[Download] UPSC Mains-2014: GS2-Polity, Governance, Policies, Schemes, International Bodies, Diplomacy

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Mitrapal Philosophy
  1. Analysis
  2. INSTRUCTIONS for General studies paper-2 (GS2)
    1. Constitution (50m)
    2. Governance, Administration, Bodies (30m)
    3. Policies: Economic sectors (20m)
    4. Policies: HRD /Welfare type (50m)
    5. IR/Diplomacy (50m)
  3. Question Paper: Linear Format
  4. Bogus marketing propaganda

Analysis

Overall, same like GS1- wordlimit decreased but vagueness and complexity increased. But some continuity is visible from 2013.
GS3 Mains 2014 Paper Analysis

Comparison of GS3 Mains Paper : some continuity some divergence
Mains 2013Mains 2014 GS3
  • 25 questions worth 10 marks each.
  • 10 marks =200 words.
  • 20 questions worth 12.5 marks each.
  • 12.5 marks=200 words. Hence paper length decreased.
SC keeps parliament in check.SC keeps everyone in check (judicial activism).
One question about conduct of MP and anti-defection law.MP-immunity: parliamentary privileges.
IT Act section 66A and freedom of speechfilms and freedom of speech
Small states better or not?Cadre based civil service better or not?
nothing from RPANothing from Representation of people’s act (RPA) despite 2014 being an election year.
nothing from comparing ConstitutionSame.
Overall, Constitution and governance portion: mixed bag.

  • Some straightforward questions like federalism with strong centre, Judicial activism, presidential pardon
  • Vague questions like hate speech in movies.
  • Cadre based civil service- easy for Public Administration optional candidates, but vague for others.
Nothing from DiasporaNothing, despite ISIS threat to Indians working in Iraq.
Providing Urban amnesties in rural areas (PURA)Backward excluded from urban economics. Difficult because requires brainstorming for points.
India-China topic: String of pealsSouth China sea.
SHG assessmentSHG socio-cultural hurdles.
Electronic cash transferUID vs NPR.
International bodies question very Simple IMF vs. Bretton woods difference.Required better preparation – AIIB vs NDB, WTO food subsidies.
Within diplomacy: majority questions from “India vs. other countries” and just one question about “international bodies”.Reverse happened. Majority of questions about international bodies.
less number of such questionsAt least half-dozen questions required candidate to take a “Stand” e.g. should IIT/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status? Should there be Timelimit on presidential mercy-petition?
Current affairs mostly from “not in frequent lime-light” topics. e.g. petro ministry’s directive vs Naga tribe.current affairs mixed bag:

  1. Not in frequent lime light: FDI in news-media. State governments dolling out truckload of cash to sportsmen- that was criticized in some English news debates, but that’s more of an interview topic than mains.
  2. In frequent lime-light: presidential pardon, WTO, AIIB, BRICS banks.
Same but I can’t recall any specific examples at the moment, except policy paralysis.following “hot-topics” not asked despite being in news repeatedly

  1. ISIS-extremism, impact on India.
  2. Ebola public healthcare angle. Perhaps in GS3. Let’s wait and watch.
  3. MDG, mother-child mortality.
  4. Nehruvian world view, Panchsheel, NAM 2.0
  5. Make in India, Modi diplomacy.
  6. Judicial appointment commission
  7. Restructuring Lok pal selection mechanism. but then again, Lokpal was already asked in 2013.
  8. FDI in insurance. But then again Insurance related topic already asked in 2013- merging IRDA and SEBI.

Anyways, let’s check the paper:

INSTRUCTIONS for General studies paper-2 (GS2)

  1. Duration 3 hours. Total marks 250.
  2. There are TWENTY (20) questions printed both in HINDI and ENGLISH.
  3. Answer the questions in NOT MORE THAN 200 words each. Contents of the answer is more important than its length. All questions carry equal marks.
  4. All the questions are compulsory.
  5. Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  6. Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
  7. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.

Constitution (50m)

  1. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy.
  2. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss.
  3. The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed?
  4. Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse.
  5. What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.

Governance, Administration, Bodies (30m)

syllabus topicQuestion asked
structure-functioning of executiveThe size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far the efficacy of a government then is inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss.
role of civil serviceHas the Cadre based Civil Services Organisation been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine.
Various bodiesNational Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of the above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards.

