Current Affairs for UPSC: environment and science technology from November Week1

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Mrunal’s UPSC GSM3-2020 Model Answer lecture: Science Technology, Internal Security Border Management Questions from last Mains Exam Solved!

Environment

  • – COP26, Glasgow: Modi’s Panchamrit five big-ticket announcements at the climate change summit COP26 in Glasgow 1) renewable energy capacity by 2030 to be 500 GW (Earlier 450GW) 2) non-fossil fuel energy in India’s total energy mix to be 50% by 2030 (previously this target was 40%). 3) emissions intensity, or emissions per unit GDP, will be reduced by at least 45 per cent by the year 2030 from the 2005 levels. (previously this target was 33 to 35%) 4) a net-zero emissions target by 2070. means all man-made GHG emissions must be removed from atmosphere through absorption in processes like photosynthesis or physical removal 5) REDUCE TOTAL projected carbon emissions by 1 bn tonnes from now to 2030. This is the first time India has made absolute quantity target. (ग्लास्गो जलवायु परिवर्तन परिषद में प्रधानमंत्री मोदी की महत्वपूर्ण घोषणाएँ- पुनर्नवीनीकरण ऊर्जा का उत्पादन बढ़ाया जाएगा और GDP की उत्सर्जन तीव्रता को कम किया जाएगा और उत्सर्जन को शुद्ध रूप से 0 किया जाएगा.)
  • – Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use by the United Kingdom to “halt deforestation” and land degradation by 2030. 😍 It requires countries to act on forest conservation in the interconnected areas of production and consumption; infrastructure development; trade; finance and investment. 😍 leaders who signed the declaration represent over 85% of the world’s forests and 12 countries have committed 12 billion dollars in public funds from 2021-25, to protect and restore forests. 😍 This funding will include a 1.5 billion dollar fund to protect the Congo Basin –home to the secondlargest tropical rainforest in the world. It has 105 signatories including the UK, US, Russia and China. 😥 But India, Argentina, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and South Africa did not sign the declaration. 🤔 India’s stand: remove the word “trade” because it is more suited to be dealt with the World Trade Organisation. 🤔 Why India took such stand? Perhaps Apprehension that taking excuse of such declarations, first world nations may start charging more taxes on Indian exports citing they have been produced in the deforested area. (वन और भूमि इस्तेमाल पर ग्लासगो नेताओं की घोषणा: विभिन्न देशों की सरकारों ने उत्पादन उपभोग बुनियादी अवसंरचना निर्माण व्यापार निवेश इत्यादि के वक़्त वन संवर्द्धन का ख़याल रखना होगा। इसमें ब्रिटेन अमरीका रूस चाइना जैसे सौ से अधिक देशों ने हस्ताक्षर किए ली थी लेकिन भारत अर्जेंटीना मैक्सिको सऊदी अरब दक्षिण अफ़्रीका इत्यादि ने हस्ताक्षर नहीं किए क्योंकि भारत को एतराज़ है कि इस घोषणा के व्यापार शब्द का ज़िक्र नहीं होना चाहिए व्यापार के मसले केबल विश्व व्यापार संगठन के समझौतों के हिसाब से होनी चाहिए। शायद भारत सरकार को ऐसा डर लगता है कि इस प्रकार की संधि और घोषणाओं द्वारा भविष्य में भारतीय सामान के निर्यात पर प्रथम विश्व के देश और ज़्यादा टैक्स लगाएंगे कि ये जंगल को काटकर बनाई फै़क्टरी का सामान है।)
  • Newzealand’s Longtailed bat also known as pekapeka-tou-roa , which is among the most endangered species in the world. New Zealand private organisation voted this bad as the “best bird of the year” even though Bat is not a bird but a mammal but they wanted to highlight the need for its conservation। चमगादड़ स्तनधारी होते हैं पक्षी नहीं
  • IRIS for Small Islands’ infra in climate change → INDIAN SPACE Research Organisation (ISRO) will create a special “data window” for small island nations’ satellite data that will help these countries to strengthen their fences against climate disasters. . So far, 26 countries, along with some UN agencies, multilateral development banks, and financial institutions, have become part of the IRIS coalition
  • CDRI & IRIS- 2019: Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) started by India to climate-proof critical infrastructure in member countries. Twenty-six countries, including the US, Germany, UK, Australia, Brazil, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and Japan are already part of the coalition. The coalition will not create any new infrastructure — rather, it will serve as a ‘knowledge centre’ for member countries to share best practices. 2021: implement the ideas of CDRI, a new program launched Infrastructure for Resilient Island States or IRIS to secure and strengthen critical infrastructure in small island states against climate disasters such as sea level rise, floods, heat, cyclones, forest fires, and rain. several small island states have lost 9 per cent of their GDPs in single disasters during the last few years. (जलवायु परिवर्तन मैं भी टिकाऊ क़िस्म की बुनियादी अवसंरचना बनाने के लिए CDRI संगठन की स्थापना अब उसे विचार को आगे बढ़ाने के लिए और छोटे टापू की मदद के लिए IRIS संगठन बनाया जा रहा है)
  • INTERGOVERNMENTAL Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently warned that unless serious reductions in emissions are made, average global temperatures by 2100 would breach the 2°C mark compared to preindustrial times. International team has studied a global temperature rise- About 56 million years ago, during a period known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Earth experienced a natural period of global warming by 8 Degree celcius triggered by a volcanic eruption. It took 20,000 to 50,000 years for the climate to stabilise. (एक बार जलवायु परिवर्तन के चलते यदि तापमान बढ़ जाए तो उसे वापस सामान्य स्थिति में आने में 20,000- पचास हज़ार वर्ष लग सकते हैं ऐसा एक रिसर्च से पाया गया है)
  • Climate Café concept was started in 2018 by Rebecca Nestor of the UK-based Climate Psychology Alliance. In Kerala also similar meeting programmes organised for creating awareness among people
  • Global warming → ⏫carbon dioxide reacted with the water, forming carbonic acid, → 1) Ocean acidification an extension of ocean species 2) Carbonic acid accelerates the weathering & erosion process. Although later on such increases in weathering would have supported enhanced carbon burial, as both carbonate and organic carbon, thereby stabilizing climate,” (वैश्विक तापमान बढ़ने पर कार्बन डायॉक्साइड पानी के साथ ज़्यादा रासायनिक क्रिया करके कार्बोनिक एसिड बनाता है जिसके चलते समंदर में ज़्यादा एसिडिटी बढ़ती है और कई जीव मर जाते हैं। यह कार्बोनिक एसिड अपक्षय और क्षरण को तेज करता है, हालाँकि लंबी अवधि तक ऐसा होने पर ही जलवायु तापमान को वो स्थिर करता है)

