[Geography Lecture] Indian Geography: Mineral & Energy resources, Nuclear Plants, Gas Pipelines, Iron-Steel & Cement Industries

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  1. Prologue
  2. G9/P1: Indian Geography: Mines, Minerals and Coal
  3. G9/P2: Indian Geography: Petroleum & Gas Reserves & Pipelines
  4. G9/P3: Nuclear Energy in India: Uranium, Thorium, Plants & Liabilities
  5. G9/P4: Indian Geography: Steel & Cement Industries


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 4th April, continuation of the Indian geography segment with Mines and Industrial topics. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into three parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G9/P1: Indian Geography: Mines, Minerals and Coal

Indian Coal Reserves

  1. Mines, Minerals and physiography of India
  2. Metallic- non-metallic minerals
  3. Energy resources
  4. Shield regions – chhota nagpur plateau and Dharwad plateau – metallic, non-metallic minerals source
  5. Rift valley regions-  Damodar and Mahanadi valley – coal reserve
  6. Marine transgression regions – petroleum reserve
  7. 5 mineral rich regions of India: Northern belt, Central belt, South east belt, South west belt, North west belt,
  8. Meaning of pyala lakes
  9. Mineral reserves in India: Iron ore, copper, bauxite, Mica, Limestone, Chromite.
  10. Energy Reserves in India: Coal.
  11. Types of Coal and their properties: Bituminous, Lignite, Anthracite and peat coal reserve in India
  12. Problems of Indian coal
  13. Under-ground coal gasification: features and benefits.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/nIjjh7sJjUA

G9/P2: Indian Geography: Petroleum & Gas Reserves

Geography Indian Petrolum & natural gas reserves

  1. Petroleum reserves and Sedimentary basin in India
  2. New petroleum exploration
  3. Petroleum refining industries: PSU, private, Joint venture.
  4. Natural gas reserve in India and LNG terminals
  5. Basin centered gas
  6. Benefits of Basin centered gas
  7. Pipelines: domestic and international.
  8. TAPI, IPI pipeline: routes, benefits, challanges
  9. Deep sea pipeline: Iran-India
  10. Russia-India pipeline
  11. Energy security in India- domestic & global challenges
  12. ONGC videsh: procurement
  13. Kelkar panel on energy security
  14. Strategic reserve of crude oil
  15. UPSC Prelims questions from this topic.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/nxO-gIKruOE

G9/P3: Nuclear Energy in India

Geography Nuclear plants in India

  1. Thorium, Uranium reserves in India
  2. Composition of natural uranium, Uranium processing
  3. Nuclear energy mechanism: Fission and fusion process
  4. Comparison: heavy water reactor and light water reactor
  5. Moderator in nuclear reactor
  6. Comparison: Light water and heavy water
  7. Issue with energy generation from  Thorium
  8. India’s 3 stage nuclear plan by Homi  Bhabha
  9. Pressurised Heavy water reactors of India
  10. Working of Pressurised Heavy water reactor
  11. Nuclear energy generation: Zirconium
  12. Uranium pallets and fuel assembly
  13. Sources of Zirconium
  14. Nuclear energy generation: helium
  15. Mechanism of moderator and control rod
  16. Re-processing of fuel
  17. Prototype-fast breeder reactor
  18. Thorium reactors
  19. Indian reactors and IAEA
  20. Kudankulam reactor
  21. India’s nuclear agreement with other countries
  22. Nuclear plant with foreign assistance
  23. Core raw material for nuclear energy generation
  24. Problems associated with nuclear-energy
  25. Nuclear liability law: arguments in favour and against, recent breakthroughs.
  26. Past UPSC questions from this topic.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/UCeRZZVf9yk

G9/P4: Indian Geography: Steel & Cement Industries

Geography Iron, Steel & Cement Plants in India

  1. History of steel industries in India
  2. Location factors for steel industries: Raw material based, Port based, Market based steel plants.
  3. Major steel industries in India, their plants and resources
  4. Vishakhapatnam steel plant
  5. Mini steel plants
  6. Status of steel industries in India
  7. National steel policy 2005
  8. Indian steel industry: challenges and potential
  9. Indian cement industries- raw material and location factors.
  10. New opportunities for cement industries

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/ahMVbMDHr3I
Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel For more lectures on UPSC General Studies.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

43 Comments on “[Geography Lecture] Indian Geography: Mineral & Energy resources, Nuclear Plants, Gas Pipelines, Iron-Steel & Cement Industries”

  1. GEO_L23 ppt ??? missing

  2. Thanks sir and madam mam can u write the article on geography

  3. thanks you for sharing material but can we also get pdf notes of above material.

    thanks in advance

  4. thank you mam for ur outstanding work……

  5. thank you mam

    India is 2nd largest producer of cement after china

    india is 4th position in crude steel producer
    1st china
    2nd japan
    3rd USA
    4th INDIA

    India is 4th largest Iron reserve

    1. Hi Purna, India recently overhauled USA in terms of steel producing country and got 3rd place after china and japan……..