Policies: Economic sectors (20m)

Syllabus Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

  1. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.
  2. The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators.

Policies: HRD /Welfare type (50m)

  1. The penetration of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine.
  2. Do government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economics?
  3. An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement.
  4. Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges.
  5. Two parallel run schemes of the Government viz. the Adhaar Card and NPR, one as voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable growth.

IR/Diplomacy (50m)

  1. With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China.
  2. The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact should such agreements have on India’s interests?
  3. Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context.
  4. India has recently signed to become founding a New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) .How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the significance of these two Banks for India.
  5. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security.

  1. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy.
  2. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss.
  3. The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed?
  4. What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.
  5. Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse.
  6. The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far the efficacy of a government then is inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss.
  7. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.
  8. The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators.
  9. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of the above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards.
  10. The penetration of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine.
  11. Do government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economics?
  12. An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement.
  13. Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges.
  14. Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organisation been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine.
  15. Two parallel run schemes of the Government viz. the Adhaar Card and NPR, one as voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable growth.
  16. With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China.
  17. The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact should such agreements have on India’s interests?
  18. Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context.
  19. India has recently signed to become founding a New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) .How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the significance of these two Banks for India.
  20. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security.

Bogus marketing propaganda

Question and proof linkUtility
AIIB vs BRICS bank, because NDB=BRICS bank.

12.5/12.5
WTO, food subsidies:

  • revision note link
  • full-fledged article link
12.5/12.5
Independence for IIT/IIM. Covered in September: UGC vs IIT link.7/12.5 Because the said article only covers IIT-portion. IIM points had to be ‘invented’.
Rail tariff authority: revision note Link. + also covered in economic survey summary Link5/12.5, because I did not talk about how it’ll help private container operators, so only filler quality answer can be assembled.
UID vs NPR. link0 because I had written it two years ago and de-indexed from economy page for superficial-shallow coverage.
Total Aukaat37/250 marks.

Thankfully, Manniram (WTO) and 11th Jinping (AIIB) have saved the day for Mrunal.org, otherwise I might have to open a desi liquor den out of humiliation. Now let’s see who saves the day in GS3. Visit Mrunal.org/download for more papers.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

110 Comments on “[Download] UPSC Mains-2014: GS2-Polity, Governance, Policies, Schemes, International Bodies, Diplomacy”

  1. sanp[snake] to dasega hi chahe use sanp kaho ya sanp ji.

  2. Any IAS aspirant looking for single room in Karolbag. mail me or call. Rent Rs 4750+electricity bill, water bill included. 2ND FLOOR,10 minute FROM VAJIRAM BY WALK. AVAILABLE BY 31stDEC.

    1. pls post your contact no. or mail id

  3. plz guide me sir….how to prepare for mppsc mains exam…i have chosen civil engg and public admin as optionals.

  4. sir please post your comments on the changing mindset of lord curzon and difficulty of 2013 and 2014 ques papers…

  5. Any IAS aspirant in need of one room in Karolbag. contact me at [email protected]. Room rent Rs 4750+electricity bill only. No brokerage. 10 mnts FROM VAJIRAM BY WALK. CLEAN AND PEACEFULL SURROUNDING.

  6. 2. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss.

    Federalism works out different for every democracy. It’s mainly a form of two- tier government. There are many factors effecting the working federalism in a country. History plays a vital role.The Indian Constitution was drafted against the backdrop of partition and a divided territory with the prevalent diversity. A strong centre was the need of the hour.
    Thus the drafters of the Constitution provided the Centre with extra powers to overcome the prevailing situations.
    But, time and again, the States have asked for more autonomy. The States have Governors appointed by the Centre which a keep a vigil over the actions of the State Government. States have raised questions over the prerogatives of the Governor. The Finances are mainly collected by the States but the spending is planned at Centre.
    The All India Servants are appointed by the Centre in various States. They largely enjoy autonomy in their working. State Governments cann’t take any disciplinary action against them.
    Thus, it could be concluded that the Indian Constitution is in favour of a strong Centre which largely opposes the concept of strong federalism which means nearly equal distribution of powers among the Centre and States.

    1. @All
      Please review the answer and provide your valuable feedbacks.

