[Science-Tech] TheHindu June-July-Aug: (Part 2 of 3) Agriculture, Environment Biodiversity (EnB), Economics of Animal rearing, Uttarakhand Tragedy, Runaway Greenhouse, Bio Refinary

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  1. Prologue
  2. [Agro]: Economics of Animal Rearing
    1. #1: Fowl Breeding & Tribal Development (MP)
    2. #2: Goats rearing, Small Marginal Farmers (Kerala)
  3. [Agro] Research: New Varieties
    1. Himalayan Wonder
    2. Yamuna Safed-5
    3. Onion Bulbets
  4. [Agro]:Fertilizer/Manure related
    1. #1: Liquid Manure
    2. #2: Vermicompost
    3. #3: Organic cultivation
  5. [Agro]: Misc.
    1. #1: Fungus as Bio-control Agent
    2. #2: Fruit Ripening
  6. [EnB] Flora-Fauna
    1. #1: Giant Clams
    2. #2: House-Sparrow: official bird of Delhi
    3. #3: Forest Corridors for Tiger breeding
    4. #4: Antarctic Conservation
  7. [EnB] Clean Energy Related
    1. #1: Bio-refinery: Bioplastics, BioHydrogen
    2. #2: Biofuel: Anti-Arguments
    3. #3: Nuke Energy post Fukushima
    4. #4: Lumos: Solar Backpack
    5. #5: Flow Batteries
    6. #6: Electricity from cattle waste
  8. [EnB] Climate Change related
    1. #1: Runaway Greenhouse effect
    2. #2: Ocean Acidification
    3. #3: Dimethylsulphide
    4. #4: Climate Change and Apple Taste
  9. [EnB] Disaster Management: Himalayan tsunami
  10. [EnB] Misc.
    1. Dinosaurs
    2. #1: Nasutoceratops: New “Vegetarian” Dinosaur
    3. #2: T-rex was indeed the Villain Dinosaur
  11. Mock Questions

Prologue

In the part 1 of Hindu Sci-tech compilation, we saw the Medical / Healthcare research related coverage from June-July-August 2013. Click me

In this Part two, we see topics related to Agriculture + Environment and Biodiversity (EnB)

UPSC Syllabustopics in this article
CSAT Prelims
  • giant clams
  • [EnB] theoretic stuff related to fruit runaway greenhouse effect, ocean acidification
  • Fruit ripening etc.
(GS1) changes in water-bodies and the effects of such changes.Ocean Acidification, Dimethylsulphide
(GS3) economics of animal-rearing.
  • Kalamasi fowls breeding and Tribal development.
  • Goat rearing by small farmers using scientific methods.
(GS3) Achievements of Indians in science & technologySolar Backpack “Lumos” designed by an Indian Couple.
(GS3) ConservationHouse-sparrow, Tiger corridors.
(GS3) Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday lifeflow batteries.
(GS3) indigenization of technology and developing new Technology.bio refinery in Hyderabad
(GS3) environmental pollution and degradationrunaway greenhouse effect, ocean acidification
(GS3) Disaster and disaster management.
  • Uttarakhand Tragedy
  • Dopplar Radar
  • Crisis Mapping
  • Google person finder

Note: topics related to IT, Space and Nano-tech will be covered the part 3 of 3,

[Agro]: Economics of Animal Rearing

#1: Fowl Breeding & Tribal Development (MP)

  • Indian farmers doing backyard poultry for many years.
  • The birds grow by scavenging on kitchen and other waste. They help in
    • egg sale=side income
    • Cheap source of protein for farmer’s family.

Then what is the problem?

  • Poultry sector is focusing more on commercial poultry rearing like broilers for meat and eggs.
  • As a result, many indigenous species about to become extinct.
  • One such breed is the Kalamasi or Kadaknath fowl breed: found in Bhil and Bhila tribal regions of Madhya Pradesh.