Science

  • Dhanwantari is the God of medicine. The Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy, therefore, observes DHANTERAS as National Ayurveda Day. Theme for this year has been aptly titled ‘Ayurveda for Covid
  • Facebook launched facial recognition system (2010) that automatically identified people who appeared in users’ digital photo albums. Why Bad? 😥1) USA police arresting wrong persons who looked same 😥2) Stalking of women based on their photographs appearing in the vacation meeting Albums. 😥 3) China authorities tracking Uighurs, a Muslim minority. 2021: no Facebook has decided to stop the system and delete the existing data of Facial match algorithm (फ़ेसबुक की फोटोग्राफ में से चेहरा पहचानने की प्रणाली भी व्यक्तियों की निजता का हनन हो रहा था और पुलिस प्रशासन और बदमाशों द्वारा दुरुपयोग भी इसलिए फ़ेसबुक ने इसे बंद किया और पुराना सारा डेटा भी डिलीट कर देंगे)
  • ISA & OSOWOG: 2015 International Solar Alliance (ISA), launched at the 2015 Paris climate change conference for solar energy harnessing in Equatorial and tropical regions. To implement ISA objectives, one more program launched- the One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) it proposes a common grid through more than 100 countries to stabilise energy supply, (सॉरी ऊर्जा में अंतरराष्ट्रीय सहयोग के लिए ISA उसीमे और ज़्यादा संकलन/सहयोग के लिए OSOWOG – एक विश्व एक ग्रिड का निर्माण हो रहा है।)
Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

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