[Judgement] Code for Compulsory Costs- to teach lesson to frequent litigators

In polity by Mrunal

Historic Background What is “Code for Compulsory Costs”? Why do we need Code for compulsory costs? Anti-arguments Historic Background SAHARA opened two companies and issued OFCD (optionally fully convertible debentures) to public without permission from SEBI (2011) SEBI ordered them to refund money with 15% interest to public and show receipts of refund to SEBI SAHARA did not comply, went …

[Rights issue] Transgender: reservation quota, property inheritance rights after Supreme Court Judgement

In polity by Mrunal

Historic Background Constitution vs Transgender community Article 14 | Article 15 | Article 16 | Article 19 | Article 21 | Article 51 (DPSP) SC Judgment on TG (April 2014) Transgender rights: elsewhere in world Historic Background Ancient text: TG are mentioned but never in poor offensive light. Medieval times: TG held important positions in royal courts. British India: Discrimination …

[Judgement] Comptroller & Auditor General (CAG)’s right to audit private companies

In polity by Mrunal

Sequence of Events Supreme court ruled following: Anti-Arguments Private sector’s CAG audit in past Sequence of Events Telecom companies have to share some part of their annual revenue with government: 6-10% as license fees and 2-3% as spectrum usage charges. 2009, the department of telecommunications (DoT) ordered private auditors to check the account books of some telecom companies. These private …

[Elections] Twin Nominations, Primaries Method of selecting candidates-why Rahul failed?

In polity by Mrunal

P1: Twin Nominations in Election P2: Primaries Method of nominating candidates P1: Twin Nominations in Election [GS2] Q. List the provisions related to Twin nomination in the RPA Act and examine the need for reforms in it. (100 words) Provisions in RPA: Section 33: Candidate can contest from two Constituencies. Section 70: He has to give up one seat, if …

[Land Reforms] Consolidation of Land Holdings, Computerization of Land Records in India- features, benefits, limitations

In polity by Mrunal

Prologue Topic#1: Consolidation of Land Holdings What is Consolidation of Land holdings? Why do we need Consolidation of Land holdings? What are the methods of Land consolidation? #1: Voluntary Consolidation #2: Compulsory Consolidation (+ve) Land Consolidation: Benefits, Advantages, Positive points (-ve) Land consolidation: Difficulties, Obstacles, Negative points Topic#2: Computerization of Land Records National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP) Funding pattern …

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[Land Reforms] Cooperative Farming in India: features, benefits, limitations

In polity by Mrunal

What is cooperative Farming? Why Cooperative farming? India towards Cooperative Farming Cooperative Farming vs Five Year Plans Cooperative Farming: Limitations/Epicfail Miscalculations and false hopes Bogus farms and apathetic bureaucrats Free riders What is cooperative Farming? Cooperative farming refers to an organisation in which: each member-farmer remains the owner of his land individually. But farming is done jointly. Profit is distributed …

[Land Reforms] Jan Satyagraha 2012, Janadesh 2007, Bhu-adhikar 1996: causes and outcomes

In polity by Mrunal

Bhu-Adhikar Abhiyan, MP, 1996 Janadesh, 2007 Jan Satyagraha 2012 #1: General Demands #2: PESA related Demands: #3: Forest Rights Act (FRA) related Demands Outcome of Jan Satyagraha 2012? Bhu-Adhikar Abhiyan, MP, 1996 Ekta Parishad is an NGO from Madhya Pradesh (1984). On principles of “Samvad, Sangharsh, Rachna” (dialogue, struggle and construction). They conducted survey in MP and found two main …

[Land Reforms] Land Satyagraha & other Civil Society movements in India during 70s and 80s

In polity by Mrunal

Great Land Struggle, 1970s Land for Tillers Freedom (LAFTI), Tamil Nadu, 80s Land Satyagraha, Chattisgarh, late 80s Great Land Struggle, 1970s WHEN 1970s WHO? Bhartiya Khet Mazdoor Union, All India Kisan Sabha and Communist Party of India Nearly 15 lakh agricultural workers, poor peasants, the tribals, workers and the poor from the towns Trade unions and students, the youth and …

[Land Reforms] Bhoodan, Gramdan, Vinoba Bhave: Achievements, obstacles, limitations

In polity by Mrunal

Prologue Bhoodan Movement (Donation of Land) Bhoodan: Mechanism/procedure/features Bhoodan: Positive Bhoodan: Obstacles, Limitations, Problems Gramdan (Donation of the Entire Village) Gramdan: Concept/Principles Gramdan Mechanism Gramdan: Benefits Pardi Satyagraha, Gujarat, 50s Mock Questions Prologue So far we’ve seen: British Tenure system, peasant revolts and three main land reforms after independence viz. (1) Zamindari Abolition (2) Land ceiling (3) Tenancy protection Acts. …

[Land Reforms] Overall Achievements, Impact on Indian society & Reasons for failure

In polity by Mrunal

Land Reforms: Overall Negative Jurisdiction Outdated Land records Problem in North East Lack of budgetary $upport Bureaucratic apathy Lack of Votebank Powerless Panchyat Lack of Civil Society/NGO action The Naxal Angle: Appu Land reforms: Overall Positive Land Reforms: Overall Negative In the previous articles, we discussed individual land reform initiatives, their achievements and limitations. Now time for overall positive and …

[Tenancy Reforms] Achievements and Limitations in India

In polity by Mrunal

Tenancy Reforms: Obstacles/Limitations #1: Women did not benefit #2: SC/ST did not benefit #3: Green Revolution=land grabbing #4: Personal Cultivation Tenancy Reforms: Benefits #1: Rise of New Politics #2: Social Justice #3: More investment Tenancy Reforms: Obstacles/Limitations In the previous article, we saw the salient features of Tenancy reforms in various states of India, now let’s check their achievements and …

[Land Reforms] Tenancy Reform, Tenancy protection Acts in India: salient features

In polity by Mrunal

Prologue Land Reform Tool #3: Tenancy Reforms Element1: Landowner’s right to lease Element2: Landowner’s right to Personal Cultivation Element3: Tenant’s right against eviction & high rent Element4: Tenant’s right to surrender Element5: Tenant’s Right to ownership Misc. rights to Tenants Prologue in the previous articles, we’ve seen: Three land tenure system of the British: Their features, implications. How the British …

[Land Ceiling] Phase 2: After 1972- under Indira Gandhi, Uttar Pradesh failure and Ignored Post-LPG

In polity by Mrunal

Second stage: 1972 onwards 34th Amendment Land Ceiling: problems/ limitations/obstacles #Epicfail in UttarPradesh Land reform Delayed is land reform denied Hardly any ‘redistribution’ Lack of Auxiliary Support Lack of Political Mobilization Lack of Administrative will FYP did not give direction Land fragmentation=Low GDP Post-LPG: Changed priorities Second stage: 1972 onwards 1970: Indira Gandhi says following The land reform measures implemented …