[Historic Women] Rani Rudrama & Chandupatla inscription, John Lang & Laxmibai, Hazrat Mahal & More

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This is an old article- updated with two new notes: Rudrama Devi’s Chandupatla inscription and John Lang’s India connection.

  1. Rudrama Devi & Chandupatla Inscription
  2. John Lang, the Lawyer of Laxmibai (1816-1864)
  3. Hazrat Mahal: 135th Anniversary
  4. Stree Shakti Puraskar
  5. Women in Freedom Struggle of India
  6. Mock Questions

Rudrama Devi & Chandupatla Inscription

Why in News? 2014, November was her 725th Anniversary.

1236-1240 Razia Sultan, the daughter of Iltumish, became the first and only woman rule Delhi’s throne.
1259-1289 Rudrama Devi, the first Hindu female ruler of Andhra-Telangana region.
  • Rudrama devi belonged to Kakatiya dynasty, Capital- Warangal, ran several irrigation and welfare programs and defended her empire from attacks of Chola and Yadav kings.
  • Telangana’s Chadupatla village inscription says she died on 27th November 1289 in a battle. So 2014 marks her 725th Death Anniversary.

John Lang, the Lawyer of Laxmibai (1816-1864)

Why in news? Because Modi gifted something to Australian PM in 2014, November.

John Lang Laxmibai Lawyer

John Lang was the first native novelist of Australia. Notable novels: Will he marry her?, My friend’s wife, Forger’s Wife, Secret Police, Too clever by half.

Lang in India
1842 Came to India, learned Hindi language and ran “The Moffusilite” newspaper. Lang published articles against East India company, was jailed for libel.
1854 Governor General Lord Dalhousie annexed Jhansi, under doctrine of Lapse- after the King of Jhasi died, leaving Manikarnika Tambe (Laxmibai) and his adopted son Damodar Rao behind.
  • After Anglo-Sikh wars, East India company did not pay money to one contractor Joti Ram, who had supplied them war-provisions.  John Lang fought his case, and won a hefty compensation from East India company.
  • Impressed with his legal acumen, Rani Laxmibai asked John Lang to get Jhansi’s annexation removed.
  • John Lang prepared a petition against the East India company. But British government discarded it in a week. [perhaps to settle the score of earlier defeat in that contractor case and his Anti-British newspaper articles.]
1857 Rani fought and died during Sepoy mutiny
1864 John Lang died and buried in Mussoorie.
2014 Modi gifted Lang’s petition against East India Company, to Australian PM Tony Abbott, to help examiners frame MCQs on this topic.

Hazrat Mahal: 135th Anniversary

Hazrat Mahal = 135th Anniversary, hence she automatically becomes important for UPSC Mains 2014. Just like Maulana Azad in Mains-2013
Q.Write a note about the contribution of Begam Hazrat Mahal in India’s struggle for Independence. (200 words)
1856 under Doctrine of Lapse, Lord Dalhousie exiled the Nawab wajid Ali shah of Awadh to Calcutta. His wife, Begum Hazrat Mahal took the charge of the state, and played a prominent role in the mutiny of 1857

  1. Provided Leadership to rebels of Lucknow, and fought in the name of her minor son Birjis Qadr.
  2. In the war of Alambaug, herself fought against British troops.
  3. Assisted Nana Saheb in Kanpur.
  4. Lord Dalhousie asked the help of Nepal’s Rana Jang Bahadur and offered areas of Gorakhpur and Awadh in return. Begum countered Dalhousie’s move by offering the Rana three more province of Awadh apart from Gorakhpur.
  5. Assisted Maulvi Ahmedullah (Danka Shah) against attack on Shahjahanpur (Firozabad) and defeated Henry Lawrence.
  6. British again attacked great force, she was defeated but escaped to Nepal.
  7. British offered pension to her if she gave up her claim on throne for his son. But Begam denied and chose to live in Nepal, where she died in 1879.

Begum Hazrat Mahal fought with great fervor, showed exceptional courage and organisational skills. She had ability to unite people from different class and provided an instrumental leadership during India’s first struggle for independence.
~200 words.

