकरण ऊर्जा की बिक्री और उत्पादन में मदद मिलेगी। झंडा लेके उसमें phd कर तो सकते हाई लेकिन २०० दिन मे प्रिलिम के बाक़ी विषयों की पढ़ाई ख़त्म नहीं हो पाएगी।
  • 5-Infra-Transport⚓️:- EcoPil5-INFRA: Railway station renaming: business of naming it is left to the discretion of the state government concerned. Change of station names is a state subject even though Railways belongs to the Union government. The state government sends the request to the Home Ministry, which then gives its approval, keeping the Railways Ministry in the loop. Usually, it is checked that no other station with the proposed name exists anywhere in India. A new station “code” for railway operations may need to be invented. For instance for Rani Kamlapati station, the code changes from “HBJ” (Habibganj railway station) to “RKMP” (Rani Kamlapati station) (हालाँकि रेलवे स्टेशन का मालिक केंद्र सरकार होता है लेकिन रेलवे स्टेशन का नामकरण राज्यों द्वारा किया जाता है)
  • 5-Infra-Urban:- EcoPil5-INFRA: Housing. (DATA) more than 77% of the total assets of an average Indian household are held in real estate, and it’s the single largest investment of an individual in his lifetime. (Origin) Consumer Protection Act, 1986 was inadequate to address the needs of homebuyers against the builders’ malpractices. So, 2016: Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA). 😥 if the building project had started but not given completion certificate in 2016- those projects not covered in law. However now Supreme Court has given the retrospective effect- so those buyers can also benefit. 😥 combatative federalism: West Bengal government not implementing this law has enacted its own legislation — West Bengal Housing Industry Regulation Act, 2017 (HIRA) — instead of notifying rules under RERA. (२०१६ का रेरा क़ानून लागू होने के दिन जो बिल्डिंग प्रोजेक्ट निर्माणाधीन किए हैं उन पर वो क़ानून लागू होगा की नहीं इस पर सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने “भूतलक्षि अम्लीकरण” का फ़ेसला दिया। पश्चिम बंगाल में ये क़ानून नहीं है कि उन्होंने अपनी राज्य के लिए अलग क़ानून बनाया है)
  • 5-Infra-Urban:- Swachh Bharat Mission Swachh Survekshan 2021 by Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs MoHUA. A) cities with over 10 lakh population: Rank1-INDORE (fifth consecutive year), 2-Surat and 3-Vijaywada. B) Varanasi emerged as the ‘Best Ganga Town’ while Ahmedabad Cantonment won the title of ‘India’s Cleanest Cantonment’. C) under the Prerak Daaur Samman, a new performance category introduced under Swachh Survekshan 2021, five cities – Indore, Surat, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi Municipal Council and Tirupati were categorized as ‘Divya’ (Platinum).
  • 6-Edu👩‍🎓:- ASER (Annual Status of Education Report) by NGO Pratham. 16th Ediiton-2020 Telephonic survey found that 1) Share of government schools in admission increased from 65% to 70% because during Corona parents lost income so unable to afford private schools. 2) 30% rural households purchased mobile tablet to have the child for e-learning Bhatt’s problems persist 3) increased reliance on tuitions (भारत के शिक्षा कि वार्षिक स्थिति के लिए असर रिपोर्ट- फ़ोरम के दौरान आमदनी कम होने के चलते कई माँ बाप ने अपने बच्चों को सरकारी स्कूल में दाख़िल करवाया है – क्योंकि निजी स्कूल की महँगी फ़ीस सम्भव नहि। इ-लरनिंग की समस्याए और ट्यूशन संस्कृति बढ rhi हैं उसपर टिप्पणिया )
  • 6-Health:- Science: Cancer- BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 are proteins associated with breast tissues which help repair damaged DNA or destroy cells if the damaged DNA cannot be repaired. They are thus tumour suppressor or caretaker genes. if BRCA itself has undergone a mutation, it loses the ability to repair DNA. This increases the cancer chances in women.
