• Corona: World Health Organisation (WHO) had designated Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) as a “variant of concern (VOC)”. First reported from South Africa. Also found in Israel and Belgium. Botswana and Hong Kong. दक्षिण अफ़्रीका से पाया गया कोरोना वायरस का नया ओमीक्रोंन स्वरूप- जो अन्य स्वरूप से ज़्यादा संक्रामक और ख़तरनाक है।
  • Sci-6 Corona: Can an RT-PCR test detect infection with Omicron? Ans. this variant is that it could be detected in some of the RTPCR diagnostic tests (BUT NOT ALL) 2) most RT-PCR tests in India might not be able to distinguish between Omicron and other variants. 3) RT-PCR tests can only confirm whether the person has an infection or not. They are not designed to determine which particular variant has infected the person. 4) GENOME testing of the sample required to find variant but it’s expensive. पारंपरिक RT-PCR test क्या कोरोना वायरस के नए ओमिक्रोन स्वरूप को पकड़ सकता है। थोड़ा मुश्किल है उसके लिए अलग से जीनोम परीक्षण करना होगा, इसमें ख़र्चे लगते है
  • Science- Corona: A pulse oximeter is a small clip-like device which, attached to a fingertip, earlobe, or toe, calculates the amount of oxygen in blood. It was used widely during the corona pandemic to check the oxygen level. 😍 oximeter has a small electronic processor and a pair of LEDs, one of which emits red light; the other infra red. The lights pass through the finger, and the device senses what comes through the other side. Oxygenated haemoglobin absorbs more infrared light and allows more red light to pass through than deoxygenated hemoglobin. The amount of light that is transmitted is measured by the processor, 😍 A blood oxygen saturation rate 95 per cent and higher is considered normal. 🤔 critics alleged that pulse oximeter is are not giving proper reading if skin has dark pigmentation. पल्स-ओकसिमीटर नाम का साधन जो खून में ऑक्सीजन की मात्रा को लापता है। हालाँकि अश्वेत चमड़ी वाले व्यक्तियों में यह साधन सही आंकड़े नहीं दिखा था ऐसा आरोप।
  • Science-6 Corona: VARIANTS OF CONCERN: The WHO currently lists 5 variants of concern: ■ Omicron (B.1.1.529), identified in southern Africa in November 2021 ■ Delta (B.1.617.2), which emerged in India in late 2020 ■ Gamma (P.1),Brazil in late 2020 ■ Beta (B.1.351), in South Africa in early 2020 ■ Alpha (B.1.1.7), in Britain in late 2020. So, Omicron is having similarities with Delta (both of them have the codename “B.1. ).
  • Science-6 Corona: VARIANTS OF INTEREST: 1) Lambda (C.37),Peru 2) Mu (B.1.621),Colombia.
  • Sci-Heath: UK proposed ’to clear country’s first long-acting injectable treatment for HIV-1 infection in adults using a combination of the injections cabotegravir with rilpivirine. While HIV is still incurable, but the virus can be controlled by modern treatment. However, for some patients daily oral tablets difficult due to side effects, toxicity, and other psychosocial issues such as stigma. But this injection combo need to be taken only once every 2 months. (हालाँकि एड्स के उपचार की कोई दवाई नहीं है किन्तु शरीर में वायरस की मात्रा को कम की जा सकती है यदि रोज़ाना मुँह से दवाइयां खाई जाए लेकिन कुछ बार मरीज़ों कर नहीं पाते तो 2 महीने पर इंजेक्शन से वही लाभ मिले ऐसा संशोधन ब्रिटन मे)
  • Science: 6-Public Health: HELA Cells: they are cervical cancer tutor cells from Henrietta Lacks, a Black tobacco farmer of USA (1950s). These cells are unique because they continue to multiply/double every day even in the laboratory outside human body. HELA cells have been used by 1) Jonas Salk used the cells to develop the polio vaccine, 2) Identify the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 3) develop the cervical cancer vaccine. 4) SARS-CoV-2 corona vaccine etc. 2020 marked her birth centenary so WHO installed her statue in Bristol (UK). 😥 ethical concerns: HELA tumour cells were given away for research without patient’s consent and pharma companies have made millions of dollars, but family got nothing. अमेरिकी अश्वेत महिला हेनरिएटा लेक्स के शरीर से निकाले गए कैंसर कोष, प्रयोगशाला में रोज़ दुगनी होते हैं। इन “हेला-सेल/कोष” की मदद से ढेर सारे चिकित्सा/वैज्ञानिक आविष्कार हो पाए हैं- जैसे की पोलियो टीकाकरण, कोरोना टीकाकरण। हालाँकि फार्मास्युटिकल कंपनियों ने बिलियन डॉलर बना लिए लेकिन परिवार को कुछ पैसा नहीं दिया।