  6. very useful article

  7. Thank you so much for this lectures…:)

  8. thank u very muchhh


  10. Good and nice

  11. great word ….. god give you special credit for selfless service..

  12. Madam its Krishna godavari basin.. And not kaveri godavari. :D

  13. In response to:
    “Like a seasonal farm-laborer, I also spend first 3-4 months of each year teaching economy in various classes to sustain the income. But that season will be over in next 4-5 lectures, then I’m back to writing articles”.

    Respected sir, why don’t you start charging something for using your website. Your website has replaced the need to buy a number of magzines which contain very bad quality material. Whenever you give some article that is in such a detail that we need not to search for hours. Plus your constant support and presence here is something which cannot be calculated in terms of money. There might be some of our brothers and sisters which con not afford paying money for using this website but you at least allow and create some means so that those who can afford be able to contribute voluntarily some monthly charges.

    1. Once mrunal sir have given the ans. For the same.. He told ” the purpose and aim of the site will be violated if I charge money… ..” . And something like that. I don’t remember his words.. But he has already ans. Your suggetion…. (I’m not against you bro.)

      1. thanks for responding,……what I want to say is that if sir has to do work elsewhere to earn so as to maintain this website than why not he allows, at least, those who want to contribute voluntarily. If mrunal sir would be available and writing articles here instead of some other magazines than it shall have benefited thousands of his followers more. If I am not wrong he has to shut down one other initiative just because of lack of resources……..In short, if sir likes what he is doing on other platforms than its ok but if he wants to expand this platform and are forced to do that work elsewhere as hie language suggests me than sir I request you sir PLEASE ALLOW THOSE WHO WANT TO CONTRIBUTE!


        1. And anyways withan alexa rating of 21k mrunal wud be earning fair enough by ads u alwaya c .

          1. Mrunal don’t earn any money just by showing Ads.
            Google pays only if a visitor clicks on the Ads and remains/explore the webpage opened.
            These days maximum users use Adblocks.
            Big share of money earned by Google Adsense goes on website maintenance and Internet bills.

        2. If any one of us selected as a civil servant, we must donate something to Mrunal Sir (after getting first salary). It would be a great help to him to continue this free service. mrunal sir please provide your A/c No. and IFSC detail in your Home page so many of us can contribute something to run this great service.

  14. Mam Koderma(largest producer of Mica) is in Jharkhand.

    1. Right, Kodarama is place in Jharkhand State

  15. What is your Message? Search before asking questions & confine discussions to exams related matter only.ya u are right. koderma is in jharkhand not in odisha

  16. outstanding…thank u!!!!

  17. economy ke lecture khatam ho gaye kya sir? 2 weeks apne upload nahi kiye.

  18. sir plz provide the powerpoint presentation for all the geography lectures

  19. thank u sir and mam very much

  20. plz suggest any book on environment and ecology ,as so many questions come from this topic.

  21. Sir can u pls put those lectures in English … It’ll be very helpful … Pls sir

  22. mrunal informations very useful and improving knowledge regarding unknown& curious information about all subjets thank u verymuch for mrunal group i have one more help regarding my subjct of sociology now iam preparing lecturer exam for degree college so please give me some important information in sociology for compitative purpous . iam waiating for your responce .

  23. Tummalapalle is in kadapa

  24. Strategic reserve of crude oil.

    2004 – Mangaluru and Padur in West Coast and Vishakhapatnam in East Coast.

  25. Major Iron and Steel Indu. in India
    Bokaro is in Jharkhand not Bihar.
    Coal from Jharia not Zaria.

  26. please sir give some answer formet for public administration and geogrphy optional

  27. sir,pls provide viedo lecturers in english also

  28. Sir I cant find the ppt of this article plz help me ?

  29. sir in the slide of energy security …mam has explained a data about energy consumtion of india and production in world in percentage ? is this data is correct?

  30. Thank u very Rajtanil Ma’m and Mrunal sir for your efforts :)

    In lecture G9/P4 it is said that Balimela HEP is in AP but it is Odisha and maintained by Odisha Hydro Power Corporation.

  31. Bhilai steel plant not in MP. It iis in Chhattisgarh. madam aapne bahut sara mistake kiya hai place ko lekar
    Like kodarma not in odisa, bokaro not in bihar .

  32. Thanqq Ma`am, Wht a flowing explanation of such a typical topic. Beautifullll !!!

  33. sir/madam,
    1. what is the largest iron ore production state in india?
    2. what is the largest cooper production state in india?

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