  • 6-Health:- ⚾️📻⚾️🎙✋ Oral Diabetic drug using A nanoparticle made from a polymerised bile acid helps reinstate normal metabolism and eventually restore immune competence. This much technical science gives poor cost benefit:
  • 6-Health:- 6-HRD/Public Health: Generic drugs are chemically identical to drugs whose patent has expired. Every pharmaceutical company can manufacture and send it. e.g. Paracetamol. When chemist and customers deal in generic drugs they are mainly focusing on brand differentiation (Cadila vs Pfizer) based on profit margin, perceived quality respectively. But there is no way for the customer to find out which generic drug brand is better quality for the given price range? COMPETITION Commission of India (CCI, statutory body under the Ministry of corporate affairs) conducted a market study on the pharmaceutical sector. Then CCI’s committee suggested Setting up of National Digital Drugs Databank that will help the customers make an informed decision. In a separate BizGK, FLIPKART aquires online pharma store Pharmaeasy online pharma store startup is planning to launch its IPO. So there is also a need for regulation of the online pharmaceutical market Place. (जब किसी दवाई का पेटेंट समाप्त हो जाए तो अन्य सभी फ़ार्मा कंपनियां इसका उत्पादन कर सकती है ऐसी दवाई को ऐसी पेटेंट मुफ़्त दवाई को जेनेरिक दवाएँ कहा जाता है. हालाँकि फिर ऐसी कोई दवाई किसी कंपनी की ख़रीदी जाए इसका निर्णय दवाई के दुकानदार मुनाफ़े के कमीशन पर और आप ग्राहक किसी बड़ी कंपनी की गुणवत्ता/विज्ञापन पर विश्वास से करते हैं। किन्तु अंततः ग्राहक का शोषण हो ऐसा जोखिम रहता है इसलिए भारतीय प्रतिस्पर्धा आयोग की एक समिति ने सुझाव दिया है कि राष्ट्रीय डिजीटल दवाई डेटा बैंक बनाया जाए जिसमें सभी कंपनीयो की दवाइयों की गुणवत्ता के बारे में जानकारी हो ताकि ग्राहक सही निर्णय ले पाए।)
  • 6-Rights-Issue🧕:- 6HRD: Keywords for Children development (from TN Policy): malnutrition, anaemia, infant mortality rate, under 5 mortality rate, child sex ratio, full immunization, body mass index, gross enrolment ratio at high and higher secondary level, open defecation, child marriage, child labour, gender and social exclusion. etc, Benefit: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), 1989, National Policy for Children, 2013, the National Plan of Action 2016 and the UN document ‘Transforming our world, The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’. (बाल विकास के बारे में लिखना हो तो तमिलनाडु राज् की बाल विकास नीति से अलग अलग चिकने चुपड़े शब्द)
  • Pollution🛺:- Environment/Pollution: 953 richest families in India own 26 per cent of the country’s GDP. If government demanded 4% climate tax from them it could be equivalent of 1% of GDP. But instead of that government levying high level of indirect taxes (GST on biscuit medicines, Excise-VAT on fuel) on common Man. Need to increase the direct taxes collection. अमीरों पर ज़्यादा कराधान लगाकर जलवायु परिवर्तन के लिए पैसा इस्तेमाल हो


  • Pollution🛺:- Environment/Biodiv: scorpions found mostly in deserts. can survive for weeks on end with no food or water. Egypt sudden flood in Aswan region-> deathstalker scorpions came out & stung over 500 people in a night. A deathstalker’s sting can kill a child. Adults may also sicken and die, depending on their health and weight इजिप्ट में बिच्छुओंने एक रात में पाँचसो लोगों को काटा। मूडीज़ बहन से छोटा बच्चा मर सकता है वयस्क व्यक्ति मरेगा की नहीं वो उसकी स्वास्थ्य और वजन पर निर्भर है
  • Pollution🛺:- Environment/Biodiversity: 2015 Rajsthan Camel protection law 1) Camel slaughter prohibited 2) Possession of camel offense 3) requires the seller to obtain approval from the district magistrate before transporting the camel to another State. 😍Camel population/⬇️slaughter. 😥 Redtapism. taking man months to get the clearance. Raika and Raibari communities have been protesting, at the ongoing cattle fair in Pushkar (राजस्थान ऊँट-हत्या प्रतिबंध क़ानून के ख़िलाफ़ विरोध हो रहा है)
  • Pollution🛺:- Environment/Pollution: Apple to sell spare-parts and tools help aimed at fixing the most common issues with laptop display, iPhone etc. 😍E-waste reduction by prolonging the life-cycle of a product. Circular-economy, “Right to Repair”