  • Sci-Space: NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission to fly an unmanned spacecraft — about the size of a golf cart — and crash it into an asteroid the size of a pyramid. 😍 It is a test to see whether the impact can alter the course of the celestial bodies. 😍 2) Test ability to protect earth from asteroids. (नासा ऐसा अवकाश यान भेजेगा जो उल्कापिंड से टकराकर उसका रास्ता बदलवा दें ताकि उस उल्कापिंड के गिरने से पृथ्वी को नुक़सान न हो।)
  • Science/Space Tech: A white dwarf is a star that has burnt up all of its fuel and shed its outer layers. It is now under going a process of shrinking and cooling over millions of years. Scientists have found a new white dwarf that completes a full rotation once every 25 seconds. It is the fastest spinning confirmed white dwarf, using magnetic propeller system (सफ़ेद बौना सितारा जो की अपना पूरा ईंधन समाप्त कर चुका है और सिकुड़कर ठंडा हो रहा है)

History Culture from November week4

  • Culture: Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism -based on the concept of “mindfulness” or Dhyana -founded in India around the 6th or 7th centuries. This became the foundation for Chan (Chinese), Zen (Japanese) and Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism – significant presence in Mongolia and Russia Kalmykia region. The spread of Buddhism, whether through conquest or trade, also coincided with the transmission of secular knowledge from the Indian subcontinent – like traditional Indian medicine (Aayush), manufacturing (sugar) and the astro-sciences into these regions. China uses Buddhism for soft Diplomacy over neighbouring countries. India too should develop Buddhist tourist circuit for more people to people connect with ASEAN and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) nations. बौद्ध धर्म के साथ जुड़े हुए स्थानों पर पर्यटन को विकसित कर भारत आसियान समूह और शंघाई समूह के देशों के लोगों के साथ रिश्ते बेहतर कर सकता है
  • History: Govind Guru- Bhil leader Gujarat-Rajasthan border. Advocated social problems such as liquor consumption and inter-generational debt. Founded Bhagat Sampradaya (sect) in 1908 to socially and morally uplift the Bhil community. 1913: British forces killed him and his followers.
  • History: Rani Gaidinliu. In News because a museum in Manipur’s Tamenglong district. She was a A spiritual and political leader, Tribal Freedom Fighter. Rani Gaidinliu, of the Rongmei tribe, was born on January 26, 1915 at Luangkao village in Tamenglong district. At 13, she joined Haipou Jadonang- the leader of ‘Heraka movement’ based on the ancestral Naga religion fighting for an independent Naga kingdom (or Naga-Raja). After Jadonang’s execution, Rani Gandiliu became leader but was imprisoned for life. In 1938, the Nikhil Manipur Maha Sabha, the first political party of Manipur during the British colonial rule, adopted a resolution to free Rani Gaidinliu from prison. She was and released in 1947. Nehru called her the “Daughter of the Hills” and gave her the title “Rani”. She was awarded the Tamrapatra in 1972, Padma Bhushan in 1982, Vivekananda Sewa Summan in 1983, and Stree Shakti Puraskar in 1991. Following her death on February 17, 1993 at Luangkao, she was posthumously awarded the Bhagwan Birsa Munda Puraskar in 1996. स्वतंत्रता सेनानी रानी गाइदिनल्यू के नाम पर मणिपुर में संग्रहालय बन रहा है
  • History/Culture- globalisation impact on Indian society. In Ancient India- Amalgamation of different rituals into a Hindu marriage ceremony, such as the mangalsutra from South India, the sindoor from the Harappa, and the saptapadi from the Vedas. In Modern India- wedding reception in western attire, serving of food in buffet system, baby showers etc. copying from Western / Christian marriage system. (हिन्दू विवाह-प्रणाली – अलग अलग इलाकों की प्रणालियों का मिश्रण है जैसे की मंगलसूत्र दक्षिण भारत से और सिंदूर लगाना हरप्पा से। और अब इसमें पाश्चात्य/ईसाई तौर तरीक़े भी आ रहे हैं जैसे की शादी के बाद पाश्चात्य कपड़ों में रिसेप्शन-भोज। )

Persons and Places in News for Non-IAS Exam

  • Appointment: Sweden gets 1st woman PM Magdalena Andersson. But had to resign within 12 hours because of coalition government crisis.
