[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 GS: History & Culture: Questions solved with explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)

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Economic Survey
  1. Prologue
  2. CSAT 2013: GS History Internal Breakup History
  3. History: Modern India (5Qs)
    1. Simon
    2. QIM
    3. Tebhaga
    4. Annie Besant
    5. Ilbert
  4. History: Ancient, Medieval (2Qs)
    1. Culture
    2. Dance: Tribhaga
    3. Religion: Bhakti saints
    4. Religion: Buddhism Chaitya and Vihara
    5. Religion: Buddhism: Nirvana
    6. Jain doctrine
    7. Sankhya School
    8. Mural paintings

Prologue

  • 15 out of total 100 MCQs were from History.
  • Questions from Modern History very straight forward –almost all can be solved directly from Bipin Chandra (contrary to the difficulty level that one expects from UPSC.)
  • Ancient-Medieval continues to get low-priority.
  • The trivial “Chronology/timeline” type question makes re-entry in UPSC. (Dadu Dayal)
  • Culture continues to get high priority (as usual) and continues to be a tough cookie (as usual). Whatever relaxation was given in Modern History Questions, has been countered here. Hell some of these “culture” questions almost require doing PG/Ph.D on the said topic hahaha.

CSAT 2013: GS History Internal Breakup History

Chart CSAT 2013-GS-History

Topic # of Qs.
Modern Indian/ Freedom struggle 5
Ancient, medieval 2
Culture 8
Total 15

History: Modern India (5Qs)

Total five MCQs from this section:

Simon

1. The people of India agitated against the arrival of Simon Commission because

  1. Indians never wanted the review of the working of the Act of 1919
  2. Simon Commission recommended the abolition of  Dyarchy (Diarchy) in the Provinces
  3. there was no Indian member in the Simon Commission
  4. the Simon Commission suggested the partition of the country

India’s Struggle for Independence, Bipin Chandra, Ch 21, Page 261

The response (to formation of Simon Commission) in India was immediate and unanimous, that no Indian should be thought fit to serve on a body which claimed the right to decide the political future of India, was an insult that no Indian of even most moderate political opinion was willing to swallow.

Answer C.

QIM

2. Quit India Movement was launched in response to

  1. Cabinet Mission Plan
  2. Cripps Proposals
  3. Simon Commission Report
  4. Wavell Plan

NCERT Class 12, Themes in Indian History Part III, Page 363

After the failure of Cripps mission, Gandhi decided to launch his third movement against the British Rule.  This was the Quit India campaign, which began in August 1942

Another Source: India’s Struggle for Independence, Bipin Chandra, Ch.35, Page 457

Why had it become necessary to launch a (Quit India) movement in these difficult conditions, when the possibility of a brutal repression was a certainty?…..For one, the failure of the Cripps mission in April 1942 made it clear that Britain was unwilling to offer an honorable settlement….

Answer B.

Tebhaga

3. The demand for the Tebhaga Peasant Movement in Bengal was for

  1. the reduction of the share of the landlords from one-half of the crop to one-third
  2. the grant of ownership of land to peasants as they were the actual cultivators of the land
  3. the uprooting of Zamindari system and the end of serfdom
  4. writing off all peasant debts

India’s Struggle for Independence, Bipin Chandra, Ch.27, Page 352 last para

It was the Tebhaga struggle in Bengal that held the limelight. in 1946 the sharecroppers of Bengal began to assert that they would no longer pay a half share of their crops to Jotedars but only 1/3rd and that before division, the crop would be stored in their khamars (Godowns) and not that of the Jotedars.

Answer A.