Stree Shakti Puraskar

Every year, Women and child Development Ministry gives Stree-Shakti Purarskars. Winners not *that* important but the historic women associated with them= important for MCQ. Where they belong to, what time era they lived in?

Exact years not important. But chronology is
100-300 TN Kannagi
  • character in Tamil epic “Silapathikaram”
  • Madurai’s Pandyan king murdered her husband, she took revenge by putting a curse on the city.
1259-1289 Andhra Rani Rudramma
  • ruler of Kaktiya dynasty, in Andhra Pardesh (capital Warangal) in 13th century.
  • defended her kigdom against Cholas and Yadavas.
1598-1674 MH Mata Jijabai
  • mother of Shivaji – the founder of Maratha empire.
  • also known as rajmata Jijabai Bhosle,
1725-1795 MP Rani Ahlyabai Holkar
  • queen of Malwa kingdom, after death of her husband
  • patron of Hindu temples.
1828-1858 UP Rani Laxmibai we already know why she is famous
1915-1993 Manipur Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang.
  • Naga spiritual leader and freedom fighter.
  • 1932: Imprisoned for life at age 16
  • 1947: released
  • Nehru gave her title “Rani”
  • Got Padma Bhushan

Women in Freedom Struggle

Abbreviations used in following table:

  • R=rich, M=middle class, P=poor, “?”=not mentioned in book, and I did not bother googling (Because in real life preparation, a candidate wouldn’t have that much time to do Ph.D on everything.)
  • NV=non-violent. R=Revolutionary / violent methods.
Aruna Asaf Ali M NV
  • Breaking the social conventions, married to a Muslim Congressman Asaf Ali. Went to prison during CDM and Individual Satyagraha. Hoisted tricolor @Gowalia tank after Maulana Azad’s arrest.
  • Editor of ‘Inquilab’ a monthly journal of Congress
Begum Safia Abdul Wajid R NV
  • Rich Muslim Family, Post graduate from Allahabad Univ. Lost government lecturer job because of her participation in Quit India movement.
Durgabai Deshmukh M NV
  • Middle class family, initially couldn’t afford education but graduated from Andhra.
  • Studied law, practiced in Madras High court.
  • Jailed for salt satyagraha
  • Andhra Mahila sabha for welfare of women.
Jyotirmoyee Ganguli ? NV
  • left Government job during civil disobedience movement.
  • took part in the British demonstrations
  • Demanded the release of jailed INA soldiers. Killed by the British during a procession.
Kasturba ? NV
  • Took part in all the programs of Gandhi, jailed during Quit India movement and died in Poona jail two years later.
Madam Bhikaiji Cama NV
  • herself influenced by Dadabhai Naoroji, she Inspired Indian youth in UK, ran newsletter “Bande Mataram” and organization “free India society”.
  • Unfurled first national flag of India in Germany.
Matangini Hajra P NV
  • born in a poor peasant family of Bengal- exploited by both Zamindars and the British.
  • Dandi March,
  • campaigned for non-payment of Chowkidari tax- arrested.
  • During Quit India movement, planned an Attack on police station but killed while hoisting the national flag.
Nehru R NV
  • Jawaharlal’s mom: Swarup Rani Nehru, provided moral support and fought for freedom struggle.
  • His sister Vijay Laxmi Pandit: jailed thrice during CDM
  • Wife Kamala Nehru: participated in CDM and No-tax campaign.
Rajkumari Amrita Kaur R NV
  • Royal family from Punjab
  • Grad. from England, influenced by Gandhi
  • Jailed for quit India movement
Rehana Tyabjee R NV
  • Affluent family, her father was a Judge.
  • influenced by Gandhi, joined Sabarmati Ashram, NCM, opposed Untouchability + child marriage
  • President of Youth congress
  • Jailed for QIM
  • First muslim lady to sing Vandemataram in Congress session
Sarojini Naidu ? NV
  • Graduated from London
  • one of the first women to participate in Freedom struggle
  • under mentorship of G.K.Gokhale
  • later participated in all programs of Gandhi, including Dandi March
  • served as President of Indian national congress.
  • Even her daughter Padmaja Naidu, 21, was arrested for Quit India movement.
Cpt. Laxmi Sahgal ? R
  • young medical student
  • Became Captain of all-woman Rani of Jhansi regiment of the Indian National Army (INA) under Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • Led the troops in Burma during WW2, but caught by the British army.
Kalpana Dutt Joshi ? R
  • Revolutionary from Bengal.
  • part of Surya Sen’s Chittagong republication army. Caught and transported for life, later released.
Nanibala devi ? R
  • Brahmin family. Widowed @the tender age of 16
  • Joined Jugandhar party, associated with revolutionary movements.
  • Arrested for transporting weapons and ammunition
  • was the first and only woman to be tortured by the police under Regulation III of 1818
  • Calcutta jail’s first woman prisoner.
Preetilata Waddedar ? R
  • Part of Chittagaong revolutionaries of Surya Sen.
  • Organized attacks on British establishments in Bengal.
  • Consumed Postassium cyanide to evade detention and interrogation.
Rani Gaidinliu ? R
  • Naga Tribal, who organized rebellion to overthrow British from Manipur.
  • Jailed for 14 years, freed after independence. Given title “Rani of Nagas”