  • Appointment: German Chancellor: OLAF SCHOLZ will replace: Angela Merkel.
  • PIN/Appointment: TWITTER’S CEO Jack Dorsey to be replaced by Parag Agrawal,of IIT-Bombay.
  • Award: France Pantheon monument: it is dedicated to the most revered persons of France. Govt added Josephine Baker — Missouri-born cabaret dancer, French World War II spy and civil rights activist. She is the first black woman
  • Awards: schedule tribe Indians who achieved greatness: Tulasi Gowda (environmentalist Karnataka Padma Award), Rahibai Soma Popere ( Seed conservation, Maharashtra, Padma Award) and Lakshmikutty (traditional medicine Kerala, Padma Aaward). Separately various achievements in Sports: Dutee Chand, Mary Kom, Bhaichung Bhutia, Deepika Kumari, Thonakal Gopi and Lalremsiami. अनुसूचित जनजाती समुदाय के कुछ लोग जिन्होंने उत्कृष्ट कार्य किए हैं।
  • Book: Marriage: 100 Stories Around India’s Favourite Ritual, by Devdutt Pattanaik
  • Book: ‘Going Viral’, a book on the making of Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin, by Dr Balram Bhargava.
  • Book: Manish Tewari Congress leader: In his book 10 Flashpoints; 20 Years, said that India should have acted strongly against Pakistan after the terror attacks 26/11.
  • Death: Renowned Punjabi folk singer Gurmeet Bawa, popularly known as ‘lambi hek di Mallika’, died. She was best known for her 45-second hek (the alaap during the opening of a song) — considered the longest ever by any Punjabi folk singer. She was awarded with Sangeet Puraskar by the Punjab Natak Akademi, the national Devi Ahilya Award by the Madhya Pradesh government and the Shiromani Gayika Award by the Punjabi Language Department. (पंजाब की मशहूर लोकगायिका का देहांत जिन्हें मैं पुरस्कार मिले हैं)
  • Places in News: Big Ben: name of the big clock tower of Britain’s Houses of Parliament (1859). In news because of restoration/repair.
  • Places in news: MUSEUM of Prime Ministers, being built at Delhi’s Teen Murti Estate, project is likely to be inauguratedon December 25 – the birth anniversary of late PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee (also celebrated as good governance Day). (दिल्ली में भारत के प्रधानमंत्रियों का संग्रहालय बन रहा है )
  • Places in News: City of Luxor, Karnak, Thebes, Avenue of the Sphinxes, Way of the Rams- associated with Egypt tourism,
  • Sports: Winter Olympics 2014 @Sochi in Russia. 2022-Feb @Beijing,China. US President likely to boycott for human rights violation. अगला शीत ओलंपिक चीन में होगा पिछला रुस में हुआ था
  • Sports: Australian Open will become the first Grand Slam tournament to require mandatory COVID-19 vaccines for the players. Djokovic not yet vaccinated. ऑस्ट्रेलियन ओपन टेनिस प्रतियोगिता में हिस्सा लेने के लिए खिलाड़ियों ने अनिवार्य रूप से कोरोना टिका लगवाना होगा। यह ऐसी पहली टेनिस प्रतियोगिता है जहाँ पर टिका अनिवार्य है।