Kalamasi/Kadaknath Fowls

  • black in color. Meat is softer than that of other desi birds, contains less fat and more protein,
  • Because of these qualities, Kalamasi fowls commend good prices. 1 year old bird sells for >Rs.600 (while other desi varieties fetch barely Rs.100-150)
  • But this breed is slowly becoming extinct.

Economics:

  1. These fowls can be reared quite easily. Don’t need any special attention or round the clock caretaking.
  2. They’re good scavengers= feed cost gets considerably reduced. (in each bird sells for more than Rs.600 after one year)
  3. They can be housed in large bamboo baskets or inside store rooms. Don’t need elaborate shelter like in professional broilers.
  4. Their hens grow fast, start laying eggs from sixth month of age onwards. In a year a single hen lays 80-120 eggs.

Benefits to Tribal of Madhya Pradesh

  1. Government provides vaccination, training for feed-marketing.
  2. The tribal beneficiaries rearing this breed are today able to get an income of Rs.80,000-90,000 a year.
  3. Less rural-urban migration. Encourages people to stay in villages, continue farming operations along with fowl rearing.

#2: Goats rearing, Small Marginal Farmers (Kerala)

From time immemorial Indian peasants have always been rearing animals for extra income. But there are challenges:

  1. Pasture lands shrinking=>  Less green fodder
  2. Rich farmers with pumpsets and borewells so grow green fodder but it is not possible for small and marginal farmers.
  3. Lack of veterinary services in remote areas.

Case study: Goat rearing in Kozhikode District of Kerala

Government support: Krishi Vigyan Kendra of the Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR)

Aim: help small farmers and landless laborers to do goat rearing with minimum cost.

How?

  1. Farmers given Breeding charts: to fully exploit the reproductive efficiency of female goats.
  2. In a large herd, synchronization of estrus cycle by administering PGF2 alpha injection.
  • Careful rearing of baby goats for 120 days after birth. They’re given concentrated feed prepared specifically by the institute’s experts. Farmers can also make them by mixing rice, wheat, maize, horsegram etc.
  1. + Baby goats are given liver tonics mixed with fish oil => increase appetite and aid good healthy growth, goad quickly fattens for slaughtering.

Economics/benefits

DESI METHOD OF REARINGNOW WITH SCIENTIFIC REARING
Animal will weigh 10 kg in 6 monthswithin 4 months the goat will weigh 25+ kg =provides big returns in quick time.
  • Farmers with only few cents of land can also grow goats.
  • They don’t need not spent much time grazing them out in the open.
expense of feeding one baby goatRs.1200 per month x 4 months = 3600
Income from selling that goat after 4 months.close to Rs.7000
profitYou calculate for the aptitude practice.

[Agro] Research: New Varieties

Himalayan Wonder

India’s first throneless rose plant variety.

by a research institute in Palampur, Himachal Pradesh

Regions around Pune-Banglore= known for commercial rose cultivation. They’re interested in this new throneless variety of rose.

Yamuna Safed-5

  • New garlic variety
  • by National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation (NHRDF) in Nasik,
  • suitable for growing in Northen states such as Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar, Punjab, Rajasthan.
  • These Garlic Bulbs are white and big in size, matures quickly and and shelf life is also good.

Onion Bulbets

  • By National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, Nashik
  • They’ve devised new technique for successful Kharif onion nursery production, during heavy rains.
  • Jan-Feb: Onion bulbets raised in nursey beds
  • July-Aug- they’re transplanted to the farm
  • This method increases the yield of onion.

[Agro]:Fertilizer/Manure related

#1: Liquid Manure

  • Present day farming require external inputs such as fertiliser and pesticides.
  • but they’re expensive + harmful to soil and environment.
  • Now a new technology developed to produce liquid manure from cow dung and cow urine, by a farmer in TN.

How?

  • The basic principles= Fermentation + Sedimentation.
  • Cow dung + cow urine +10 parts of water=>mix in barrel, let it ferment for a day.
  • Next day add one kg of jiggery, along with decomposed fruits, vegetables or practically any vegetative matter available in the farm.
  • Only indigenous cow dung and urine must be used because the microbial activity in local cow waste is more than in other cross bred animals.
  • After a week farmers can use this liquid solution as manure via drip irrigation. Hence it is called “Liquid Manure”.