Annie Besant

4. Annie Besant was

  1. responsible for starting the Home Rule Movement
  2. the founder of the Theosophical Society
  3. Once the President of the Indian National Congress

Select the correct statement/statements using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
Given statement True/false Why?
  1. responsible for starting the Home Rule Movement
True Tilak started Home Rule league in April 1916 while Annie Besant launched her Home Rule league in September 1916. In that sense, Tilak was “ahead” in the race. But on that logic if we take Statement #1=wrong, then there is no answer choice left (because statement #2 is definitely wrong, Anni Besant wasn’t the founder of Theo society.)
  1. the founder of the Theosophical Society
False Theosophical Society was founded by Madam Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott 1875.Annie Besant joined the team much later, in 1889.
  1. Once the President of the Indian National Congress
true India’s Struggle for Independence, Bipin Chandra Ch. 13 Page 168

  • In keeping with the conciliatory stance of the Montagu declaration, Annie Besant was released in September 1917. Annie Besant was at the height of popularity and Tilak’s Suggestion, was elected president at the annual session of Congress in December 1917.=> Statement #3 correct.

Answer (C) 1 and 3.

Ilbert

5.The Ilbert Bill controversy was related to the

  1. imposition restrictions the Indians of certain to carry arms by Indians
  2. imposition of restrictions on newspapers and magazines published in Indian languages
  3. removal of disqualifications imposed on the Indian magistrates with regard to the trial of the Europeans
  4. removal of a duty on imported cotton cloth

India’s Struggle for Independence, Bipin Chandra, Ch.5, Page 73

A major agitation was organized during 1883 in favor of the Ilbert Bill which would enable Indian magistrates to try Europeans.

Another source: TMH General Studies Manual, Indian National Movement, Page 4

The Illbert Bill (1883) of lord Rippon sought to empower the Indian district Magistrates and sessions judges to try Europeans in criminal cases. Under the existing laws, the Indian members of ICS will not authorized to try Europeans in their courts.

Hence answer C.

History: Ancient, Medieval (2Qs)

1. Which of the following characterizes/ characterize the people of Indus Civilization?

  1. They possessed great palaces and temples.
  2. They worshipped both male and female deities.
  3. They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare.

Select the correct statement/ statements using the codes given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. None of the statements given above is correct

As per IGNOU’s B.Ed course (ES-343), Chapter-5 Ancient Civilization – Indus Valley Civilization

Given statement True/False As per the given IGNOU PDF
  1. They possessed great palaces and temples.
False
  • No temples or religious places have been discovered from Harappan cities.
  • another source: Britannica:  No building has been discovered at any Harappan site that can be positively identified as a temple, but the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro may have been used for ritual purposes
  1. They worshipped both male and female deities.
True
  • Figurines resembling a female deity have been found. They suggest worship of Mother Goddess.
  • A seal with male figure sitting in a logic posture with a trident-like headgear, surrounded by animals, has been found. This has a lot of similarities with Shiva. From this it is figured that the Harappans might be worshipping Shiva.
  • another source: TMH General Studies Manual, Ch. History of India, Page 7
    Religion: Clay figures of the mother Goddess, worshipped by the people as a symbol of fertility, have been found. A seated figure of a male god, carved on a small stone seal, have also been found. The scene immediately brings to mind the traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva. In addition to these, we come across numerous symbols of the phallus and female sex organs made of stone, which may have been objects of worship.
  1. They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare.
False
  • On the basis of the Indus seals, it can be said that a large number of animals including goats, buffaloes, oxen, elephants, dogs and camels were domesticated.
  • But the Harappans seem not to have been familiar with the horse
  • another source: TMH General Studies Manual, Ch. History of India, Page 7
    Stock Breeding: The camel was rare and the horse was probably not known to the Harappans. Hence Statement #3: They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare =wrong.

Therefore, answer B) Only 2.

2. The Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang (Hiuen Tsang) who visited India recorded the general conditions and culture of India at that time. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery.
  2. As regards punishment for offences, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments for determining the innocence or guilt of a person.
  3. The tradesmen had to pay duties at ferries and barrier stations.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

full text of Yuan Chwang’s journal is available here archive.org

Accordingly

Given Statement True/False As per the journal
  1. The roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery.
False Yuan Chwang himself was robbed and the thugs had decided to sacrifice him, but he was saved by a hurricane.
  1. As regards punishment for offences, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments for determining the innocence or guilt of a person.
True The narrative proceeds to describe the four ordeals by which the innocence or guilt of an accused person is determined. These are by water, by fire, by weighing, and by poison.
  1. The tradesmen had to pay duties at ferries and barrier stations.
True Under Revenue and taxation system, Yuan Chwang notes that Tradesmen go to and fro bartering their merchandize after paying light duties at ferries and barrier stations.

