Ethics Case Studies- Mob lynching, Vigilantism, Sexual Violence, Custodial Death, from Nov-Week3 for UPSC Mains GSM4

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  • Case-Studies😈:- Ahmedabad- mob killed a (suspected rabid) dog & later taking out a procession of dead dog’s body. Animal rights activist are doing Dharna outside police station to arrest those killers. But community leaders are saying that it was the right thing to do because of the menace of the rabbit dog biting children. As IPS what will you do? 🤔Points to Reflect: 😥 1) If mob had suspicions of dog turning rabid then animal welfare department could have been contacted. 😥 2) even in self-defence if rabid dog killed, there is no justification for taking out the process and this is not some bravery of winning olympics. Rather it encourages/normalises the culture of cruelty towards animals. 😥3) Autopsy of dead dog need to be done, find out whether it was really rabid? Accused persons need to be called up to the police station. (भीड़ ने एक पागल कुत्ते को काट दिया और फिर मरे हुए कुत्ते को एक डंडे पर लटकाकर उसकी शोभा यात्रा निकाली इस पर पशु प्रेमी पुलिस थाने के बाहर धरना प्रदर्शन कर रहे हैं कि भीड़ वालों को पकड़ा जाए। पुलिस अफ़सर के रूप में आप क्या करेंगे?)
  • Case-Studies😈:- Vigilantism mob lynching: Vinod Salunke a 48-YEAR-OLD murder convict, released on parole. He slapped a minor boy playing cricket. Boy complained to mother, group of 15 women gathered. Vinodh was convicted for killing a minor boy in the same area in 2009. So, women (fearing safety of their children) attacked him with cricket stumps, bats and wooden sticks, & he died. Police aims to arrest the woman but local crowd is resisting that it was done for the safety of our children! As Police Officer what will you do? 🤔Points to Reflect: 1) Vigilantism is illegal. Arrest needs to be made. It is for the court to decide the fate of those women. 2) take the help of local community leaders in confidence, to make the arrest process without untoward incidents. (एक हत्यारा जो नाबालिक लड़के की हत्या के लिए पहले ही 2009 में जेल जा चुका था वो पैरोल पे छूट कर अपने वतन वापस आया। वापस किसी नाबालिग किशोर के साथ क्रिकेट खेलने के मामले में उसकी कहासुनी हो गई। इस आरोपी ने लड़के को थप्पड़ मारा। लड़का अपनी माँ को बुलाया और फिर 15 महिलाओं की भीड़ ने पीट पीटकर इस व्यक्ति को मार दिया क्योंकि उन्हें डर था ये आदमी वापस किसी की हत्या करेगा। पुलिस महिलाओं को गिरफ़्तार करने जाए तो स्थानीय लोग विरोध कर रहे हैं कि महिलाओं ने जो किया वो सही किया क्योंकि बच्चों की रक्षा के लिए यह ज़रूरी था। पुलिस अफ़सर के रूप में आप क्या करेंगे)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics- Vigilantism: General Bipin Rawat said on TV program “J&K locals are saying they will lynch the terrorists, which is a very positive sign…If there is a terrorist operating in your area, why should you not lynch him?” Separately National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) organised a debate along with the central police forces that asked: “Are human rights a stumbling block in fighting evils like terrorism & Naxalism? 🤔 Counter arguments 1) We shouldn’t encourage vigilantism/mob justice. It is the job of police and security forces to neutralise the terrorist/arrest him get convicted in court of law. 2) If vigilantism is allowed then merely on WhatsApp fake news, face, religion, language- the mob could kill anyone. (बिपिन रावत ने कहा कि जम्मू कश्मीर के लोग बोल rhe है की वे आतंकवादियों का भीड़ द्वारा वध करेंगे- इसकी निंदा क्योंकि आतंकवादियों को भी मारना मिटाना सजा दिलवाना है पुलिस और सुरक्षा बलों का काम /ज़िम्मेदारी है। यही ज़िम्मेदारी भीड़ को सौंपी जाए तो बेक़सूर भी मार दिया जाए एसा डर)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Sexual Violence: Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act. Section-7 interpretation: Bombay High Court’s judgement insinuated that if “skin-to-skin” contact with the child” not done then it’s not an offence under POCSO act. But SC has clarified that accused predator’s “sexual intent” needs to be seen. “skin-to-skin” contact with the child not necessary. when a stick, steel rod etc is pressed onto a person, even when clothed, their sense of touch is keen enough to feel it.” 