1. Prologue
  2. L5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, petroleum reserves, Polymetallic nodules
  3. L5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution
  4. L5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling
  5. L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • Oceanography session began on 16th February 2015, and uploaded on youtube. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

L5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, Polymetallic nodules

Ocean Resources Polymetallic nodules

  1. Understanding the Ocean bottom relief
  2. Division of ocean bottom: continental-margins, mid oceanic ridge and deep sea plains
  3. Ocean-continent margins: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise
  4. Continental shelf: Petroleum resources
  5. Map Reading: Persian gulf, strait of Hormuz , Map: Barent sea, Russia,arctic sea
  6. Resources from continental shelf: sulphur in gulf of Mexico; placer deposit – monazite, gold, diamond, zircon
  7. Resources from continental shelf: pearls, calcium and fish
  8. Continental slope: submarine canyon and submarine water fall
  9. Continental rise: transition zone, absent near trenches
  10. Deep sea plain/ abyssal plain and their resources
  11. Poly-metallic nodules, their metal-components, global distribution, India’s exploration of PMN
  12. UNCLOS- UN convention of Laws of the seas
  13. Discussion of previous questions from UPSC Prelims


L5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

 Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

  1. Types of Islands in the world: continental, volcanic, sand –bar islands and coral islands, Atoll; and their examples
  2. Coral reefs, their Formation: symbiotic relation of coral polyps and zooxanthalae
  3. Condition for growth of coral reefs, their Spatial distribution.
  4. Coral bleaching: meaning, Reasons for and global distribution
  5. Formation of coral reef, Fringing reef and Barrier reef
  6. Marine pollution- reasons, and Tar Balls.


L5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling

Ocean Currents

  1. Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents), vertical (upwelling and tides)
  2. Ocean currents: meaning, importance, distribution and factors responsible.
  3. Effect of Insolation and Salinity gradients on the ocean currents
  4. Factor modifying the ocean currents: coastline and coriolis force
  5. Ocean currents of the world
  6. North Atlantic currents
  7. New foundland islands – meeting of warm and cold currents
  8. Effect of North Atlantic drift, Effect of Canary current
  9. Sargasso Sea
  10. South Atlantic currents
  11. Meeting of warm and cold currents at Bahia Blanca, New Foundland Islands, Japanese Coast
  12. Currents of North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Indian Ocean, South Indian Ocean
  13. Solution of UPSC Prelim Questions from 1997, 2002, 2012 and 2013.
  14. Up-welling: Ekman layer, Ekman spiral, Ekman transport and their impact
  15. Peruvian coast and other major Upwelling regions of the world
  16. Down welling: meaning and Effects


L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

  1. Vertical Motion of ocean water: tides
  2. Ocean tides: meaning, Formation and importance
  3. Highest tidal range in world and in India
  4. Meaning of ebb and flow
  5. Apogee and perigee tides
  6. Syzygy position, Quadrature position
  7. Spring tides and neap tides: meaning and comparison
  8. Solution of UPSC Prelims questions from 2001, 2002 2004,
  9. Tidal currents, Tidal bores
  10. Meaning of estuary, Hooghly river: Kolkata riverine port
  11. Examples of tidal ports: Kandla and Diamond harbour
  12. Difference between tidal and non-tidal ports
  13. 12 major ports of India
  14. Tidal energy, location in India and world