Hence Answer (B) 2 and 3 only.

Culture

Now comes the tough and boring part, where use of internet and random googling becomes necessary lolz.

Dance: Tribhaga

1. In the context of cultural history of India, a pose in dance and dramatics called ‘Tribhanga’ has been a favorite of Indian artists from ancient times till today. Which one of the following statements best describes this pose?

  1. One leg is bent and the body is slightly but oppositely curved at waist and neck
  2. Facial expressions, hand gestures and make-up are combined to symbolize certain epic or historic characters
  3. Movements of body, face and hands are used to express oneself or to tell a story
  4. A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism

Tribhanga (‘thrice-bent’) pose looks like this photo:
culture-Tribhanga Posture
Hence A is the answer

Religion: Bhakti saints

2. Consider the following Bhakti Saints:

1. Dadu Dayal

2. Guru Nanak

3. Tyagaraja

Who among the above was/were preaching when the Lodi dynasty fell and Babur took over?

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 2

Timeline

Name Birth Death
Dadu Dayal 1544 1601
Guru Nanak 1469 1539
Tyagaraj 1767 1847

When Lodi Dynasty fell in 1526 in the Battle of Panipat,

  • Dadu Dayal wasn’t born (#1 is wrong)
  • Guru Nanak in his late 50s (#2 is right)
  • Tyagaraj wasn’t born (#3 is wrong)

Eliminate the choices accordingly

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 2

Hence answer is B) Only 2

Religion: Buddhism Chaitya and Vihara

3. Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the difference between the two?

  1. Vihara is a place of worship, while Chaitya is the dwelling place of the monks
  2. Chaitya is a place of worship, while Vihara is the dwelling place of the monks
  3. Chaitya is the stupa at the far end of the cave, while Vihara is the hall axial to it
  4. There is no material difference between the two

http://www.india-crafts.com/religion-craft/buddhist-sculpture.html

Three structures were the most important in Buddhism namely Chaitya, Vihara and Stupa.

  1. A stupa
is a place, usually dome shaped, where the mortal remains of Buddha and other important monks are placed.
  1. A chaitya-griha
is a meeting or assembly chamber often used for purposes of prayer. In fact, it is not tough to find a stupa situated inside the interior space of a chaitya.
  1. Viharas
are the shelter accommodations of the monks during the rainy season.

Hence answer is B)

Religion: Buddhism: Nirvana

4. Which one of the following describes best the concept of Nirvana in Buddhism?

  1. The extinction of the flame of desire
  2. The complete annihilation of self
  3. A state of bliss and rest
  4. A mental stage beyond all comprehension

Debatable answer-choices.

IGNOU’s MA Philosophy -> MPYE-005 World Religions, chapter 3 and 4.

  1. The extinction of the flame of desire
Ch3.Page 30, Nirvana is the total ‘extinction of thirst’. Hence (A) is correct.
  1. The complete annihilation of self
^same pdf, same paragraph continues to say Extinction of the ‘thirst’ does not mean self-annihilation, because there is no self in  Buddhism. Hence option (B) is definitely incorrect.
  1. A state of bliss and rest
Ch4. page38, Nirvana is the state of being without suffering. It is a state of supreme happiness and bliss. Hence (C) is also correct (or atleast close match!)
  1. A mental stage beyond all comprehension
Ch3. Page30, the author/professor himself says:How can we understand Nirvana? Nirvana is the absolute, supra-mundane experience; hence language is not sufficient to explain it. (Even this can be debated as a valid answer, among the given 4 choices!)

Final answer: let’s wait for what official answerkey of UPSC has to say.
Update Jun-26-2014: UPSC uploaded official answerkey. Correct answer is: A.

Jain doctrine

5. Which of the following statements is/are applicable to Jain doctrine?

  1. The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance.
  2. Every object, even the smallest particle has a soul.
  3. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. only 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

I’m again using same IGNOU’s MA Philosophy -> MPYE-005 World Religions, chapter 1 and 2.