🤔Points to Reflect: Accused and Defense lawyers leaving no stone unturned to free to their client ki engaging in such pedantic debate in the courtroom about “skin-to-skin” touch not done to it is not POSCO matter! (बच्चों को यौन अपराध से बचाने के क़ानून में, आरोपी को सजा देने के लिए चमड़ी से चमड़ी का स्पर्श अनिवार्य नहीं)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Case Study: in Surat, number of Textile/Diamond workers hail from Odisha. Some unknown persons have distributed pamphlets written in Odia language demanding 1) workers must stop going to factories until wages increased 2) keep worker does not go on strike we will chop off his body parts. Consequently the scarred workers stopped going to factory resulting into business losses. As DCP (IPS) What will you do? 🤔Points to Reflect: 1) Ensure police patrolling protection, CCTV to the workers in factory and in the residential areas until culprits found. Why culprits not threatening to cut hands of the businessman but of workers? Could it be a ploy of rival business groups!? 2) find the source of pamphlets. Any linkages of Maoist groups? 3) Also request the labour commissioner to check into the situation of minimum wages in the industry. 4) Ethical point- workers have legal right to strike, Gandhiji also organised A’bad mill worker strike for ⬆️ in the minimum wages and work conditions. But it was done in peaceful, non-violent manner. Here threat made to cut hands/limps of workers if they go to work- Both criminal and unethical. (सूरत के कपड़ा मिलों में काम कर रहे उड़ीसा के मज़दूरों को किसी गुमनाम खत से धमकी दी गई है कि तुम सब लोग वेतन बढ़ोतरी के लिए हड़ताल पर जाओ और अगर हड़ताल पर नहीं गए तो हाथ पैर काट देंगे। डरे हुए मज़दूर में नहीं जा रहे, करोड़ों का नुक़सान हो रहा है। इस पर पुलिस अफ़सर के रूप में क्या करेंगे)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- ethics: custodial death/ compassion for the jailed accused- 1,888 custodial deaths in 20 years, only 26 policemen convicted. 😥 deaths in 20 years is “not a big number for a country of India’s size and population”. “But what is important is that policemen use third-degree methods, inflict injuries on a person in custody. It’s a wrong practice. 😥 Policemen don’t investigate custodial death cases properly, they try to defend their colleagues, which is definitely wrong. When a man has died in custody, the policeman responsible should be held accountable and the police must ensure that he is duly punished. 😥 Policemen need to be sensitised and educated, and told that they should rely on scientific methods of investigation and a proper interrogation technique. 😥 Way forward: 113th report of the Law Commission had recommended the insertion of Section 114 B in the Indian Evidence Act, which puts the burden of proof on the police to explain any injury caused in custody. (पुलिस कस्टडी भी अपराधियों की मौत के काफ़ी सारे मामले लेकिन बहुत कम पुलिस वालों को इसमें सजा हुई है. अपराध की जाँच पड़ताल के लिए वैज्ञानिक तरीक़ों के इस्तेमाल की जगह मारपीट और बल प्रयोग से जानकारी उगलवाने के चक्कर में अपराधी की भी मौत हो जाती है. क़ानून आयोग के सुझाव दिया था कि भारतीय)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Delphi AI: RESEARCHERS At Allen Institute for AI (USA), unveiled new Artificial intelligence technology designed to make moral judgments. They called it Delphi. Priestess Pythia (who is also known as Oracle of Delphi) was consulted by the ancient Greeks. Anyone could visit the Delphi website and ask for an ethical decree. 🤔Points to Reflect: 😍 1) creators of Delphi hope to build an ethical framework that could be installed in any online service, robot or self-driven vehicle (e.g. should the self driven car allow itself to fall in the lake so as to prevent collusion with the incoming bus that is having 50 school children?) 😥 2) Delphi is known to give ambiguous guidance e.g. a] When user asked if he should kill one person to save an other, Delphi said he shouldn’t. b] When he asked if it was right to kill one person to save 100 others, Delphi said he should. c] Then he asked if he should kill one person to save 101 others. This time, Delphi said he should not.Thus, then Delphi-AI is not having a clear moral compass. It’s still learning. 😥 3) Who gets to teach ethics to the world’s machines? AI researchers? Product managers? Mark Zuckerberg? Trained philosophers and psychologists? Government regulators? Delphi learned its moral compass by analysing more than 1.7 million ethical judgments by real live humans. After gathering millions of everyday scenarios from websites and other sources, still sometimes it makes morally grey decisions. You can also ask her questions through ( (इस प्राचीन ग्रीस मे डेल्फ़ी मंदिर/इलाक़े की पूजारन/ भविष्यवक्ता से लोग अपने प्रश्नों के समाधान के लिए जाते. अमरीकी संस्थान ने डेलफ़ी कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता बनायी है जो व्यक्तियों को नैतिक समस्याओं के फ़ैसले लेने में मदद करेगी। इस प्रकार की कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता को वाहनों में, रोबोट में डालने से मदद हो सकती है। हालाँकि अभी भी ये सीख रही है तो कुछ बार अयोग्य जवाब देती हे। इस चिंता का यह भी विषय है कि इस डेल्फी को नैतिकता के बारे में कौन सिखाएगा अगर मार्क ज़करबर्ग फ़ेसबुक का डेटा साझा करके इसे सिखाएगा तो समस्या। )