Benefits?

  1. increases the water holding capacity of the soil
  2. Improves the beneficial micro organisms present in the soil.
  3. Only Rs.800 investment to buy a plastic barrel.Rest of the inputs can be easily sourced from the farm itself.  Hence even small and marginal farmers can do it.
  4. farmer can save Rs.4,000-20,000 per hectare in fertilizer

#2: Vermicompost

  • Chemical fertilizers=decrease soil fertility after prolonged use.
  • Vermicompost is an organic manure (bio-fertilizer) by earth worm
  • Earthworm can be grown on animal dung, poultry droppings, vegetable and other kinds of biodegradable wastes. They feed on such items, produce a compost.

Benefits of Vermicompost?

  1. odorless, clean, organic material
  2. contains adequate quantities of N, P, K (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) and several micronutrients that are essential for plant growth.
  3. Contains organic matter= makes the soil productive.
  4. Eco-friendly, non-toxic, consumes low energy input for composting.

#3:Organic cultivation

  • Case study: Enabavi, a small village in Warangal district, Andhra
  • The farmers grow paddy, pulses, millets, cotton, chilli, tobacco and vegetables.
BEFOREAFTER
  • In the 1970s, like many other Indian villages, they also went through the same process of using more and more chemicals to increase the productivity.
  • By 1995 problems started showing up. Even though they increased Investments on seeds-fertilizers-pesticides, the returns were not good.
  • The village started shifting to non-chemical farming about a decade ago.
  • By 2006, entire area was converted to organic farming.
  • There is strong social regulation within the community towards organic cultivation.
average spending on chemical fertilizers and pesticides: ~Rs.3,500 per crop per acre
  • They started using tank silt, poultry manure, vermicompost and farm yard manure.
  • They set up their own compost manufacturing units in their fields and started following various ecological practices
Seeds: ~ Rs. 500 per acre for seeds
  • depend on their own seed for many crops, except for cotton
The traders would dictate the price for the produce in addition to charging interest for the inputs suppliedThe farmers do not spend a single rupee anymore for buying all the inputs.
Sale of agro-produce through Middlemen @APMCThey process their paddy and sell directly to consumers and also through a marketing channel called Sahaja Aharam in Hyderabad.

Lessons from this village:

  1. Sustainable farming can be profitable.
  2. social regulation, learning from each other.
  3. the benefits of conviction born out of experience and most importantly, the way out of agricultural distress by taking control over one’s own farming,

[Agro]: Misc.

#1: Fungus as Bio-control Agent

  • Trichoderma viride (Tv), a soil fungus =bio control agent
  • controls diseases in trees such as root rot, leaf blight etc.
  • Good alternative for chemical based fungicides
  • Farmers can make it by themselves using agricultural wastes to reduce cost

#2: Fruit Ripening

Fruits are classified into two groups

CLIMACTERICNON- CLIMACTERIC
ripen even after harvestdo not ripen after harvest
Banana, apple, avocado, banana, fig, mango, papaya, passionfruit, pear and tomatoGrapes, blueberry, cherry, citrus, cucumber,  pineapple and strawberry.
ethylene gas is used in godowns to hasten the ripening (e.g. for Banana). Similarly Calcium carbide is used to ripen Mangoes.not needed / wont work.

Q. It is impossible to peel the skin of a plantain fruit when it is raw but the same can be done very easily when fully ripe. Why?

  • Raw banana fruit is firm and not peelable since the cell cementing material is made of non-soluble calcium pectin.
  • But On ripening the non-soluble pectin will become soluble and hence the softness.