      1. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. (200 words)

      The dilemma existed in our democracy over the powers of legislature to the extent it could amend the Constitution. What are the parts it could change and what not? Some believed it could change any , if in majority.
      The Judiciary with the final powers to comprehend the Constitution came with a novel concept of ‘Basic Structure’. The Legislature could amend any part of the Constitution except the ‘Basic Structure’.
      The Judiciary has now begun acting as an activist. It touched upon newer areas. It has started scrutinising the various roles of the State. The appointment of the CVC, distribution under PDS to the poor and destitute, the cleaning of the Rivers etc. the Judiciary has gone out of its general mandate. The Judiciary has even reduced the role of the Government in the ongoing investigations by asking the investigators to directly report them.
      The acceptance of PILs have too helped Judiciary to comprehend the matters. Recently, the SC has appointed a Social Justice Bench to dispose the piling cases of general public issues and concern.
      Thus, the Judiciary has started to act as an activist to ensure the proper adherence to the various ideals of democracy.

    2. Nice answer with lucid expression, moreover Indian idea of federalism is of innovative kind to fulfil peculiar need of maintaining integrity without subjugating diversity. Besides constitutional over hand, socio economic conditions prevailing in India also worked in favour of strong centre , like dependence of states on centres aid to meet their expenditures as well as central armed police forces to tackle law and order breaches. so in general theory it may militates concept of federalism but in Indian context of quasi-federalism its natural and unavoidable, a ‘necessary evil’ one can say

  7. can any body plz tell what is Gst ?

    1. Goods And Service Tax

  8. Analytical approach as always alongwith curious outlook towards policies issues stretching across their social economic political environmental and diplomatic dimensions as possible. For UPSC aspirant its gonna b like regularly honing your writing skills akin to breathing

  9. Is lower subordinate job more reputed than Bank PO ???

  10. 1. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. (200 words)

    The dilemma existed in our democracy over the powers of legislature to the extent it could amend the Constitution. What are the parts it could change and what not? Some believed it could change any , if in majority.
    The Judiciary, with the final powers to comprehend the Constitution came with a novel concept of ‘Basic Structure’. The Legislature could amend any part of the Constitution except the ‘Basic Structure’.
    The Judiciary has now begun acting as an activist. It touched upon newer areas. It has started scrutinising the various roles of the State. The appointment of the CVC, distribution under PDS to the poor and destitute, the cleaning of the Rivers etc. the Judiciary has gone out of its general mandate. The Judiciary has even reduced the role of the Government in the ongoing investigations like 2G scam , coal scam by asking the investigators to directly report them.
    The acceptance of PILs have too helped Judiciary to comprehend the matters. Recently, the SC has appointed a Social Justice Bench to dispose the piling cases of general public issues and concern.
    Thus, the Judiciary has started to act as an activist to ensure the proper adherence to the various ideals of democracy.

    2. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss.

    Federalism works out different for every democracy. It’s mainly a form of two- tier government. There are many factors affecting the working federalism in a country. History plays a vital role.
    The Indian Constitution was drafted against the backdrop of partition and a divided territory with the prevalent diversity. A strong centre was the need of the hour.

    But, time and again, the States have asked for more autonomy. The States have Governors appointed by the Centre which a keep a vigil over the actions of the State Government. States have raised questions over the prerogatives of the Governor.
    The Finances are mainly collected by the States but the expenditures is planned at Centre.

    The All India Servants are appointed by the Centre in various States. They largely enjoy autonomy in their working. State Governments cann’t take any disciplinary action against them.
    Thus, it could be concluded that the Indian Constitution is in favour of a strong Centre which largely opposes the concept of strong federalism which means nearly equal distribution of powers among the Centre and States.

    1. Leans towards unitary becoz of these features—
      Strong centre, single citizenship, flexible constitution, integrated Judiciary, appointment of state governor, all India services, emergency provisio.

    2. G, you have mainly focussed on judiciary-executive-legislature (SoP) issue..but the question asks how JA has tried to achieve ideals of democracy which include secularism, fundamental rights, justice-political,social, economic, freedom of speech and SoP. You can cite many examples particularly major ones like Vishaka guidelines, electoral reforms-VVIP, NOTA, Section 8 of RPA, Police and civil service reforms recent ones like red-beacon (equality), kashmir floods, corruption-SIT, GM-Technical expert committee..

  11. Gs 3 …it was a mrunal paper

  12. How does the fall in the oil prices affects the large FII,ETFs and hedge funds…?And how does the BSE sensex trumbles by this fall of oil price ?

