[Geography Lecture] Climatology Part-II: Jetstreams, Thunderstorms, Cyclones, El-nino & Climatic Regions of the World

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  1. Prologue
  2. G6/P4: Jet-streams, Airmass, Fronts
  3. G6/P5: Tropical and Temperature Cyclones- Development & Distribution
  4. G6/P6: Thunderstorm, Tornados, Polar Vortex, Cold Wave, El-Nino, La-Nina
  5. G6/P7: Climatic regions: Tropical Deserts, Temperate Grasslands, Tropical Monsoon


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 2nd March, Climatology Part-II began. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G6/P4: Jet-streams, Airmass, Fronts

Geography Climatology Airmass & Jetstreams

  1. Recap of previous lecture on Climatology Part-I: troposphere, stratosphere, Mesospher, Thermosphere
  2. Recap: Basic movement of air: advection, convection, stability-instability, adiabatic lapse rat, Temperature inversion and its examples
  3. Recap: Precipitation process: evaporation, humidity, condensation-clouds
  4. Recap: Types of rainfall: convectional, orographic, cyclonic, frontal
  5. Pressure system and Planetary wind system: Upper tropospheric winds, Geo-strophic winds, Upper-tropospheric Westerlies winds, Rossby waves, Jet stream
  6. Permanent Jet streams-Locations of
  7. 3 temporary Jet stream: Tropical easterly Jet, Somali Jet stream (Findlater) and Polar night Jet stream
  8. Jet stream and travelling depressions
  9. Weather of mid and high latitude
  10. Condition of low pressure: thermally induced and dynamically induced
  11. Air mass: meaning and properties,
  12. Fronts: Cold front vs War Front

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/yOTKISPGyqA

G6/P5: Tropical and Temperature Cyclones- Development & Distribution

Geography Climatology Tropical Cyclones

  1. Cyclone: Meaning, Frontal Cyclones
  2. Temperate Cyclones: formative stage and development, mature stage, paths of a temperature cyclone and distribution of temperate cyclones in the world.
  3. Frontal Cyclones: Occluded, stationary and dissipating front
  4. Distribution of temperate cyclone in the world
  5. Tropical cyclone: formation, mature stage, eye of tropical cyclone, properties and distribution.
  6. Comparison: temperate vs. tropical cyclones
  7. UPSC Mains-2014 question about location of tropical cyclones and its answer

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/p3Dseym4Le8

G6/P6: Thunderstorm, Tornados, Polar Vortex, Cold Wave, El-Nino, La-Nina

Geography Climatology thunderstorms

  1. Thunderstorm: meaning, properties, Stages of development, Formation of Lightning
  2. Types of thunderstorm: Thermal, Orographic and Cloud Front thunderstorm
  3. Tornado: formation, Water spout and Distribution in world
  4. Polar vortex: meaning and properties, formation,
  5. Cold wave: polar vortex, Polar vortex in USA 2014
  6. Polar stratospheric clouds
  7. Ozone depletion north pole and South Pole, Montreal Protocol and its implementation.
  8. El-Nino: pressure gradient cell, Walker Cell
  9. South Oscillation or ENSO
  10. Normal year: air circulation above Australia and Peru and water circulation beneath them
  11. What happens in El Nino year: walker circulation and water circulation?
  12. Impact of El Nino: India and world
  13. How does El-Nino affect Indian monsoon
  14. What is La-Nina?
  15. UPSC prelim questions from these topics.

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/GPitAk75hpo

G6/P7: Climatic regions: Tropical Deserts, Temperate Grasslands, Tropical Monsoon

Geography Climatic regions

  1. Equatorial region: climate, Vegetation and UPSC Question
  2. Tropical deserts: climate, locations and reasons
  3. Continental desert: climate, vegetation, locations on world map
  4. Tropical grasslands: location in south America and Africa, Vegetation and UPSC question
  5. Temperate grasslands: location, properties
  6. Truck-farming
  7. Prairies of North America
  8. Steppe of Central Asia
  9. Pampas of South America
  10. Downs of Australia
  11. Veldt of Africa
  12. Tropical Monsoon: climate, location, reason, vegetation, deciduous forest
  13. Tropical monsoon: intensive agriculture, shifting cultivation
  14. Shifting cultivation: against and favour, various names used for this activity

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/DSV7pITXHaI

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28 Comments on “[Geography Lecture] Climatology Part-II: Jetstreams, Thunderstorms, Cyclones, El-nino & Climatic Regions of the World”

  1. Thanks madam but 1 dout regarding to OLD NCERT IT is need to study old geography ncert because its get difficult in Maharashtra and if not need to read old book which book is sufficient to pre and specially main exam

    1. As far as GS is concerned, mam’s lectures + NCERT(new) and GCL + some youtube videos here and there for some selective topics would be enough.
      Nothing more than that is needed .
      Just keep on revising as much as possible, that’s the key.