Mock Questions

Q1. Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. Rudramma Devi was a contemporary of Rani Laxmibai.
  2. Rudramma Devi had signed a treaty with the French, for protection against the British.
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A nor B

Q2. Chadupatla inscription is located at ____ and mentions the ____.

  1. Andhra Pradesh, Thervada Buddhism
  2. Telangana, Conquests of Chera Kings.
  3. Andhra Pradesh, Conquests of Chola Kings
  4. Telangana, Heroic death of Rudramma Devi.

Q3. Rudramma Devi belonged to ___ dynasty and her capital was located at ___.

  1. Chera, Thiruvanthapuram
  2. Chola, Hampi
  3. Pandya, Madurai
  4. Kakatiya, Warangal

Q4.Which of the following were actual queens?

  1. Kannagi
  2. Rani Rudrama
  3. Rani Gaidinliu

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. None of them

Q5.Which of the following did not participate in India’s struggle for independence?

  1. Rani Ahalyabai Holkar
  2. Rani Rudrama
  3. Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. All of them participated

Q6.Consider following statements about John Lang

  1. He was the founder of Theosophical society’s Missouri chapter.
  2. He was the editor of Annie Besant’s newspaper “Commonweal“ while she was in jail.
  3. He was the legal counsel of Begum Hazrat Mahal and Rani Laxmibai.

Correct statements are:

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. None of them

Q7. John Lang was born in ____ and died in ____.

  1. Australia, Mussoorie
  2. Mussoorie, Australia
  3. America, Australia
  4. Australia, Britain

Q8. Correct Pair

  1. Rani Rudramma: Kerala
  2. Rani Ahlyabai Holkar: Maharashtra
  3. Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang: Assam
  4. None of Above

Q9. Correct Chronology: (1) Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang; (2) Rani Ahlyabai Holkar; (3) Mata Jijabai; (4) Rani Rudramma

  1. 1234
  2. 2143
  3. 2134
  4. 4321
Mains General Studies Paper-1: Answer following in 200 words each

  1. Q. Defying the barriers of age, gender and religion, the Indian women became the torch bearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. (Mains-2013)
  2. Critically evaluate the contribution of Begum Hazrat Mahal and Rani Laxmibai in India’s struggle for Independence.

Visit Mrunal.org/HISTORY for entire Archive of History-Culture related articles published so far.

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102 Comments on “[Historic Women] Rani Rudrama & Chandupatla inscription, John Lang & Laxmibai, Hazrat Mahal & More”

  1. Mrunal’s rising fame. I received a one liner joke:
    Student asking mrunal : sir I’m a upsc aspirant and I’ve to attend my cousins wedding. I don’t want to waste too much time deciding the clothes. What should I wear!!!!!!!!

  2. sir you are taking quite a time in publishing your valuable articles though its not a problem. umm i was actually asking for a sci tech compilation series, when ‘ll u be releasing it??

    1. it takes to compile.