  13. Mrunal let me add something more on ur credit, the que frm IR sec abt south china sea dispute and international agencies funding. If m nt wrong thn u hav already covered these material here and thr some point scatering in other article too, those point are enough to link nd write these questions ans. Thank you for all ths, as I was nt for ths yrs mains bt I did written last yrs mains. Hope best from u in your next series.

  14. Whatsoever you have posted whether it had been some full-fledged article or some revision-arena’s stunt or may be some basic theories,ur each & every article have rocked the world of IAS,Mrunal bhai..
    ..
    Even UPSCs members are tracking you each second that pass..
    ..
    But we are from the team of Mrunal..we will show the Delhi coachingwallas that only looting,false praising are not the ideas behind in making somebody an IAS..
    ..

  15. Second paper was fun. Oh the traps, the false hopes of reduced questions and increased peace of mind. The death trap that was three blank faces. And the questions. Oh the humanity. Almost quit after this one. But couldn’t do it! Anyway, this one is on pause till marks arrive. Then I can decide “To be or not to be”.

  16. Question 5: Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentence has come under public scrutiny as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse.

    Answer: Article 72 of the Indian constitution empower the president to pardon the person convicted and sentenced by the court of law.The president has power to commute death sentence into life imprisonment, but there is no specified time limit for the president to accept/ reject the plea.The president,s delay in commuting death sentence is considered as denial of justice, as it is said that “justice delayed is justice denied.It can be explained from two point of view:from the point of view of the convict; and from the point of view of victim.

    the delay in the procedure of commuting death sentence lead to delay in the execution ,which may lead to mental suffering of the convict.Long years on death row had made them mentally ill.
    recently Supreme Court has commuted Khalistani terrorist Bhullar’s death sentence to life term on the same ground.
    In the landmark judgement, the court had held that prolonging execution of death sentence has a “dehumanising effect” on condemned prisoners who have to face the “agony” of waiting for years under the shadow of death during the pendency of their mercy plea.
    the delay in commuting death sentence is denial of justice from the point of view of victim also as delay in the execution ,increasing the disatisfaction level of victim which may lead to mental suffering of victim also.
    Though no time limit can be fixed within which the mercy petition ought to be disposed of, there should not be inordinate delay.The supreme court in its recent verdicts also expressed this view.

    1. i think the case was Shatrughan chauhan v. union of india

  17. Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain their premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and decide the criteria of selection of students? Discuss in the light of growing challenges.

    1. Premier Status:
    Institutions like IITs are considered to be at the apex in the wishlist of candidates.
    In the global scene, these institutions reflect the quality of education provided by the country.
    In the remote areas with less access to guidance, students get inspired by the opportunities of studying in such an institution.
    Thus, in the context of brain drain too, it helps in drawing up most of the intellectual cream of the country.
    Thus, it should retain the Premier Status:

    2. More Academic Independence?
    The academic independence for designing the courses are satisfactory for now thought not absolute.
    Thus, instead of providing more academic independence, their expertise and knowledge could be helpful for the non-premier institutes which lack these.
    The pro-active participation of students and private companies in the designing of courses would ensure that the institutions provide the exact skills needed for the market.

    3. Criteria for Selection of Students?
    Despite having the Reservations for Backward classes, the challenge of ill-representation of geographic areas are not addressed.
    Students in the remote places where even the society is not aware of such institutions.
    So, sufficient representation of such people should be there.
    This can be done by roping in NGOs, SHGs and CSOs in the decision making to ensure that all the students have equal opportunities.

    Please Review guys. My email id is [email protected]
    Also if anyone can explain me what exactly has to be written in Q 13 of GS II UPSC Mains 2014.

  18. Each question is of 12.5 marks right? (Not sure – I am asking) … If yes, then each section totals should differ, it has been currently calculated on 10 marks basis

  19. what is the main object for the asking questions in the mains exam ? is it dependent on the current issues on the pluralistic year (2013-2014) between the mains exams please tell me

  20. want to say a big thank to mrunal.org

  21. That’s good

  22. a strong centre is necessary to maintain the unity of india. conclusion regarding governor appointment and finance collection is true..regarding all india services the govt. although cannot take strong actions but as implied on all india scene they have to act on the will of their state political bosses else frequent transfers and other pressure by state govt. machinery. so they have no autonomy.

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