  • Pollution🛺:- Environment/Pollution: COMMISSION for Air Quality Management (CAQM) is an Staturoy body under THE COMMISSION FOR AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION AND ADJOINING AREAS ACT, 2021 set up by the Union Environment Ministry to oversee measures to curb air pollution in the National Capital Region NCR, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. It has ordered following for NCR: 1) closing of all education institutions, including schools and colleges, till further notice, a 2) halt on all construction activities till November 21. 3) as well as work from home for 50 per cent staff in government offices. 4) Anti-smog guns, water sprinkling and dust suppressants are to be deployed thrice a day in hotspots. 5) heavy penalties are to be imposed on parties stacking construction material and waste on roads. 6) banned the use of diesel generator sets except in emergencies. (दिल्ली में वायु प्रदूषण के ख़िलाफ़ केंद्र सरकार की CAQM आयोग ने दिशा निर्देश जारी किए- स्कूल कॉलेजों को बंद किया जाए, सरकारी दफ्तरों में सिर्फ़ आधा मानवबल आए, बाक़ी सब घर से काम करें। मकान निर्माण प्रक्रियाओं पर रोक ।पानी छिड़काव, स्मोग-रोधी बंदूक़ का इस्तेमाल। डीज़ल विद्युत जनरेटर पर रोक, सिवाय के आपातकाल में प्रयोग करना पड़े।)
  • Summit/Agreement-Multilateral:- UNFCCC COP26, Glasgow UK Summit. British politician ALOK SHARMA was PRESIDENT OF THIS YEAR’S CLIMATE CONFERENCE. Outcomes. What COP26 achieved 😍 1) Asked countries to make efforts to reduce use of coal as a source of fuel, and abolish “inefficient” subsidies on fossil fuels. 😍2) Asked the developed countries to at least double the money being provided for adaptation by 2025 from 2019 levels. And give $100 billion by 2023. 😍 3) Already Mitigation target= the 2°C goal. But, a similar global goal on adaptation has been missing, so in the next two years they will try to define the target for adaptation. 😥 4) LOSS AND DAMAGE mechanism mentioned in Warsaw summit 8 years back. But nothing concrete yet still giving lipservice. 😍 5) CARBON MARKET: Such a market allows countries, or industries, to earn carbon credits for the emission reductions. While Developing countries like India, China or Brazil have large amounts of carbon credits left over because of the lack of demand, as many countries abandoned their emission reduction targets. So, Glasgow Pact has offered some reprieve to the developing countries. It has allowed these carbon credits to be used in meeting countries’ first NDC targets (i.e. until 2025), but not subsequent NDC targets. 6) Asked countries to strengthen their 2030 climate action plans, or NDCs (nationally-determined contributions), by next year 7) an annual meeting of ministers to raise ambitions of 2030 climate actions 8) member countries need to present an annual synthesis report about NDC progress. 😍 on sidelines of the summit, parallel progress made by individual nations 1) India announced a Panchamitra (a mixture of five elements) of climate actions (REF EARLIER EXCEL) 2) Over 100 countries signed pact against deforestation by 2030. India didnot sign) 3) Over 30 countries signed on to a declaration promising to work towards a transition to 100% zero-emission cars by the year 2040. India signed. 4) COP26: Some leaders wanted to “PHASE OUT” Coal. But India China and others opposed the draft so now “PHASE DOWN COAL. And fossil fuel subsidies. India’s apprehension because if we stop giving LPG cylinder subsidies people will cut firewood → air pollution, deforestation, women hardship. (जलवायु परिवर्तन के ख़िलाफ़ ग्लासगो परिषद का निष्कर्ष: कोयले का प्रयोग कम करें- हालाँकि कुछ नेता चाहते थे कि कोयले का संपूर्ण रूप से प्रतिबंधित हो जाए लेकिन भारत चीनी तिवारी ने विरोध किया था। विकसित देशों ने 2030 तक सौ बिलियन डॉलर देने होंगे। एडेप्टेशन यानी अनुकूलन की व्याख्या अगले दो साल में निर्धारित होगी। नुक़सान और उसकी भरपाई के मामले में कोई संतोषजनक निर्णय। भारत ब्राज़ील चीन इत्यादि अपने जमा कार्बन क्रेडिट 2025 तक बेच पाएंगे। आने वाले वर्षों में सालाना रूप से कार्यप्रगति का लेखा जोखा देना होगा। इस परिषद के समांतर- जंगल कटाई रुख़ से छेदन के ख़िलाफ़ एक और समझौता हुआ लेकिन भारत ने उस पर हस्ताक्षर नहीं किया। 2040 के बाद शून्य उत्सर्जन वाली गाड़ियां बेची जाए उस समझौते पर भारत ने हस्ताक्षर किए।
Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

One Comment on “Current Affairs for UPSC: Economy, Agriculture & Environment from NovW3- Farm Laws repealed, PayTM IPO, Glasgow Summit”

  1. Sir I’m not able to take your current affairs test which takes place every Monday
    Is there any glitch?

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