Enough of Agro related, now moving on to Environment and Biodiversity [EnB]

[EnB] Flora-Fauna

#1: Giant Clams

Clam = one type of mollusk. (Octopus, Squid-fish are other examples of mollusk)
Environment--giant clam

  • Giant Clam= an endangered species of clam (although IUCN red list puts it in ‘Vulnerable’ category but Thehindu says it’s an endangered species). Then who is right? That we’ll know once CSAT-2013 official answer key comes out and we find whether Swamp Deer was endangered or not! If UPSC answerkey says Swamp deer was endangered that’d mean UPSC had setup question from IUCN list.
  • Anyways back to topic: Giant Clams are found in the tropical coral reefs, including Andaman Nicobar.
  • All the species of Giant Clam are protected under Schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act.

But Why in News?

  • UK based charity organization gave money to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).
  • Money will be used create database of Giant clams in Andaman-Nicobar.

#2: House-Sparrow: official bird of Delhi

STATEOFFICIAL STATE BIRD
Jammu and KashmirBlack Necked Crane
HaryanaBlack Francolin
GujaratGreater Flamingo
MaharashtraYellow Footed Green Pigeon.
Delhi House-sparrow (declared State Bird in 2013)

March 20 = World House Sparrow Day

Why House-sparrow population declining?

  1. Less tress=not place to setup nests +increase in air pollution
  2. Buildings use glass facades= they show reflection of trees. Birds crash into the glass panel mistaking it for a tress. They get injured, even die.
  3. House sparrows and their chicks need protein, which means they need a lot of insects. But urban junta uses chemical pesticides in their gardens=> No worms, insects or pests left for the birds to feed. Thus, use of pesticides invariably affects house sparrow population.
  4. Cities have less number of open vegetable markets= lack of waste food for the birds.
  5. Earlier Sparrows fed on open bags of rice and cereals in the markets. The traders too didn’t try to avoid them as they consumed only a little and also preyed on small pests in rice bags. But these bags have now been replaced with sealed plastic bags at many places=no grain leakage=no food for birds.
  6. Even in places where grain-bags are kept open, the birds avoid them owing to the use of pesticides. A house sparrow weighs just a few milligrams and feeding on cereals with pesticides, even in micro levels, could kill them.
  7. Even in Rural areas, reduced grain spillage and improved storage facilities + use of pesticides & herbicides=sparrow population declined.

#3: Forest Corridors for Tiger breeding

  • 2010 data: 1,700 tigers in 39 tiger reserves.
  • Nowadays, Tiger reserves are surrounded by farms, villages and towns.
  • Such small and enclosed tiger reserves=> Habitat fragmentation=>inbreeding among tigers.
  • Inbreeding=> new generations will have genetic disorders. They’ll be more vulnerable to environmental changes.
  • If tiger reserves are connected through forest corridors, then tiger from one region can move to different area=> decreases inbreeding and promotes gene flow between isolated tiger populations.
  • Thus forest corridors= imp. for genetic variation among tigers.
  • Challenge: Tiger corridors in central India face threats from road widening, railway lines construction and coal mining.

#4: Antarctic Conservation

  • commission for conservation of Antarctic marine living resources (CCAMLR)
  • Members: 24 countries and the European Union.
Recent proposalsby
  1. designate Ross Sea as marine protected area (MPA) in the Antarctic
US+NZ
  1. designate seven marine protected areas in East Antarctica covering more than 1 million square kilometres
Australia+France+EU

But Russia voted against both proposals during meeting, hence no result.

[EnB] Clean Energy Related

#1: Bio-refinery: Bioplastics, BioHydrogen

  • Bio-electric Chemical Treatment System=designed by a research organization in Hyderabad, they’ve also filed for Patent.
inputaffluent/toxic water discharged from chemical factories and households.
output
  1. futuristic green fuels
  1. bio-hydrogen: This system uses anaerobic reactors to produce the environmentally sustainable bio-hydrogen instead of methane.
  2. bio-electricity: from anaerobic bacterial metabolism, by putting external electrodes in the reactor
  • bio-plastics: During above anaerobic processing, volatile fatty acids generated. These fatty acids are used for making bio-plastics. These bio-plastics could replace to some extent synthetic plastics in future.

Project funded by the Ministry of Non-Renewable Energy.

