1. Prologue
  2. Interior of the earth
  3. Rocks and minerals of the earth’s crust
  4. Continents and Oceans
  5. Earthquake
  6. Volcano & Volcanic Landforms


  • Geography series by Dr.Kevin Virani, Faculty SPIPA, Ahmedabad
  • Videos not available but PDFs of the powerpoints themselves cover all the descriptions
  • Language: English
  • Utility: Geography for UPSC Civil Services General Studies Paper, CAPF, CDS and similar competitive exams.
  • Following topics are covered in the PDF file given at the bottom of this article

Interior of the earth

  • Explain Nebular theory of Laplace.
  • Internal structure of the earth – indirect evidences- Temperature, pressure and density changes
  • Earth’s crust : SiAl, SiMA, Edward Sues Model
  • Mantle of the earth : asthenosphere, mesosphere, low velocity zone, moho-discontinuity
  • What is lithosphere?
  • Core of the earth : Barosphere, NiFe, outer and inner core
  • Discontinuity in the internal structure of the earth : Conrad discontinuity, Mohorovicic (moho-) discontinuity, Repetti discontinuity, Weichert-Gutenberg discontinuity and Lehman discontinuity
  • Composition of the interior of the earth : 8 major rock forming elements

Geography Earthquake Vocano Earth's Interior by Kevin Virani

Rocks and minerals of the earth’s crust

  • Difference between rocks and minerals
  • Classification of rocks.
  • Igneous rock : features of the igneous rocks, primary or basic rocks.Explain:Types of Igneous rock : acidic and basic igneous rock, Intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, plutonic igneous rocks, Hypobassal igneous rocks, Batholiths, laccoliths, sill, stocks, dyke
  • Sedimentary rock : classification, making of sedimentary rocks, Mechanically, organically and chemically formed sedimentary rocks
  • Metamorphic rock : formation and types of metamorphic rocks
  • Example of metamorphic rocks
  • Explain Rock cycle.

Continents and Oceans

  • Explain:Continental drift theory: PANGAEA (all earth), PANTHALASSA(all water),laurasia (northern) and gondwana (southern) and Tethys between them, EVIDENCES in support of Continental drift theory ,Limitation of Continental Drift theory
  • Convectional current theory by Arthur Holmes. Explain in detail.
  • Sea-floor spreading by Harry Hass. Explain in detail: Mid Oceanic Ridge (MOR) ,Oceanic trench
  • Explain: Palaeo-magnetism by Vine and Matthews.

Plate tectonic Theory

  • What is a tectonic plate,Continental and oceanic plate?
    • Plates of the world – major(7) plates & minor plates?
  • Plate Interactions
    • Divergent Boundary : Phases of Divergent continental crust ,Rift valley > nascent sea > ocean, Map work: Major Lakes of the World ,Map : The Great African rift valley : Formation of the East African Rift System
    • Convergent Boundary :Island arc ,Volcanic mountains ,Fold mountains
    • Transverse Boundary – San Andreas fault
  • Meteorite Impact theory. Explain.


  • What is an earthquake? – definition of earthquake
  • What is focus and epicentre of an earthquake?Explain:Shallow focus, intermediate and deep focus earthquake
  • Explain:Types of an earthquake –Tectonic earthquakes, Volcanic earthquakes, collapse earthquake, explosion earthquake and reservoir earthquake
  • Types of seismic waves
    • Body waves : P waves and its movement direction, S waves and its movement direction
    • Surface waves: L waves – most dangerous, R waves
  • Shadow zones of seismic waves : P wave shadow zone, S wave shadow zone
  • Measurement of an earthquake :Richter scale – magnitude scale ,Mercalli scale – intensity scale

Explain:World distribution of earthquake :Circum-pacific belt, Mid-Atlantic belt, Mid-continental belt
Consequences of EQs :Types of damage and its constructive effects.

Volcano & Volcanic Landforms

  • Volcano – general definition. Explain Magma Vs. Lava.
  • Cause of volcanism – Distribution of Volcanism: Pacific Ring of Fire, Mid Oceanic Ridge, Mediterranean volcanism, Hot Spot Volcanoes
  • Difference between: Basaltic eruption and andesitic eruption .
  • Map work : Formation of Hawaii islands
  • Map work : Aleutian Islands – formation
  • Intrusive volcanic Landforms:Batholiths, laccoliths, lapoliths, phaccoliths, sill, stocks, dyke
  • Extrusive volcanic landforms :Lava plateaus – Indian Deccan trap
  • Give the list of lava plateaus of the world.
  • Type of volcanoes / Volcanic cones – Shield / Dome volcano, Cinder cones, Composite Cones
  • Explain:Crater Vs. caldera
  • Map work : major volcanoes of Italy
  • Map work : volcanoes of Philippines
  • Difference between: geyser and Hot spring
  • Comparison : geyser , fumaroles and hot spring
  • What is Geo-thermal energy and limitations of geo-thermal energy.
  • Active – dormant and extinct volcanoes . Explain.
  • Acidic and basic lava shield

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