Statement True/False Why?
  1. The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance.
True As per Ch2. page22: The annihilation (nirjara) of karma comes about through penance.
  1. Every object, even the smallest particle has a soul.
True As per Ch2.Page 20, First para
Souls are not only the property of animal and plant life, but also of entities such as stones, rocks, running water, and many other natural objects not looked upon as living by other sects.
  1. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended.
True As per Ch1. Page 9,The Jaina holds that every living and non-living being is gifted with souls….They are obstructed by karma, just as the natural light of the sun is hindered by clouds. By removing the karmas, a soul can remove bondage and regain its natural perfections.

All 3 statements are correct. Hence answer (D) 1, 2 and 3.

Sankhya School

6. With reference to the history of philosophical thought in India, consider the following statements regarding Sankhya school:

  1. Sankhya does not accept the theory of rebirth or transmigration of soul.
  2. Sankhya holds that it is the self-knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior influence or agent.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

  1. 1only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Statement #1

  • All the six schools believe in the ‘Law of Karma’, rebirth, and attainment of Moksha/Liberation as the highest goal of human struggle. (http://www.oocities.org/neovedanta/a80.html)
  • Almost all Indian schools of thought accepted the theory of karma and rebirth, and the ideal of moksha is conceived as liberation from the cycle of births and deaths.  (IGNOU MA Philosophy, http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/jspui/handle/123456789/46822)
  • ^but the question comes in mind, if ‘almost all’ believe, then which school doesn’t believe? I think that’d be Lokayata school.

anyways unable to locate reliable source that directly validates or rejects first statement. so no very sure.
Update Jun-26-2014: UPSC uploaded official answerkey. Correct answer is: B only 2 correct.

statement #2

IGNOU BA Philosophy Course Code BPY-005, Chapter 4 Yoga Philosophy, Page 46
The Yoga presents a practical path for the realization of the self whereas the Samkhya emphasizes the attainment of knowledge of self by means of concentration and meditation. therefore, statement #2 correct.
Answer: don’t know. B / C.

Caves and paintings

7. With reference to the history of Indian rock-cut architecture, consider the following statements:

  1. The caves at Badami are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India.
  2. The Barabar rock-cut caves were originally made for Ajivikas by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
  3. At Ellora, caves were made for different faiths.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
Statement True/false? Why?
  1. The caves at Badami are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India.
F Barabar are oldest rock cut caves and they were built by Asoka. Hence both 1st and 2nd statement false.Ref:

  1. IndiaTV Channel’s webpage (curiously they posted it in March 2013, who knew even IndiaTV could help in UPSC prep!)
  2. Another source: Page 145, A Global History of Architecture by Mark M. Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash.
  1. The Barabar rock-cut caves were originally made for Ajivikas by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
F
  1. At Ellora, caves were made for different faiths.
T In total, there are nearly 100 caves in the hill range out of which 34 caves are famous and visited by many tourists, out of which Caves 1 to 12 are Buddhist; Caves 13 to 29 are Brahmanical and Caves 30 to 34 are Jaina. => Statement #3 is correct
Ref: Archeological survey of India webpage

answer C: only 3

Mural paintings

8. Consider the following historical places:

1. Ajanta Caves

2. Lepakshi Temple

3. Sanchi Stupa

Which of the above places is / are also known for mural paintings?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. None

let’s check

Statement T/F Why?
1. Ajanta Caves True The (Ajanta) caves, famous for its murals, are the finest surviving examples of Indian art, particularly painting. (Ref: Archeological Survey of India’s official webpage for Ajanta)
2. Lepakshi Temple True Lepakshi temple also has the finest specimens of mural paintings of the Vijayanagar kings.  (Ref: As per TheHindu article published in Jan 2012)
3. Sanchi Stupa False No evidence of presence of mural paintings in Sanchi Stupa. (or atleast I haven’t been able to find It in some book or some realiable website so far hahaha)

Hence answer (B): 1 and 2 only. (or may be C: all three)
Answerkeys for remaining topics, coming soon + thanks Mr. Palas Nuwal and Mr.Shiva Ram for providing inputs.

