This is an old article- updated with two new notes: Rudrama Devi’s Chandupatla inscription and John Lang’s India connection.
- Rudrama Devi & Chandupatla Inscription
- John Lang, the Lawyer of Laxmibai (1816-1864)
- Hazrat Mahal: 135th Anniversary
- Stree Shakti Puraskar
- Women in Freedom Struggle of India
- Mock Questions
Rudrama Devi & Chandupatla Inscription
Why in News? 2014, November was her 725th Anniversary.
|1236-1240||Razia Sultan, the daughter of Iltumish, became the first and only woman rule Delhi’s throne.|
|1259-1289||Rudrama Devi, the first Hindu female ruler of Andhra-Telangana region.|
- Rudrama devi belonged to Kakatiya dynasty, Capital- Warangal, ran several irrigation and welfare programs and defended her empire from attacks of Chola and Yadav kings.
- Telangana’s Chadupatla village inscription says she died on 27th November 1289 in a battle. So 2014 marks her 725th Death Anniversary.
John Lang, the Lawyer of Laxmibai (1816-1864)
Why in news? Because Modi gifted something to Australian PM in 2014, November.
John Lang was the first native novelist of Australia. Notable novels: Will he marry her?, My friend’s wife, Forger’s Wife, Secret Police, Too clever by half.
|1842||Came to India, learned Hindi language and ran “The Moffusilite” newspaper. Lang published articles against East India company, was jailed for libel.|
|1854||Governor General Lord Dalhousie annexed Jhansi, under doctrine of Lapse- after the King of Jhasi died, leaving Manikarnika Tambe (Laxmibai) and his adopted son Damodar Rao behind.|
- After Anglo-Sikh wars, East India company did not pay money to one contractor Joti Ram, who had supplied them war-provisions. John Lang fought his case, and won a hefty compensation from East India company.
- Impressed with his legal acumen, Rani Laxmibai asked John Lang to get Jhansi’s annexation removed.
- John Lang prepared a petition against the East India company. But British government discarded it in a week. [perhaps to settle the score of earlier defeat in that contractor case and his Anti-British newspaper articles.]
|1857||Rani fought and died during Sepoy mutiny|
|1864||John Lang died and buried in Mussoorie.|
|2014||Modi gifted Lang’s petition against East India Company, to Australian PM Tony Abbott, to help examiners frame MCQs on this topic.|
Hazrat Mahal: 135th Anniversary
Hazrat Mahal = 135th Anniversary, hence she automatically becomes important for UPSC Mains 2014. Just like Maulana Azad in Mains-2013
Q.Write a note about the contribution of Begam Hazrat Mahal in India’s struggle for Independence. (200 words)
1856 under Doctrine of Lapse, Lord Dalhousie exiled the Nawab wajid Ali shah of Awadh to Calcutta. His wife, Begum Hazrat Mahal took the charge of the state, and played a prominent role in the mutiny of 1857
- Provided Leadership to rebels of Lucknow, and fought in the name of her minor son Birjis Qadr.
- In the war of Alambaug, herself fought against British troops.
- Assisted Nana Saheb in Kanpur.
- Lord Dalhousie asked the help of Nepal’s Rana Jang Bahadur and offered areas of Gorakhpur and Awadh in return. Begum countered Dalhousie’s move by offering the Rana three more province of Awadh apart from Gorakhpur.
- Assisted Maulvi Ahmedullah (Danka Shah) against attack on Shahjahanpur (Firozabad) and defeated Henry Lawrence.
- British again attacked great force, she was defeated but escaped to Nepal.
- British offered pension to her if she gave up her claim on throne for his son. But Begam denied and chose to live in Nepal, where she died in 1879.
Begum Hazrat Mahal fought with great fervor, showed exceptional courage and organisational skills. She had ability to unite people from different class and provided an instrumental leadership during India’s first struggle for independence.