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Elopement- 13-year-old girl ran away with lover. Father and villagers captured and paraded her after breaking her face and then forcibly married her to another man. As SP what will you do? 🤔Points to Reflect: 🤔 1) Relocate the girl to Shelter-home because difficult to imagine a positive living experience in this village with the family- atleast in the short term. 🤔 2) Arrest the father and mob leaders because vigilantism is illegal and child marriage is also illegal. 🤔 3) Petroling near schools, pan-parlours to discourage Kabir Singhs / human trafficking gangs from predating on minor girls. (13 साल की लड़की एक वयस्क पुरुष के साथ भाग गई उसके बाद पिता और गाँव वालों ने पकड़ के बाल काट दिए, गाँव में जुलूस निकाला और किसी और पुरुष के साथ तुरंत उसकी शादी कर दी। पुलिस ऑफ़िसर के रूप में आप क्या करेंगे?)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Police officer values.- 1) an officer is required to have faith in the Indian constitution and Indian judiciary but former Mumbai Police commissioner Parambir Singh (IPS) who is accused and extortion racket, has been absconding. SUPREME Court said it will not hear petitions filed by him until it knows his whereabouts. Because IPS not appearing before court reflected his lack of confidence in the system. 2) honesty and integrity: Mumbai Police commissioner goes absconding in extortion racket – shows the unholy nexus of police politician Mafia. (एक पुलिस अफ़सर को भारत के संविधान पर क़ानून और न्यायपालिका पर भरोसा होना चाहिए लेकिन मुंबई पुलिस कमिश्नर जो फिरोती के केस मेन भगोड़े घोषित किए गए हैं वे बिना अदालत हाज़िर हुए राहत माँग रहे हैं तो सुप्रीम कोर्ट नाराज़। कमिशनर रेंक का ओफिसर भगोड़ा घोषित किया जायँ वह भ्रष्टाचार के बढ़ते स्तर के लिए चिंता का विषय है)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Policing Survey- IPF Smart Policing Index 2021 by independent thinktank Indian Police Foundation. The five states with the highest score on overall policing —— are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Assam, Kerala and Sikkim. From bottom upwards are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Punjab. The national average of satisfaction with the police has been found to be at 69%. (पुलिस के बारे में एक निजी संस्थान द्वारा सर्वेक्षण इसमें उत्तर प्रदेश और बिहार की पुलिस के बारे में लोगों ने असंतोष जताया।)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Sexual Violence: Chemical castration is the use of drugs to reduce sexual activity of rapist. It is a legal form of punishment in countries including South Korea, Poland, the Czech Republic and in some states in the US. 2021-Pakistan Parliament passed a for chemical castration of those convicted of multiple rapes. ✋Counter arguments: 1) Jamaat-i-Islami Senator protested against the Bill, and termed it unIslamic and against Sharia. He said a rapist should be hanged publicly, but there was no mention of castration in Sharia. 2) Sexual perversion is psychological and not necessarily physical so even if the rapist (who is released from jail after suppose 14 years)- go to still abuse the woman/child using steel rods etc. If there is threat of death/castration then rapist may murder victim to avoid getting caught. (बलात्कारी को रासायनिक दवाएँ देकर नपुंसक बना दिया जाए ऐसा पाकिस्तान में क़ानून हुआ पास इस पर विरोध कि १) इस्लाम के अनुसार बलात्कारी को फाँसी लगा देनी चाहिए २) यदि फाँसी या नपुंसकता का डर हो तो आरोपी बलात्कार के बाद पीड़ित की हत्या कर दी उसका जोखिम बढ़ जाता है ताकि वो पकड़ा न जाए और दूसरा यौन विकार दिमाग़ में होता है अंगो में नहि इसलिए बलात्कारी ko शारीरिक रूप से नपुंसक करने के बाद भी वह स्टील के सरिए इत्यादि वस्तुएँ द्वारा भी महिला और बालकों का उत्पीड़न कर सकता है)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: sexual violence: Pakistan has removed a clause from a new criminal law that had allowed chemical castration as a possible punishment for serial rapists, after the Islamic Ideology Council, a state-run body that interprets laws from an Islamic perspective, found chemical castration un-Islamic. (रासायनिक दवाओं से बलात्कारी को नपुंसक कर दिया जाए ऐसे क़ानून को पाकिस्तान की सरकार ने कल पास किया था आज रद्द किया क्योंकि उनकी इस्लामिक परिषद के हिसाब से ये इस्लामिक सिद्धांतों के ख़िलाफ़ है)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Sexual Violence: Standup Comedian Vir Das said in American show- (that) ‘in India, we worship women in the day and rape them at night’. Social media protests 1) making generalised statements about the entire country based on some criminals. USA China too have poor record in protection of minorities and women. 