Mrunal recommends

113 Comments on “[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 GS: History & Culture: Questions solved with explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)”

  1. mrunal sir please clarify, someone believes in moksha and liberation only if he believes in rebirth, so statement 1 and 2 are contradictory, how can both be correct

  2. Well Tarun…I agree with u…that is why one needs to go to NH1 to reach Delhi…u need to apply the concept to get the ans while answering a ques..so .Nirvana IS the state of bliss and rest but the way or concept behind it is extinction of desire

  3. @Tarun
    U indirectly gave an amazing reason to why Option A is right

    1. tanya yes u r right, i didnt considered that point, but concept does not includes only the way or plan, it implies everything about something particular, and the definition of that is the central figure in the concept, i agree with u answer a is correct but in my view answer c is better, but that all depends on one’s views

  4. In the nirvana question ,i think we can eliminate ‘A’ as Bhudha said that u can “attain” nirvana by killing the desire and not attaining nirvana will kill the desire .so ans may be ‘C’

  5. nearly all history qs can be searched\traced in NEW NCERTs. For Samkhya qs see old ncert-ch._upon indian philosophy.it would help.thanks for ans key.

  6. Well..to each her/his own..According to me A is a better answer..concept and answer are two different things

  7. minutely done by you sir…hats off to you. please guide for mains also sir. which book to be studied for mains?

  8. what do u think would be the cut off for this year preliminary exam sir…??

  9. Sir,
    Could you please tell us what would be the expected cut off this year. As many websites predicts different cut offs based on many factors like number of candidates appeared, IFS factor, expected increase in number of vacancies this year, easiness of exam pattern this year, inclusion of numericals as well as lengthy Paper II . We all see cut off ranges from 185 to 225. If you possibly throw some light on this, it would be better for so many candidates.

    Thanks
    Amit

  10. Mrunal, I know probably you wouldnt have the time to answer these kind of questions. But actually, its really important. I wrote CSP – 2013 and feel confident about clearing it. This is my 3rd attempt and would be the 1st mains. I had taken Pub ad and psychology as my optionals. But having seen the Pub ad questions and marks, I feel realy doubtful about taking it. Though it has a huuuge overlap with GS and is otherwise helpful in essay and interview also. I will be working and writing mains. Therefore, I feel Psychology is too vast plus no overlap though I my concepts are clear in psycho . But 1st preference would be Pub Ad because of short syllabus and huge overlap. Please throw some light on the analysis of Pub Ad as a subject. Would be highly obliged.

    1. you are right to the my point of view, i have also the same optional and psychology is much more demanding and complex when compared to pubad and except some overlap in ethics paper there is no advantage in other portion of new syllabus by going with psycho.It is therefore a judicious decision to go with pubad.And marks in paper 2 of pubad are not all so bad.In the new scheme less weight of optional will not make much difference as marks on average most probably range between 200 to 300.

      1. I have heard 2 digit numbers of very good players in pub ad paper1…..total of almost everyone has nt gone above 150/600 this time. Only very few have got above 200 in pub ad this time…So really really not sure….

  11. yes tanya it is the art of upsc to frame debatable questions, and these debates on the whole increase one’s intellect

  12. @tanya what do u think about the sankhya question??

  13. No idea..there is no wisdom in attempting or even reading such questions..upsc designs such ques for overconfident risk takers

    1. UPSC has issued a circular to hire only stale and settled candidates.

  14. Is there is some chance for me to clear prelims?my score is 218?plz evry1 publish ur comments on this.

    1. if these marks are according to a single key, without any of ur self corrections, then u will definitely clear

  15. The Question on Huan Tsang was current affairs related

    A Report came on Hindu that a temple related to Huan Tsang was being demolished in China….UPSC rocks!!

    1. And a candidate is expected to dig out the archives and frame points about what he said and what he left unsaid. UPSC rocks with you sir.

  16. easily influenced people like you mani have made the life hell for all the serious candidates. You see a bakwass question and think it is intellectual capital.