  2. Madam Please Tell me whether you are covering all topics for Geography Optional Paper ?

  3. Res. mam,
    initially i was not interested in geography, but now after taking notes from your lectures im going to take geography as my optional paper for upsc exam. god bless u mam .

  4. Thank you Rajtanil :)

  5. thanks a TON ma’am..!!
    Thank you so much..!!really great lectures..!!

  6. Hello mam …..there is one doubt …
    u said that there is high pressure in the eye of cyclone….but it is well known that the lowest pressure known on the earth is the centre of a tropical cyclone….how could both the contradictory statement be correct. …

    1. Yes Sandy,

      you are right. I also have same doubt. In wikipedia, It shows that there is low pressure in the eye of tropical cyclone.

      Rajtanil madam, please clear the doubt.

    2. Yup it is the lowest pressure known on the earth .
      But while cyclone is in its activity –
      Eye becomes such low that Wind circulating around it doesnt allow wind to reach this point from it side and hence it starts descending wind from above to sustain itself..leading to no clouds above it ..it looks like there is high pressure.

  7. Madam, I’m short of words to appreciate the great work you are doing.
    But I sincerely request you to please understand that there are many people (like me) who are relying on 2G internet connection (most of them by force and some by choice) for getting reading materials. I’m religiously following this website for getting the reading materials in text. I know I’m asking for much, but if you can really take out time then please put up the content in simple text (as like other Mrunal sir’s articles).

  8. Mrunal sir pls writebarticles in english could nt understand hindi . Or else pls teach in english for acessibility.

  9. Rajtanil madam
    you are simply awesome
    thank you so much for these lectures

  10. thanks a lot mam

  11. request bro. please upload in 720p or 1080p it will be easy/clear to play it on projector at my class.

  12. hi friends if any one have ssc tire 2 pervious year papers pls tell me the link.thank u

  13. Mam. It is bringing me lot of frustration. Please point with mouse pointer when you are mentioning something. just like mrunal sir. Initial 2 lectures are fine regarding mouse pointer.Aap ratta marke vomit tho nai kar rai na. We all know you have great knowledge and helping us a lot. Please consider this feedback bcz it is extremely important for the viewers.

  14. I can’t find the ppt for part 6 of this lecture. Can you please check and upload again coz they are not visible clearly in the videos

  15. mrunal sir, my kind request to you pls upload the lecturing in enlish too i cant able to undrstand hindi…

  16. Hello mam,

    I,m literally a religious follower of ur lectures. I even purchased a printer so dat i can take printout of ur powerpoint slides .

    I take printout of ur slides and take notes on them by watching ur lecture.
    I’ve even revised all ur lectures

    There are no slides available for G6-P6.
    Plz upload them as soon as possible so that serious aspirants can finish that lecture also!!!!!!!
    Hope u willl consider my request !!!

  17. Rajtanil Mam Thank you so much… !!!!

  18. Thanks a lot mam. Very difficult topics of climatology can be easily understood from your lectures.

    I am very grateful to you and Mrunal sir for helping us in preparations.

  19. Hello Madam,

    The slides shown in the videos aren’t the same which is available for download. I downloaded the ‘climatic regions of the world’ ppt an dit’s missing a lot of stuff which is shown in the videos. request you to please check and upload the latest ppt used in the video.


  20. Slides are not available for download..plz upload them

  21. Is there any written form of these youtube videos . It is because i cannot download the same due to low speed internet . So, for the sake of the student like me please post these documents in written format

  22. lectures are too explanatory thanks for sharing

    just found little mistake in the concept part here
    Eye of the cyclones are not high pressure zone even its the most low pressure part of the cyclone

  23. are these lectures covering prelims or mains??

    1. Both Prelims and Mains. However covers Mains extensively

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