[Geography Lecture] Oceanography: Currents, Tides, Estuaries, Mineral Resources & Major Ports

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Mrunal's Economy Course
  1. Prologue
  2. L5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, petroleum reserves, Polymetallic nodules
  3. L5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution
  4. L5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling
  5. L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • Oceanography session began on 16th February 2015, and uploaded on youtube. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

L5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, Polymetallic nodules

Ocean Resources Polymetallic nodules

  1. Understanding the Ocean bottom relief
  2. Division of ocean bottom: continental-margins, mid oceanic ridge and deep sea plains
  3. Ocean-continent margins: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise
  4. Continental shelf: Petroleum resources
  5. Map Reading: Persian gulf, strait of Hormuz , Map: Barent sea, Russia,arctic sea
  6. Resources from continental shelf: sulphur in gulf of Mexico; placer deposit – monazite, gold, diamond, zircon
  7. Resources from continental shelf: pearls, calcium and fish
  8. Continental slope: submarine canyon and submarine water fall
  9. Continental rise: transition zone, absent near trenches
  10. Deep sea plain/ abyssal plain and their resources
  11. Poly-metallic nodules, their metal-components, global distribution, India’s exploration of PMN
  12. UNCLOS- UN convention of Laws of the seas
  13. Discussion of previous questions from UPSC Prelims


L5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

 Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

  1. Types of Islands in the world: continental, volcanic, sand –bar islands and coral islands, Atoll; and their examples
  2. Coral reefs, their Formation: symbiotic relation of coral polyps and zooxanthalae
  3. Condition for growth of coral reefs, their Spatial distribution.
  4. Coral bleaching: meaning, Reasons for and global distribution
  5. Formation of coral reef, Fringing reef and Barrier reef
  6. Marine pollution- reasons, and Tar Balls.


L5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling

Ocean Currents

  1. Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents), vertical (upwelling and tides)
  2. Ocean currents: meaning, importance, distribution and factors responsible.
  3. Effect of Insolation and Salinity gradients on the ocean currents
  4. Factor modifying the ocean currents: coastline and coriolis force
  5. Ocean currents of the world
  6. North Atlantic currents
  7. New foundland islands – meeting of warm and cold currents
  8. Effect of North Atlantic drift, Effect of Canary current
  9. Sargasso Sea
  10. South Atlantic currents
  11. Meeting of warm and cold currents at Bahia Blanca, New Foundland Islands, Japanese Coast
  12. Currents of North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Indian Ocean, South Indian Ocean
  13. Solution of UPSC Prelim Questions from 1997, 2002, 2012 and 2013.
  14. Up-welling: Ekman layer, Ekman spiral, Ekman transport and their impact
  15. Peruvian coast and other major Upwelling regions of the world
  16. Down welling: meaning and Effects


L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

  1. Vertical Motion of ocean water: tides
  2. Ocean tides: meaning, Formation and importance
  3. Highest tidal range in world and in India
  4. Meaning of ebb and flow
  5. Apogee and perigee tides
  6. Syzygy position, Quadrature position
  7. Spring tides and neap tides: meaning and comparison
  8. Solution of UPSC Prelims questions from 2001, 2002 2004,
  9. Tidal currents, Tidal bores
  10. Meaning of estuary, Hooghly river: Kolkata riverine port
  11. Examples of tidal ports: Kandla and Diamond harbour
  12. Difference between tidal and non-tidal ports
  13. 12 major ports of India
  14. Tidal energy, location in India and world


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49 Comments on “[Geography Lecture] Oceanography: Currents, Tides, Estuaries, Mineral Resources & Major Ports”

  1. thanx mam and mrunal sir…u both are great

    1. Mam may be you are not surfing this site.Even you didn’t give intro of your subject.It means from where we have to study or your lecture is sufficient for UPSC.As in your 1st lecture you told us to read these topics from ncert of 6 n 11. But after that u didn’t tell us from where we covered these topics. Mam you are doing such a great job.But please reply when my msg is up to you.

      1. mam example of coarl bleeching is La Nina like conditions in the pacicific Ocean off the coast of panama were closely associated with an abrubt shutdown in coral reef growth that lasted 2500 years.

        1. @kalpana .. i dont think during la nina.. yu hav warm waterz near panama coast… durn el nino only.. there is warm water near panama which is essential for coral bleaching.. check it please

  2. Sir,I am not able to find the ppts.
    Has it been uploaded?

  3. plz give some banking lecture in youtube how to prepare banking syllbous & topic

  4. thank u madam g.bahut bahut dhanyawaad

  5. thanks mam and sir, u both are doing great job

  6. Mam…ur way of teaching is superbbbb…now I started loving Geo just after ur videos..keep posting mam…it’s very informative….thank u mam

  7. thanku very muchhh

  8. videos are conceptual clear. thank you very much for selfless efforts.

  9. Thanks a lot Murnal sir & Rajtanil mam … Keep it up

  10. Sir….Not Enough Words To Say Thank You

  11. Thanks a lot mrunal sir n rajtanil mam……

  12. madam pls use pointer, ur saying yahape ye hai, vahape vo hai… but we r unable to see in videos.

  13. Mam plzz use pointer

  14. madam plz use pointer

  15. is orissa is the boundary state of telangana?maps show that it is but i read somewhere that some portion of telangan state merge with andhra pradesh and orissa is not the boundary state for now. if anybody find then please give me the source of answer.

  16. mam u r fab …go on .,,thanks for all dis

  17. unable to find geography ppt. plz help.

    1. Go to download. Click on Power point for lecture. Click on Powerpoints for economics lectures (any of the two links). Check Geography folder.

  18. Mam please use pointer

  19. Rajtanil mam.. your lectures are really helpful.. thanks a lot..
    May we request you to please use pointer on the maps.. its indeed very difficult to locate the the areas you wanaa point out.

  20. Madam, will you be doing Environment & Biodiversity after Geography?? plz reply

  21. Mam please provide slide of lectures as slides on mrunal are not updated, some slides are missing in oceanography lectures

    1. Download 0.2 versions. Its updated.

  22. Very very thanx mam. Mujhe kafi prob thi geography men but ab dhire dhere samajh aaraha hai

  23. Plz provide me India physical and political maps

  24. Mam please provide slide of lectures as slides on mrunal are not updated, some slides are missing in oceanography lectures
    Plz update

  25. Mam just a small confusion..bays with narrow opening and broad rears have highest tides or bays with broad opening and narrow rears? And i have read somewhere that tidal bores help ships to enter kolkata port so the question u have taken up in the lecture the answer to it appears to me as the first statement is wrong! Kindly rply to my query.

  26. Very very conceptual clear lecture mam….Thanks a lot…

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