Stree Shakti Puraskar
Every year, Women and child Development Ministry gives Stree-Shakti Purarskars. Winners not *that* important but the historic women associated with them= important for MCQ. Where they belong to, what time era they lived in?
|1725-1795||MP||Rani Ahlyabai Holkar||
|1828-1858||UP||Rani Laxmibai||we already know why she is famous|
|1915-1993||Manipur||Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang.||
Women in Freedom Struggle
Abbreviations used in following table:
- R=rich, M=middle class, P=poor, “?”=not mentioned in book, and I did not bother googling (Because in real life preparation, a candidate wouldn’t have that much time to do Ph.D on everything.)
- NV=non-violent. R=Revolutionary / violent methods.
|Aruna Asaf Ali||M||NV||
|Begum Safia Abdul Wajid||R||NV||
|Madam Bhikaiji Cama||NV||
|Rajkumari Amrita Kaur||R||NV||
|Cpt. Laxmi Sahgal||?||R||
|Kalpana Dutt Joshi||?||R||
Q1. Which of the following statements are correct?
- Rudramma Devi was a contemporary of Rani Laxmibai.
- Rudramma Devi had signed a treaty with the French, for protection against the British.
- Both A and B
- Neither A nor B
Q2. Chadupatla inscription is located at ____ and mentions the ____.
- Andhra Pradesh, Thervada Buddhism
- Telangana, Conquests of Chera Kings.
- Andhra Pradesh, Conquests of Chola Kings
- Telangana, Heroic death of Rudramma Devi.
Q3. Rudramma Devi belonged to ___ dynasty and her capital was located at ___.
- Chera, Thiruvanthapuram
- Chola, Hampi
- Pandya, Madurai
- Kakatiya, Warangal
Q4.Which of the following were actual queens?
- Rani Rudrama
- Rani Gaidinliu
- Only 1 and 2
- Only 2 and 3
- Only 1 and 3
- None of them
Q5.Which of the following did not participate in India’s struggle for independence?
- Rani Ahalyabai Holkar
- Rani Rudrama
- Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang
- Only 1 and 2
- Only 2 and 3
- Only 1 and 3
- All of them participated
Q6.Consider following statements about John Lang
- He was the founder of Theosophical society’s Missouri chapter.
- He was the editor of Annie Besant’s newspaper “Commonweal“ while she was in jail.
- He was the legal counsel of Begum Hazrat Mahal and Rani Laxmibai.
Correct statements are:
- Only 1 and 2
- Only 2 and 3
- Only 1 and 3
- None of them
Q7. John Lang was born in ____ and died in ____.
- Australia, Mussoorie
- Mussoorie, Australia
- America, Australia
- Australia, Britain
Q8. Correct Pair
- Rani Rudramma: Kerala
- Rani Ahlyabai Holkar: Maharashtra
- Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang: Assam
- None of Above
Q9. Correct Chronology: (1) Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang; (2) Rani Ahlyabai Holkar; (3) Mata Jijabai; (4) Rani Rudramma
Mains General Studies Paper-1: Answer following in 200 words each
- Q. Defying the barriers of age, gender and religion, the Indian women became the torch bearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. (Mains-2013)
- Critically evaluate the contribution of Begum Hazrat Mahal and Rani Laxmibai in India’s struggle for Independence.
Visit Mrunal.org/HISTORY for entire Archive of History-Culture related articles published so far.
Mrunal’s rising fame. I received a one liner joke:
Student asking mrunal : sir I’m a upsc aspirant and I’ve to attend my cousins wedding. I don’t want to waste too much time deciding the clothes. What should I wear!!!!!!!!
sir you are taking quite a time in publishing your valuable articles though its not a problem. umm i was actually asking for a sci tech compilation series, when ‘ll u be releasing it??
it takes to compile.
