[Rights Issue] Jarawa Tribes, Human Safari, Buffer Area, Tribal Commission, 13th Schedule

Mrunalpolity180 Comments

Mrunal Patel is providing free updates to the Economy current affairs, budget & Economic survey for the upcoming UPSC Prelims and Mains under this Win21 Series. In Pillar4C, he'll cover new developments related to GDP, Inflation, Unemployment including latest budget and economic survey!
  1. Who are the Jawaras?
  2. What is Andaman Trunk Road (ATR)?
  3. Human Safari?
  4. Road: To shut or Not to Shut?
  5. Dancing Video controversy
  6. Buffer Zone Case Chronology
  7. Tribal Commissions
  8. Mock Questions

Who are the Jawaras?

  • They are tribal people living in the South Andaman islands. (approx. just 400 of them left)
  • Anthropologists believe that Jarawa are descendants of first humans that move out from Africa to Asia.

What is Andaman Trunk Road (ATR)?

Jarawa Map

  • Government of India started construction of Andaman Trunk road in the 80s.
  • This road connects North Andaman – Middle Andaman — Port Blair (Capital in southern most part).
  • Jarawa tribes mostly live in the jungles on the western side of this road. (see the map).
  • After construction of the road, tourism started flourishing and this bought outsiders (guides, tourists) in contact with Jarawa tribes.

Human Safari?

  • Safari = tourists sit in a bus, go in jungle and observe animals.
  • Unfortunately, Andaman tour operators have been running what is termed as “Human Safari”
  • Meaning, they take a bus full of tourists on the Andaman Trunk road. The guide will bring Jarawa tribals from the surrounding villages, make them dance in front of tourists and offer them food as “payment”.
  • Human rights activists have been demanding that Road must be shut down.

Road: To shut or Not to Shut?

Shut the road Don’t shut the road
Barely 400 Jarawas left. The road brings the general tourist population into unwanted contact with the Jarawa every day. Road is needed to carry essential food and supplies for both Jarawa and the settlers living outside Jarawa reserves.
This has resulted in the Jarawa being exposed to diseases against which they have no natural protection: e.g.measles and mumps. If the road is shut down, the tourists cannot visit limestone caves and mud volcanos. So ultimately tourism industry will collapse.
The increasing trade and tourism in the area is endangering their traditional skills. For example, some of the jarawas do not know how to make a fire without a matchstick.
Jarawas have picked up the the vices of the outsiders: tobacco, gutka, Zarda, bidi and alcohol. It is their free will.
Bo people= Another tribe in Andaman Nicobar. Its last member died in 2010. Do we want same thing to happen to Jarawa? Jarawa protection is important as they form the centuries old link of Indian civilization with African civilization. Do we want these people to live rest of their lives as primitive hunters and gatherers? Agreed very few of them left, doesn’t mean outside contact should be stopped.
Because of above reasons, Jarawas must not be allowed to mingle with outside world.

Dance for Food controversy

Jarawa video

  • A reporter had gone to Andamans. He recorded a disturbing video, in which an Indian policeman is offering food to Jarawa tribal girl and making her dance to entertain the tourists.
  • This story was published in The Observer (sister newspaper of Guardian), last year.
  • This led to huge uproar in India and abroad.

Buffer Zone Case Chronology

In past few weeks, you might have read Supreme court giving orders on Jarawa buffer Zones. But it is not that Supreme court picked up the matter after reading that Jarawa dancing video controversy.
The issue of buffer zone has been going on since 2007

Timelin of Events:
2007 A&N administration brought a Buffer Zone notification in 2007.
This notification prohibited any trade or tourism activity within 5 kms radius of the Jarawa Tribal Reserve.
2007 A tourist resort went to court against this order.
2009 Calcutta High court says notification is invalid.
2010 Supreme court says notification is valid. Orders the A&N administration to implement it.
2010-11 A&N administration doesn’t implement the notification due to widespread protests by local people who depend on tourism.
Mid-2012 Supreme court asks why notification is not implemented?
Jan 2013
  • Supreme court puts “interim” ban on tourists from using Andamana Trunk Road.
  • Only government officials, persons residing in the reserve and vehicles carrying essential commodities for the Jarawas would be allowed on the Andaman Trunk Road.
  • This ban will be in effect until authorities come up with notification and seriously implement It (=no trade/tourism within 5kms radius of Jarawa reserves=buffer zone).
March 2013 Authorities come up with notification, Supreme court lifts the interim ban.
Jarawa timeline

click to enlarge

Now let’s check a related topic

Tribal Commissions

  • Article 339 of the Constitution says President needs to appoint a tribal commission after 10 years of commencement of Constitution and thereafter as and when he deems fit. So far two tribal Commissions have been made:
Tribal Commission Year Chairman Main suggestion
1st 1960 UN Dhebar Need to update laws about tribal land transfer.
2nd 2002 Dileep Singh Bhuria Need to make a comprehensive tribal policy.

