1. Prologue
  2. Geomorphic Process
  3. Landforms- Types of
  4. Weathering: Exogenic process
  5. Mass Movements
  6. Glacier Landforms
  7. Land forms by Sea water
  8. Land forms by wind


  • Geography series by Dr.Kevin Virani, Faculty SPIPA
  • Videos not available but PDFs of the powerpoints themselves cover all the descriptions
  • Language: English
  • Utility: Geography for UPSC Civil Services General Studies Paper, CAPF, CDS and similar competitive exams.
  • Following topics are covered in the PDF file given at the bottom of this article

Geomorphic Process

  • Exogenetic forces : LAND WEARING forces : weathering, mass movement, erosion, deposition
  • Endogenetic forces : LAND BUILDING forces :  diastrophism and volcanism
  • Geomorphic agent : gravity
  • What is Diastrophism? And its types?
    • Epeirogenic movements? Two types : 1)Upward 2)downward
    • Orogenic movements? = Mountain building movements
    • Two types : 1)Compressional forces 2) Tensional forces
    • Extra : 2001 Gujarat earthquake > fault developed
  • What is Folding and faulting?
    • Types of fold
    • What is Anticlines? What is Synclines?
    • Symmetrical fold, Asymmetrical fold, Monoclinal fold, Isoclinal fold, Over fold, Recumbent fold, Over thrust /what is a NAPPE fold?, fan folds
  • Types of fault :Normal fault, reverse fault, thrust fault, lateral fault, step-fault
  • What is the importance of faults?Also explain the Several landforms formed due to faults .
  • What is a rift valley?
  • Difference between rift valley and ramp valley – its examples
  • What is a block mountain?
  • Difference between block mountain and horst mountain
  • What is an Escarpment? Fault scarp

geography landform types

Landforms- Types of

  • Classify landscapes by scale – THREE ORDERs of RELIEF: first order relief , second order relief, Third order relief
  • landforms : three types : mountain, plateau and plains
  • Types of mountain. Explain :Fold mountain, block mountain, residual mountain and volcanic mountain
  • State the Characteristics of Fold mountains
  • Map work : Fold mountains of the world – List of mountains to locate
  • Importance of mountain building process. Block mountains formation and its examples, Residual mountain formation and its examples.
  • Explain the types of Volcanic mountains.
  • General terms: Mountain ranges, Mountain chain, Mountain system, Mountain groups and what is Cordillera?
  • Types of plateaus : Intermontane plateau, Piedmont plateaux, Dome shaped plateaux, Continental plateaux and Volcanic plateaues
  • Examples of plateaus of the worldBolivia plateau, Tibetan plateau, Anatolia plateau, Katanga plateau, Columbia-snake plt (USA), Deccan Plateau, Shan plateau (Myanmar)
  • Plains – features -Types of Plains :Diastrophic plains, Peneplains, Glacial plains, Karst plains, alluvial plains and its examples.Loess plains, Lava plains.

Weathering: Exogenic process

  • Exogenetic Movements: What is denudation? Explain Denudational process and their driving forces
  • What is weathering?
  • What are the Differences between weathering and erosion
  • Types of Weathering – physical, chemical and biological
  • Chemical Weathering Processes
    • solution, carbonation, hydration, oxidation and Reduction
    • Why are clay minerals easily erodible?
  • Biological activity and weathering
  •  Physical Weathering Processes, Forces affecting physical weathering , Unloading and Expansion – exfoliation domes, Temperature Changes and Expansion – tors
  • What is the difference between exfoliation domes and exfoliated tors?
    • Freezing, Thawing and Frost Wedging
    • Salt Weathering
    • Block Separation and shattering
  • What is the significance of weathering?

Mass Movements

  • three major types of mass movements :  Slow movements; (ii) rapid movements; (iii) landslides.
  • Slow mass Movements:Creep – soil creep, rock creep, talus creep and glacier creep, Solifluction
  •  Rapid Movements :Earthflow, Slump, Mudflow, Debris avalanche
  • Explain the types of Landslides :Debris slide and debris fall, Rock slide and rock fall
  • Bring out the causes for more frequent landslides in the Himalayas than in Western Ghats – UPSC mains 2013
  • SOIL FORMATION.Explain : Process of Soil Formation , Soil-forming Factors
  • What is erosion? ,Abrasion, attrition, corrosion, plucking and deflation.
  •  Agents of gradation :running water – river, Ground water, Sea water, Glaciers,winds
  • Agents of gradation form two types of landforms :Erosional landforms, Depositional landforms
  • Fluvial landforms –
  • River course – youth, mature and old stage of river course
  • What is head ward erosion?
    • Fluvial Erosional Landforms: River Valley Formation – how V shaped valleys form?, Gorge  vs. canyon.Waterfalls and rapids ,Pot Holes, Plunge pools ,Terraces,Gulleys/Rills, Peneplain, Fluvial Depositional Landforms ,Alluvial fans
    • Deltas – types of deltas
    • What is an Estuary? And what is a delta?
    • Flood plains
    • Natural levees and point bars
  • Meanders – Actually not a landform but a type of channel pattern
    • Incised or entrenched meanders
    • Braided channels
  • Explain the Karst –  Erosional Landforms :Prerequisites for the ground water to be effective ;Sinkholes / swallow holes ,Collapse sinks = Dolines, Valley sink = uvalas ,Lapies , Caves formation
  • Karst –  DEPOSITIONAL Landforms:Stalactites, Stalagmites, Columns

Glacier Landforms

  • What is a glacier? Types of glacier.
  •  Continental or piedmont glacier
  • General terms : snowline, ice-cap, ice-sheets, ice-bers
  •  Glacier erosional Landforms: Cirque and cirque lake, Horns and Serrated ridges ,Arêtes ,Glacial valleys / troughs ,Hanging valley
  •  Glacier depositional Landforms: Glacial till, Outwash deposits  and plains, Moraines ,Terminal, lateral and ground moraines,esker,drumlins, Nunatak, roche moutonne

Land forms by Sea water

  • Two types of coast :High-rocky coast (submerged coast); Low-smooth-gently sloping sedimentary coasts(emerged coast)
  • Why does the west coast of India have more ports than the east coast?
  • High rocky coasts
  • Low sedimentary coasts
  • Erosional landforms
    • Wave-cut cliffs and terraces
    • sea caves and Sea-stacks
  • Depositional Landforms:Beach and dunes, Shingle beaches, Bars,barriers and spits – barrier bar, Looped bar,connecting bar and tombolo, Map work : Hope Island (India)

Land forms by wind

  • Erosional landforms by wind :Pediments and Pediplains, an inselberg, Comparison  : piedmont Vs. pediment, Playas, Bajada, deflation hallows and caves, Mushroom, Table and Pedestal Rocks ,Zeugen, Yardang, Dreikanter, Mesa, Stone lattice.
  • Depositional Landforms by wind:Sand dunes, Barchans,Parabolic dunes , Seif, Longitudinal dunes, Transverse dunes,Loess plains.

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