#2: Biofuel: Anti-Arguments

  1. The amount of energy produced by biofuels is only a little more than the amount of energy invested in growing and manufacturing them.
  2. Biofuels are nothing but a byproduct of sunlight. A combination of solar cells, batteries and electric cars, is 600 times more effective at harnessing sun’s energy than biofuels.
  3. Their energy-efficiency is not so good. Even if all agricultural land in Germany was directed to biofuels, we will get only enough to replace up to 20% of all fuel consumption in Germany.
  4. At present Germany uses only 20% of agricultural land for crops used for biomass production. The money farmers earn for this is probably double compared to growing wheat. As a result of that Germany, which was a big exporter of wheat, now imports it. Because farmers decreased wheat cultivation.
  5. Several studies had shown that global crop production needed to double by 2050, to meet demands from
    • Increasing human population
    • Demand from meat-industry (recall geography location factor article: how corn is used to fatten the cattle in USA. Similarly poultry rearing also need corn, soybean as feed.)
    • demand from dairy-industry

Therefore it is a bad idea to devote agricultural land for biofuels.

#3: Nuke Energy post Fukushima

2011Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Japan
2022Germany plans to shut down all of its Nuclear plants.

IAEA Chief (Yukiya Amano) said following:

  • After Chernobyl disaster in 1986,  there was a “period of stagnation” in nuclear industry
  • But, after the Fukushima accident construction of new nuclear plants continued in many countries,
  • In the next few years five countries — Bangladesh, Jordan, Nigeria, Turkey and Vietnam — will join the nuclear energy club
  • Nuke Energy is safe, reliable, low greenhouse gas emission, gives steady supply of electricity @stable prices.

#4: Lumos: Solar Backpack

Environment--lumos solar backpack

  • Lumos=Solar backpack designed by an Indian couple
  • It is water-, impact- and shock-proof
  • allows you to charge your gadgets through solar energy.
  • These backpacks have a sleek, flexible solar panel, unlike conventional panels (large, rigid plates used for rooftop installation).

#5: Flow Batteries

Renewable energyproblem
winddepends on speed of the wind, not continuous
solardoesn’t work on cloudy day
  • Therefore, such “renewable” sources cannot be connected directly to the electric grid (Because they don’t work on 24/7).
  • Instead, you’ve to store this solar/wind electricity in a battery and use this ‘charged’ battery to run electric appliances.
Problem: conventional batteriessolution: flow batteries
  • Conventional batteries include a porous membrane between the anode and the cathode to prevent short-circuits while facilitating charge-carrying ions to move between them.
  • But this membrane increase battery’s weight, reduce its efficiency, bring structural defects and life-cycle limitations.
  • by MIT, USA.
  • They’ve membrane-less hydrogen-bromine fuel cell.
  • Using liquid bromine and hydrogen gas.
  • It is rechargeable. doesn’t have membrane like conventional batteries.
  • Has more power density than conventional batteries.

#6: Electricity from cattle waste

  • Project in an Agro-university in Ludhiana.
  • cattle waste=> bio gas=>generator=>electricity.
  • The electricity is being used for chaffing green fodder, machine milking, operating the fans, coolers and foggers installed inside the animal sheds.
  • waste slurry obtained from the bio gas plant is used as manure for crops.
  • Their next plan is to separate methane and carbon dioxide from biogas, then bottle the carbon dioxide for industrial use
  • Ministry of renewable energy is giving them subsidy.

[EnB] Climate Change related

#1: Runaway Greenhouse effect

  • In a life sustaining planet e.g. Earth, the Solar absorption and radiation levels are balanced=> life can exist.
  • But if the solar radiation absorbed by the planet exceeds the thermal radiation given out by the planet then result=>
  1. uncontrollable heating of planet’s surface
  2. rapid water evaporation from oceans and rivers.

This is known as runaway greenhouse effect. Ultimate result: planet becomes inhospitable, life cannot exist. It is believed that once Venus planet had ocean but all the water evaporated thanks to runaway greenhouse effect.

