1. Prologue
  2. G6/P4: Jet-streams, Airmass, Fronts
  3. G6/P5: Tropical and Temperature Cyclones- Development & Distribution
  4. G6/P6: Thunderstorm, Tornados, Polar Vortex, Cold Wave, El-Nino, La-Nina
  5. G6/P7: Climatic regions: Tropical Deserts, Temperate Grasslands, Tropical Monsoon


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 2nd March, Climatology Part-II began. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G6/P4: Jet-streams, Airmass, Fronts

Geography Climatology Airmass & Jetstreams

  1. Recap of previous lecture on Climatology Part-I: troposphere, stratosphere, Mesospher, Thermosphere
  2. Recap: Basic movement of air: advection, convection, stability-instability, adiabatic lapse rat, Temperature inversion and its examples
  3. Recap: Precipitation process: evaporation, humidity, condensation-clouds
  4. Recap: Types of rainfall: convectional, orographic, cyclonic, frontal
  5. Pressure system and Planetary wind system: Upper tropospheric winds, Geo-strophic winds, Upper-tropospheric Westerlies winds, Rossby waves, Jet stream
  6. Permanent Jet streams-Locations of
  7. 3 temporary Jet stream: Tropical easterly Jet, Somali Jet stream (Findlater) and Polar night Jet stream
  8. Jet stream and travelling depressions
  9. Weather of mid and high latitude
  10. Condition of low pressure: thermally induced and dynamically induced
  11. Air mass: meaning and properties,
  12. Fronts: Cold front vs War Front

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/yOTKISPGyqA

G6/P5: Tropical and Temperature Cyclones- Development & Distribution

Geography Climatology Tropical Cyclones

  1. Cyclone: Meaning, Frontal Cyclones
  2. Temperate Cyclones: formative stage and development, mature stage, paths of a temperature cyclone and distribution of temperate cyclones in the world.
  3. Frontal Cyclones: Occluded, stationary and dissipating front
  4. Distribution of temperate cyclone in the world
  5. Tropical cyclone: formation, mature stage, eye of tropical cyclone, properties and distribution.
  6. Comparison: temperate vs. tropical cyclones
  7. UPSC Mains-2014 question about location of tropical cyclones and its answer

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/p3Dseym4Le8

G6/P6: Thunderstorm, Tornados, Polar Vortex, Cold Wave, El-Nino, La-Nina

Geography Climatology thunderstorms

  1. Thunderstorm: meaning, properties, Stages of development, Formation of Lightning
  2. Types of thunderstorm: Thermal, Orographic and Cloud Front thunderstorm
  3. Tornado: formation, Water spout and Distribution in world
  4. Polar vortex: meaning and properties, formation,
  5. Cold wave: polar vortex, Polar vortex in USA 2014
  6. Polar stratospheric clouds
  7. Ozone depletion north pole and South Pole, Montreal Protocol and its implementation.
  8. El-Nino: pressure gradient cell, Walker Cell
  9. South Oscillation or ENSO
  10. Normal year: air circulation above Australia and Peru and water circulation beneath them
  11. What happens in El Nino year: walker circulation and water circulation?
  12. Impact of El Nino: India and world
  13. How does El-Nino affect Indian monsoon
  14. What is La-Nina?
  15. UPSC prelim questions from these topics.

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/GPitAk75hpo

G6/P7: Climatic regions: Tropical Deserts, Temperate Grasslands, Tropical Monsoon

Geography Climatic regions

  1. Equatorial region: climate, Vegetation and UPSC Question
  2. Tropical deserts: climate, locations and reasons
  3. Continental desert: climate, vegetation, locations on world map
  4. Tropical grasslands: location in south America and Africa, Vegetation and UPSC question
  5. Temperate grasslands: location, properties
  6. Truck-farming
  7. Prairies of North America
  8. Steppe of Central Asia
  9. Pampas of South America
  10. Downs of Australia
  11. Veldt of Africa
  12. Tropical Monsoon: climate, location, reason, vegetation, deciduous forest
  13. Tropical monsoon: intensive agriculture, shifting cultivation
  14. Shifting cultivation: against and favour, various names used for this activity

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/DSV7pITXHaI