  3. Thank you for providing indepth information about the current issues,indebted to you SIR

  4. Its extremely helpful, really

  5. Rajiv Gandhi protein lelo yojana. agar kisi congi ne ye article pad liya to wo ise bhi start kar dega lolz well thanks sir for this nice article and clarifying doubt about ghandi ji

  6. Hello Mrunal
    I would like to point out two things:
    1. The book’s name is “Unto This Last” by John Ruskin
    2. Awadh (Oudh) was annexed on the pretext of misrule and not under Doctrine of Lapse.

      1. yes abhay even i want to point out same thing ncert class 11 new one has clearly written that dalhouise was thinking of ways of annexing awadh as doctrine of lapse did not work there.

        1. oudh was not annexed under doctrine of lapse….it was annexed because the law and order of oudh was very weak and several warnings were sent by them and later it was annexed by saying that it was good for governance.

        2. According to wikipedia, it appears Doctrine of lapse it was!

          1. Now it was for misrule only not for doctrine of lapse..

  7. Sir it is ” Unto this last” and not “lust….

  8. Thank you Sir….jis trah se article likhe gye h is very very good…..article par samajh bhut jldi ban jaati h…..Aapse ek request h Sir….agar ye sab article hindi language me bhi available ho to bhut saare hindi medium ke students jinhe good quality ka material search krne me problem hoti h,unke liye ye sbse bdi kushi or aapki taraf se unko ye ek anmol tohfa hoga……..thanks

  9. Can you Please write an article on FATA (pakistan) and details about it.

  10. THanks for such a beautiful effort

  11. upsc going to remove optional from 2014 mains – is it true?

  12. now a number of books on ethics are in the market …….need your analysis on these as you did on the books on WRITE TO WIN COMP.
    ethics, integrity and aptitude by pd sharma, ethics,integrity and values by ramesh kumar arora

  13. OMG…salute you sir!!!!!!!!!!!

  14. could you please post an article about critical analysis of 11 th five year plan…i have made my one but need more improvement . an also post about 12 th plan

  15. nice one sirji…………!!!!

  16. Thank you sir.

  17. Indeed commendable, sir

  18. Mrunal bhai
    I started prepairing for UPSC 1 month ago.Im a working professional and my whole preparation is centred on this website of yours.Your the guide for me in this maze.Anyhow one serious problem Im facing is that while studying hindu/express it is easy to identify relevant topics but most of the time I dont have any idea what is the origin or background for the same.Now if I dig internet for the same i get overwhelming amount of data and i feel lost what to take or what to leave.Everythingh seems too important.
    If you can share how you pick the gems among the stones.With me there is time constraint to.Any help will be highly appreciated.
    Thanks in advance!

  19. very good summarisation,sir

  20. ” Rajiv Gandhi protein lelo yojana.”… funny mrunal ji…i enjoyed the article, easy to understand…thank u

  21. Thanks…

  22. Cant be more thankful to you Mrunal sir!! ur selfless service is outstanding!

  23. tamil new year is puthandu pirapu (some spelling mistake i suppose)

  24. UGC NET me sirf objectives questions rahenge ke subjective bhi is baar june ke exam se? plz help

  25. @Mrunal I think Gandhiji was given the title Mahatma by Rabindra Nath Tagore and not by any Mehta as u have mentioned.
    Another thing is in Naba barsha (bengali’s new year ) bengalis don’t have any kind of rangoli type festival, as an Indian bengali i know that.

    1. @P_G : Though there is no clear record about who actually gave M.K.Gandhi the title of ‘Mahatma’, according to a RTI reply given by PMO and also endorsed by National archives there is no clear record exist about this fact in official documents of GOI. Though Mrunal is not completely wrong as after Gandhi-Smutt pact,people of Natal started calling him “Mahatma” prominent among them were two of Gandhi associates and both second name was ‘Mehta’
      though in India Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the one who first used term ‘Mahatma’ for Gandhi and that too after getting inspired from what was done by him in south Africa, also Tagore met Gandhi first in 1915-16(m not sure about the year) in a conference where Gandhi already addressed as Mahatma in the conference citation,so definitely Tagore was not the first one but some places his name was given as so.

      1. @WIZ84 thanks for the enlightment

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