#2: Ocean Acidification

  • Oceans absorb more 25% carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • this carbon dioxide dissolves in the water =>forms carbonic acid.
  • This way, the oceans act as a carbon dioxide sink
  • But when CO2 increase in atmosphere=>Carbonic acid also increases in sea-water= Ocean acidification (OA).
  • Problem? By 2100, the corals and starfishes might become extinct due to this Ocean Acidification.
  • Corals spend their entire life in one place. They secrete calcium carbonate =>form coral reefs.
  • These coral reefs provide support to variety of fishes and marine organisms.
  • But Higher Ocean acidification and warmer climates = less new coral reefs formed + even the existing coral reefs get damaged.
  • When Coral reefs are reduced=>indirectly many species will be affected.

Thus Ocean acidification poses grave danger to all marine species.

#3: Dimethylsulphide

  • It is a volatile organic compound.
  • Released by certain species of phytoplankton and algae.
  • When dimethylsulphide mixes with air, it reduces the amount of solar energy reaching Earth’s surface
  • Thus, dimethylsulphide  cools the atmosphere.
  • But Ocean Acidification harms the population of phytoplankton + algae=> less dimethylsulphie emitted =more global warming.

#4: Climate Change and Apple Taste

Factordetermines Apple’s ____
Acid concentrationsourness
soluble solidssweetness
  • As per the Japanese study, when temperature rose during the fruit maturation period, there was a change in the taste and texture of the fruit.
  • Meaning, due to climate change in last decades, the taste-texture of apple must have changed. Apples would have tasted differently 100 years ago.

[EnB] Disaster Management Related: Himalayan tsunami

Covered in separate article. click me

[EnB] Misc.

Harithavanamman-made forest in Kerala. On the banks of the Mangalapuzha river.

The man-made forest renders almost all the functions of a natural forest except that there are no wild animals.

miniscule monkeysScientists had been studying fossil primate skeleton from China, since 2003

Conclusion: Early ancestors of human beings might be “miniscule monkeys” smaller than rats

Sumatra HazeFire in Sumatra’s jungle=> haze=> air pollution in three nations: Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Dinosaurs

hardly relevant for UPSC but for the sake of timepass 

#1: Nasutoceratops: New “Vegetarian” Dinosaur

  • Translates to “big-nosed horned face.”
  • New horned dinosaur species discovered in Utah desert of USA.
  • Belongs to the group of plant-eating, rhinoceros-like dinos.
  • Nasuceratops used their horns to deter rivals for sexual selection and Deflect predators similar to modern-day elk or deer.

#2: T-rex was indeed the Villain Dinosaur

PaleontologistScientist that studies fossil organisms.
PredatorHunts his prey by himself. E.g. Lion, Tiger
ScavengerAny organism that feeds on dead animals hunted by others + and other decaying organic matter. Example: Vultures, Hyenas, Raccoons, certain bacteria and insects.
T.RexThat Non-Vegetarian Villain-Dinosaur, you’ve seen in Hollywood movies.

What is the issue?

  • Some paleontologists believe that T. rex was a scavenger, not a predator. Meaning all Hollywood movies where T-Rex is villain= scientifically bogus. Because T.Rex didn’t kill anyone during his time! He was merely a humble dinosaur who ate dead carcasses left by Predator dinosaurs.
  • But now Paleontologists found tooth marks of a T.Rex on a vegetarian (herbivore) dinosaur’s tail. From scientific analysis, they found vegetarian dinosaur was alive when it got bitten by T.Rex
  • Meaning T.Rex was a predator who would hunt in live animals, and NOT a scavenger. It means Hollywood scriptwriters are indeed correct: T-Rex was indeed the villain dinosaur.