Thank you for providing indepth information about the current issues,indebted to you SIR
Its extremely helpful, really
Rajiv Gandhi protein lelo yojana. agar kisi congi ne ye article pad liya to wo ise bhi start kar dega lolz well thanks sir for this nice article and clarifying doubt about ghandi ji
I would like to point out two things:
1. The book’s name is “Unto This Last” by John Ruskin
2. Awadh (Oudh) was annexed on the pretext of misrule and not under Doctrine of Lapse.
check out the link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctrine_of_lapse
pretext of misrule was covered under doctrine of lapse
yes abhay even i want to point out same thing ncert class 11 new one has clearly written that dalhouise was thinking of ways of annexing awadh as doctrine of lapse did not work there.
oudh was not annexed under doctrine of lapse….it was annexed because the law and order of oudh was very weak and several warnings were sent by them and later it was annexed by saying that it was good for governance.
According to wikipedia, it appears Doctrine of lapse it was!
Now it was for misrule only not for doctrine of lapse..
Sir it is ” Unto this last” and not “lust….
Thanks a lot
Thank you Sir….jis trah se article likhe gye h is very very good…..article par samajh bhut jldi ban jaati h…..Aapse ek request h Sir….agar ye sab article hindi language me bhi available ho to bhut saare hindi medium ke students jinhe good quality ka material search krne me problem hoti h,unke liye ye sbse bdi kushi or aapki taraf se unko ye ek anmol tohfa hoga……..thanks
Can you Please write an article on FATA (pakistan) and details about it.
THanks for such a beautiful effort
upsc going to remove optional from 2014 mains – is it true?
now a number of books on ethics are in the market …….need your analysis on these as you did on the books on WRITE TO WIN COMP.
ethics, integrity and aptitude by pd sharma, ethics,integrity and values by ramesh kumar arora
OMG…salute you sir!!!!!!!!!!!
could you please post an article about critical analysis of 11 th five year plan…i have made my one but need more improvement . an also post about 12 th plan
nice one sirji…………!!!!
Thank you sir.
I think Begum Hazrat Mahal died in 1879 not 1874
Indeed commendable, sir
I started prepairing for UPSC 1 month ago.Im a working professional and my whole preparation is centred on this website of yours.Your the guide for me in this maze.Anyhow one serious problem Im facing is that while studying hindu/express it is easy to identify relevant topics but most of the time I dont have any idea what is the origin or background for the same.Now if I dig internet for the same i get overwhelming amount of data and i feel lost what to take or what to leave.Everythingh seems too important.
If you can share how you pick the gems among the stones.With me there is time constraint to.Any help will be highly appreciated.
Thanks in advance!
very good summarisation,sir
” Rajiv Gandhi protein lelo yojana.”… funny mrunal ji…i enjoyed the article, easy to understand…thank u
Cant be more thankful to you Mrunal sir!! ur selfless service is outstanding!
tamil new year is puthandu pirapu (some spelling mistake i suppose)
UGC NET me sirf objectives questions rahenge ke subjective bhi is baar june ke exam se? plz help
@Mrunal I think Gandhiji was given the title Mahatma by Rabindra Nath Tagore and not by any Mehta as u have mentioned.
Another thing is in Naba barsha (bengali’s new year ) bengalis don’t have any kind of rangoli type festival, as an Indian bengali i know that.
@P_G : Though there is no clear record about who actually gave M.K.Gandhi the title of ‘Mahatma’, according to a RTI reply given by PMO and also endorsed by National archives there is no clear record exist about this fact in official documents of GOI. Though Mrunal is not completely wrong as after Gandhi-Smutt pact,people of Natal started calling him “Mahatma” prominent among them were two of Gandhi associates and both second name was ‘Mehta’
though in India Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the one who first used term ‘Mahatma’ for Gandhi and that too after getting inspired from what was done by him in south Africa, also Tagore met Gandhi first in 1915-16(m not sure about the year) in a conference where Gandhi already addressed as Mahatma in the conference citation,so definitely Tagore was not the first one but some places his name was given as so.
@WIZ84 thanks for the enlightment