2) Previously Ex-IAS Shah Faesal tweet similar controversy when he wrote Patriarchy, Population, Illiteracy, Alcohol, Porn, Technology, Anarchy equal Rapistan! (Later on he resigned, protested atrocities against Muslims in Modi-raj then after Abolishing of 370 praised Modi’s Mann ki Baat & vaccination drive) 🤔Points to Reflect: depending on the audience and atmosphere (भारत में सुबह में महिलाओं की पूजा और रात में सामूहिक बलात्कार होता हे ऐसी अमेरिका में की गई टिप्पणी के चलते व्यंगकर वीर दास का सोशल मीडिया ने विरोध। इससे पहले भूतपूर्व IAS शाह फेजल भी एसी विवादित टिप्पणी कर चुके थे। 🤔 अमेरिका और चीन में स्वयं में महिला सुरक्षा और अल्पसंख्यक सुरक्षा ज़ोरदार नहि हे, जो वहाँ जाकर भारत की खामियों का प्रसार किया जाए )
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Wrong to presume polio/physically handicapped persons are unable to achieve greatness in life e.g. 1) Franklin D. Roosevelt- American president who led the country during WW2. Had Polio-like symptoms 2) FRIDA KAHLO, MEXICAN PAINTER had polio. Her 1949 oil painting Diego auctioned for $34.9 million. (पोलियो से पीड़ित लोगों ने भी महानता हंसिल की हे)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- EthicsSports: AUSTRALIAN TEST captain Tim Paine resigned after newspaper leaked story on about Paine’s 2017 sex-text messaging to a female co-worker. Public is angry with the Australian cricket board for the sweeping this under carpet for so many years. 🤔Points to Reflect: Previously Aussie cricket board had done same thing with regarding accusations of match fixing and sexual-harassment by star players. Because cricket board focuses on the income from the tournament rather than ethics. As a result Captain could be feeling so bold to harass women. (2017 में ऑस्ट्रेलिया क्रिकेट कप्तान ने महिला सहकर्मी को अभद्र संदेश भेजकर परेशान कर रहा था हालाँकि क्रिकेट बोर्ड द्वारा इस मामले की लीपापोती की गई लेकिन 2021 में जब एक अख़बार ने ये सब चीज़ों का पर्दाफ़ाश किया तो क्रिकेटर कप्तान ने पद से इस्तीफ़ा। हालाँकि इससे पहले भी ऑस्ट्रेलियाई खिलाड़ियों के ख़िलाफ़ मैच फिक्सिंग और महिला यौन उत्पीड़न के आरोप लगे थे तब भी क्रिकेट बोर्ड ने क्रिकेट टूर्नामेंट से पैसा कमाने के लालच में इन सब चीज़ों पर लीपापोती की थी इसलिए उनके खिलाड़ियों के हौसले बुलंद हो रहे हैं)
  • Ethics-Theory😈:- Ethics: Racism- Ex-England Cricketer AZEEM RAFIQ complained about racism in Yorkshire cricket club, how he was labelled as “elephant washer”, “Kafir” etc. by teammates. Then critics dugout his 10-year old twitter/FB post where is Rafiq had also made antisemitic (Anti-Jew) messages! Rafiq defends “I was 19 at the time and I hope and believe I am a different person to- day. I am incredibly angry at myself and I apologize to the Jewish community and everyone who is rightly offended by this.”. 🤔Points to Reflect: 1) those who’re claiming victimhood at present, also need to introspect whether they had been acting as a villain. U can’t expect others to be good to you when you’ve been bad to others. 2) social Media whatever you said remains forever in some digital archives. And can be dug out by critics and enemies at a convenient time. 3) British cricketer Ollii Robinson was also dropped out of the cricket team because of racist-sexist tweets he made 10 years ago. Will similar punishment be metted to Rafiq? (although he is an ex-cricketer, so cannot be dropped from the team.) (पाकिस्तानी मूल के ब्रिटिश क्रिकेटर अज़ीम रफीक़ वंशीय भेदभाव की शिकायतें कर रहा था तो कुछ आलोचकों ने उसी के 10 साल पहले के सोशल मीडिया बयान निकाले जहाँ वो ख़ुद भी यहूदियों के ख़िलाफ़ वंशीय टिप्पणियाँ कर रहा था। ये यानी की जो ख़ुद को पीड़ित बताते हैं उन्होंने भी भूतकाल में अपने आचरण के बारे में सोचना चाहिए। जब आप स्वयं ही दूसरों के प्रति बुरा बर्ताव करते हैं तो क्यों अपेक्षा रखते हैं कि अन्य लोग आपसे इज़्ज़त से पेश आए?)
Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

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