  17. Sir..can you plz give the studyplan for RBI Assistant exam post 2013. plz upload as soon as possible. i want to start prepartion . only 1and 1/2 month is remained.

    1. go for such a menial job. this is my sincere advice

      1. if she becomes officer grade then she will find it difficult to prepare for upsc(assuming she wis interested)…clerical jobs are best for preperation one earns if in need plus also can prepare…

  18. how can i download ignou books .

  19. mrunal plz upload answers of science tech as different coaching institutes are giving confusing answers

  20. All Kudos ! to the appreciable work done by you Mrunal Sir. Your way of explaining the questions and answers with valid facts are a great help. I have been regular follower of this webpage. Many of the coaching institutes are giving answer keys to prelims 2013, and all with varying answers. Your work is truly comendable. Keep up the good work Sir and always enlighten our path being a true mentor.

  21. Regarding Sanchi Stupa

    If u type in key words sanchi + mural in google search, u will find a few websites which mention murals being available in sanchi and that they show buddha’s life etc… but these r tourist websites and i am thus not clear… marked all three as i somehow remembered reading somewhere that murals are present on the inner walls of dome of sanchi…. but still no authentic information…

  22. My score is around 215. i hve verified from different sources. wht are my chances of clearing the prelims exam.?

    1. When in doubt, always chose to believe that option which will benefit you. Please go on believing you will pass and that will make you calmer, you can start prep for mains and even if you will not clear prelims at a later stage you will be alrite knowing you haven;t wasted last two months in just worrying. And if you do pass ( I hope we all do :) ) , well that adds to your prep. and your self belief will be rewarded :)

    2. borderline….if u belong to general category…

  23. about Sankhya philosophy.
    The very word Liberation indicates getting freedom from life cycle which indicates belief in transmigration of soul.
    So, if option 2 is correct , option 1 must be wrong.

  24. I swear I read mrunal paintings instead of mural paintings in UPSC and I thought- wow!! Even UPSC follows mrunal.org LOLz

  25. Hi,
    If some one want to join at vision india ( puri sir ) test series for pub ad, please contact.
    I have paid fee for that, but now i am inclined towards another optional .
    Actual fee for test series is 11,000 but i got it for 10,000. I ll be glad to transfer my id to you for the same.

    contact:

    chaitanya chinta
    9582925910

    Sai Krishnama naidu
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  26. the nirvan q has no 2 or 3 ways about it . option 4 ruled out as opnion of author. option 3 is is not exclusive understanding by bhuddism it is mixed understanding of hindu jain . so only option 1 .for refrence go to orignal text of sutta pitak

  27. Supreme Court Judgment on Cancer Drug (Argument in Favour of Judgment)
    • Novartis case judgment by SC will ensure that no ever greening of patents will take place in India in future and it also ensure that life saving patented drugs will continue to available at affordable cost in future also.
    • For eg. the cost of Glivec is over Rs. 1lakh but its generic equivalent will cost about Rs. 8000. In India there are 2,00,000 people suffer from Chronic Myloid Leukaemia and there is a addition of 30,000 people every year. By the judgment of SC now drugs are available at low cost this in turn benefit the poor people.
    • Judgment is well balanced between innovation and affordability and will not adversely affect the R & D or research inflow of newer drugs into our country. For eg. in the case of Glivec the cost of discovering the compound as per Novartis is estimated about $8million but the return by the introduction of drug in the first year only is about $1billion. Hence neither the innovation nor inflow of newer compounds in our country will not be affected by the SC judgment.
    • India is the world’s biggest supplier of generics, the judgment impact is positive as many application for newer patents for marginally superior compounds will be rejected. For eg. watershed judgment of SC

  28. hello murnul sir plz read question REAUIRMENT BEST DESCRIBES …. TRIBHANGA ANSHWER SHULD BE -A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism U CAN SEE ALL MOTION ON INTERNET PLZ REVIEW

  29. hello murnul sir plz read question REQUIRMENT BEST DESCRIBES …. TRIBHANGA ANSHWER SHULD BE -A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism U CAN SEE ALL MOTION ON INTERNET PLZ REVIEW ANSHWER

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