Mock Questions

MCQs

  1. Correct Statements about Giant Clams
    1. They’re a variety of earthworms.
    2. Found in the black, lava soil of Deccan plateu.
    3. Considered Vulnerable as per IUCN database.
    4. None of Above
  2. Incorrect Match
    1. Jammu and Kashmir: Black Francolin
    2. Gujarat: Greater Flamingo
    3. Delhi : House-sparrow
    4. None of Above
  3. Correct Statements
    1. The use of chemical pesticides in garden has led to decline in Sparrow population, this is an example of Biomagnification.
    2. Habitat fragmentation is undesirable because it leads to inbreeding among a species.
    3. Both
    4. None
  4. Incorrect Match
    1. Yukiya Amano: IAEA
    2. Thomas Bach: International Olympic Committee
    3. Deepak Sandhu: National Green Tribunal
    4. None of Above
  5. Runaway Greenhouse effect occurs when
    1. When the Thermal radiation given out by the planet, exceeds the solar radiation absorbed by the Planet.
    2. When the solar radiation absorbed by the planet exceeds the thermal radiation given out by the planet.
    3. When the solar radiation absorbed by the planet equals the thermal radiation given out by the planet.
    4. When the Thermal radiation given out by the planet, equals the solar radiation absorbed by the Planet.
  6. Find correct statement about Dimethylsulphide
    1. It is responsible for the Ocean Acidification.
    2. It is responsible for Algae bloom.
    3. It is responsible for the runaway greenhouse effect.
    4. None of Above
  7. Correct Statement about fruits
    1. Non- climacteric fruits are those who ripen even after harvest.
    2. Climacteric fruits are those who do not ripe under ethylene treatment.
    3. Mango is an example of Non-Climacteric fruit
    4. None of above.

Descriptive

2 Marks (20 words)

  1. Bioplastics
  2. BioHydrogen
  3. Lumos
  4. Flow Batteries
  1. Google Person Finder
  2. Chorabari glacier
  3. Himalayan Wonder
  4. Yamuna Safed
  • 5 Marks (50 words)
    1. Eco sensitive Zones
    2. Tiger Corridor
    3. Environment (Protection) Act (EPA)
  • 12 marks (120 words)
    1. Suggest the measures to improve population of House sparrows in Urban India.
    2. Examine the opportunities and challenges in the use of Biofuels in India.
    3. What is Organic farming? How does it help in sustainable rural development?
  • 25 marks (250 words)
    1. Eco-development, not zero development, is required for the protection of environment. Evaluate this stand in context of Uttarakhand Tragedy.
    2. With suitable examples, explain how Livestock farming backed by Agricultural Extension services can help weaker sections of society.
    3. What do you understand by Crisis Mapping? Discuss its role in Disaster Management.
    4. Uttarakhand tragedy was a man-made disaster. Comment.
  • 200 Marks (essay)
    1.  “Thoughtless conservation” and “reckless development” are destructive to nature as well as livelihoods.
    2. Sometimes it takes a natural disaster to reveal a social disaster.
    3. An economy disembodied from society is a disaster waiting to happen.

Next time, in part 3 of 3, we’ll see Space, IT, Electronics, Nano-tech, allied topics of physics/chemistry.

visit Mrunal.org/snt For more on Sci-Tech Current affairs.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha


So far 38 Comments posted

  1. Anil

    Hi mrunal,
    very nice collection of information.

    Thanx

  2. sara

    anyone here having geog test papers of any coaching of delhi for civil services mains?

    1. destiny

      @sara which book you are referring for geogrPhy optional paper 1 n 2? Pls reply..

  3. aks

    @sara i m taking vajiram’s test series of geog 🙂 so yes i have papers

    1. destiny

      @aks which book u r referring for geography optional papers 1 & 2? Pls reply..

      1. aks

        destiny bhai! I cant tell you ! Its secret. Sorry for inconvience

  4. ekansh

    Thanks so much bhai credit pakka mrunal sir ko milega selection hone pe

  5. Rahul

    Goat quickly fattens for slaughtering… It was intended or not but it made me laugh !

  6. raj

    Sir please provide article series on International Affairs for GS paper 2.
    Thanks

  7. ashok

    thank you very much sir

  8. prasanna

    c,a,c,c,b,d,d
    thanks sir

  9. kaps

    VERY NICE SIR…..

    1. tarunendu singh

      thank you

  10. R Gowtham

    Sir,
    A small correction Tsunami was in 2004 and National Disaster Management Act was passed in 2005 after which NDMAuthority came into being…….

