1. Prologue
  2. HFS6/P1: Indian response to British colonization
  3. HFS6/P2: 1857 Revolt: Factors/Reasons Behind
  4. HFS6/P3: 1857 Revolt – Nature, Failure & Outcomes of Sepoy Munity


  • So far in his history-freedom struggle lecture series, Mr.Pratik Nayak covered upto establishment of British rule in India and the role of various governor generals in strengthening the grip of East India company on Indian realm.
  • Now the topic progresses further Indian response to british colonization- with main focus on the revolt of 1857.
  • Powerpoints available @Mrunal.org/download

HFS6/P1: Indian response to British colonization

Indian response to British Colonization

  • Recap Previous Lecture.
  • End of British Rule in India
  • Indian Response to British Rule:  Indian National Movement/ Freedom Struggle
  • Type : Indian Response:   Traditional & Modern
  • Traditional Response to British rule in India.
  • Civilian, Tribal & Peasant Revolt before 1857
  • Nature, Area, Social Base, Leadership, Chronology, British Attitude of these revolts.
  • Indian National Movement: Indian National Congress, Pre Gandhian Phase- Moderates & Extremists, Revolutionaries, Left Within Congress, Communalism, Constitutional development
  • Overview of Civilian & Tribal Revolts
  • Bengal & East India-  Santhal, Chaur, Kol, Kandh revolts etc.
  • West India- Bhil, Waghera, Cutch etc.
  • South India- Poligar, Diwan Velu tampi’s revolt
  • North India – Wahabi, Kuka
  • Nature of traditional revolts: Orthodox, Local, Restorative, Reactionary, Not Planned

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/yMly7wEpbnE

HFS6/P2: 1857 Revolt: Factors/Reasons Behind

1857 Sepoy Mutiny Reasons

  • 1857 Revolt: Background 11 May 1857 and Soldiers Mutiny before 11 may 1857
  • Reasons for the Revolt- Immediate Reason: Greased Cartridge
  • Fundamental Reason: Political, Economic & Administrative, Socio Cultural, Military, Outside Events
  • Political Reasons:  Effective Control Policy, Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse
  • Economic Reasons:  High tax revenue, exploitation of peasants, Zamindars & Workers
  • Socio Cultural Reasons:   Contempt towards Hindus & Muslims, Interference by British in Customs & practices of Indian people Abolition of Sati, Lex Loci Act, Widow Remarriage etc.
  • Military Reasons:  Religious interference, High Discrimination towards soldiers, Extensive military campaigns, Soldier- Peasant in Uniform
  • Outside Events that affected momentum towards 1857 revolt

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/h9ahKtabBaU

HFS6/P3: 1857 Revolt – Nature, Failure & Outcomes of Sepoy Mutiny

1857 Mangal Pandey Freedom Struggle

  • Nature of the Revolt:  Different Perceptions
  • British Perceptions:  Sir John Lawrence, LER Rees, TR Holmes
  • Indian Perceptions:  Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, VD Savarkar, JL Nehru, SN Sen
  • Causes of Failure of the Revolt: Lack of Support, Limited territorial base, Lack of resources, Lack of Ideology, Feudal in character
  • Leaders of the Revolt and their fate- Nana Saheb, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Khan Bahadur, Kunwar Singh, Maulvi Ahmadullah, Rani Laxmibai
  • Outcome of the Revolt:  Govt. Of India Act 1857- Power transfer from East India Co. to Crown; Governor General was made Viceroy; Office of Secretary of State established, No more annexations
  • Previous Years UPSC Questions on above topic
  • Development of Nationalism, Definition of State

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/S6Er2Rx0lBg

Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel for more lectures on UPSC civil services IAS/IPS Exam.