    Very usefull article. Thanks.

  11. Rishabh

    Beautiful presentation of seemingly complex data. No wonder today I found some shops in Mukerjinagar selling ‘Mrunal.org’ Complete Notes.

  12. DIVYA PRAKASH

    thanks a lot

  13. ry

    Mrunal, you beauty..

  14. Ap

    thank u sir for the information but can u provide links to download and study environmental sciences books and latest topics. it will be great help.

  15. fan

    a million thanks to you Mrunal.

  16. anamica

    mrunal sir aap kammal hain… mein aapko bata nahi sakti ki kitni help ho rahi hai mujhe aapke material se… mein hindi medium ki hun phir bhi ise samajh leti hun kyunki aap itne simple tareeke se likhte hain… mein itne saalon se hindu padh rahi thi but sir uska sahi use to aapne sikhaya hai… aapka material padhne k baad sab aasan lagne lagta hai… saari uljhanen sulajh jaati hain… sir aapse request hai agar aap comprehension per kuch help ker saken to… bahut bahut dhanyavaad… tahe dil se dhanyavaad, agar aap nahi hote to hum jaise logon ka kya hota jo coaching nahi ker sakte….

    1. Chinmay Meena

      Hi Anamica,
      reading your comment one can easily make out that you are very good in English as well as Hindi :-). This doesn’t in any way mean to undermine Mrunal Sir’s effort. But just reading your flawless hindi comment in perfectly used english alphabets, to write the hindi words, i can just smile. Kudos to your hindi (&English) and Mrunal Sir. 🙂

      1. anamica

        thanks chinmay, aapne bina vajah bhi apriciate karne ki vajah dhundi… aapka shukriya.

        1. anamica

          appriciate@ chinmay

  17. Chinmay Meena

    Hi everyone, i’m a new aspirant and preparing for mains on my own. I have a doubt which has been lingering on in my mind. In UPSC Mains exam, when it is written that the answer needs to be in say 250 words, does it mean we need to count all the words that are there in the answer such as:- a, the, etc which are very small words. This is because during my board exams i used to count these words too in the word limit and scored pretty well in exams such as Hindi and English which used to have word limits. But when I bought the Arihants GS Mains previous Years Solved examples book, in that i found that the author has well exceeded the word limit by using almost double the number of words allowed as per the word limit. Now this is a well respected book. so hence the doubt. please clear this doubt.

    Regards,
    Chinmay

    1. DEV ANANDA

      YES .. COUNT EVERY WORD … A AN THE ////… EVERY WORD COUNTS

  18. rahul

    hi mrunal sir,
    can u pl elaborate on the question, “thoughtless conservation”? (in the essay type Qs)

  19. anil dutt sharma

    u r incredible Mrunal ji…………

  20. Neetu

    Mrunal Sir,
    I have been following your blog for since July. Its a great relief sir. You compile data in a way that can be easily understood by everyone. Thank you sir for your extraordinary effort.

  21. Neetu

    Mrunal Sir,
    I have been following your blog since July. Its a great relief sir. You compile data in a way that can be easily understood by everyone. Thank you sir for your extraordinary effort.

  22. ZING

    @Mrunal

    why sparrows population declining?
    [+1] 15aug -> kite flying -> sparrows during flight strike with thread used for flying kites usually coated with glass -> injured , wings cut -> not able to fly -> dead, catch by dogs, humans

  23. Rajni sharma

    Sir,

    your site is very useful in respect of all competitive exams specially for IAS exam .. thanku sir

  24. abhijit magare

    7,ajbenagar, sakri road dhule

  25. abhijit magare

    sir you are the true helper and guide of upsc student

  26. SHOURABH

    realy good collection of information…

  27. Jude_Prudence

    Future Reference
    do Dimethyl Sulphide VS Hydrogen Sulphide

    1. Jude_Prudence

      Let’s call Dimethyl as Solar Dimming and Hydrogen Sulphide as the unethical drug to live4ever and hibernation

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