Now Government is planning to constitute third tribal Commission. Mainly to deal with following issues

  1. examine various issues of development and welfare of tribals, especially primitive tribal groups.
  2. formulate a new legislation to protect tribal land.
  3. Is there is a need to add 13th schedule in Constitution? Let’s understand this one:

As you know,

11th schedule Functions of Panchayat.
12th schedule Functions of Municipalities.

But these are not applicable to tribal areas. The tribal areas are governed by 5th and 6th Schedule.

5th schedule Administration of scheduled tribes areas in all states except AMTM.( (assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram). This 5th schedule is applicable to 9 states.

  1. Rajasthan-Gujarat-Maharashtra-Madhya Pradesh (RAGU MAMA 4 states)
  2. Himachal-Jharkhand-Chattisgarh-Andhra-Orissa (5 states)
6th schedule Administration of tribal areas in AMTM (assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram).

Although Government earlier made PESA Act, to extend the provisions of Panchayati Raj to above areas but it hasn’t worked out as planned. So Now Government  is thinking about creating 13th schedule for traditional governing bodies in tribal areas. The 3rd Tribal Commission will look into this matter.

Mock Questions


  1. Correct statements about Jarawa tribe
    1. Majority of them live in car Nicobar.
    2. Their ancestors are believed to have come from Africa.
    3. At present, Jarawa population is estimated to be around 2000.
    4. None of above.
  2. The jurisdiction for Andaman and Nicobar Islands is with which High Court?
    1. Calcutta
    2. Madras
    3. Cuttack
    4. Hyderabad
  3. Which of the following place is famous for its Limestone Caves and mud volcano?
    1. Ajanta & Ellora
    2. Andaman islands
    3. Khasi Hills
    4. None of above.
  4. Incorrect statement about tribal Commissions.
    1. Constitution mandates that President must setup tribal Commission every 15 years.
    2. Last tribal Commission was setup in 1990.
    3. So far, four tribal Commissions have been setup.
    4. All of above.
  5. 5th schedule of Constitution is applicable to which of the following states?
    1. Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir.
    2. Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur.
    3. Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh.
    4. Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra and Tamilnadu.


  1. Tribals in India after 66 years of independence.
  1. Discuss the contribution of tribals in freedom struggle.
  1. The conflicting nature of development with indigenous people has come to the fore in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Analyze the situation and comment on the status quo.
  2. The State has failed to give the tribals a stake in the modern economic processes. Comment.
  3. List the Constitution safeguards for tribals in India.
  4. List the tribal welfare schemes
  5. Write a note on structure and functions of National Commission for STs.
Each for 15m
  1. Tribal Development under 12th five year plan.


  1. One group says Jarawas should be allowed to continue hunting, foraging and their primitive ways of living. Some people would say Jarawas should be assimilated into Modern human civilization-education, jobs, business, money and the joy that money brings in: cable TV, fridge, bike, car, mobile and internet. Where do you stand on this?
  2. People living in Union territories are at “disadvantage” compared to people living in big states. For example, State Governments of UP and Tamilnadu are giving free laptops to students, but you never hear that for Diu Daman or Andaman-Nicobar. Therefore, all Union territories should be merged with nearby States. Agree / Disagree why?
  3. Do you think there is a need to create 13th schedule in the Constitution, for tribal governing institutions- Yes/ No why?

For more Polity and Rights issue related articles, visit Mrunal.org/polity


  1. Major Inputs from Mr.Shiva Ram.
  2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jan/07/andaman-islands-tribe-tourism-threat
  3. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/no-tourists-on-jarawa-zone-road-islanders-need-id-card/1067365
  4. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-newdelhi/now-tourists-can-use-andaman-nicobar-trunk-road/article4483196.ece

180 Comments on “[Rights Issue] Jarawa Tribes, Human Safari, Buffer Area, Tribal Commission, 13th Schedule”

  1. As members sought punishment for officials responsible for issuing the “unconstitutional” circular, JD(U) chief Sharad Yadav went to the extent of demanding the sacking and impeachment of the chief of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).

    RJD chief Lalu Prasad and his party colleague Raghuvansh Prasad Singh were prominent among those who stormed the Well twice along with a host of Samajwadi Party members, raising slogans against the notification.

    After the hour-long debate, Narayanasamy said Government has taken note of the views expressed by the members on the notification of the UPSC.

    “Government will call a meeting of the UPSC to discuss and resolve the issue. In the meanwhile, we will keep the notification in abeyance. Status quo ante will be maintained,” Narayanasamy said.

    Lalu Prasad dubbed the UPSC move as a “conspiracy” against weaker sections so as to ensure that children from SC, ST and OBC background do not succeed in the civil services examinations despite having the required merit.

    Seeking a rollback of the decision, he said the UPSC may be a constitutional body but it was not above the government and Parliament.

    Earlier, the Question Hour was washed out with slogan-shouting members of SP, RJD, Left, Akali Dal, National Conference, AIADMK and DMK, either trooping into the Well or coming to the aisle.

    They raised slogans like ‘Angrezi me kaam na hoga, Phir se desh ghulaam na hoga’ (There will be no work in English. The country will not be a slave again), ‘Angrezi hatao, desh bachao’ (remove English, save the nation) and ‘UPSC ka galat nirnay, wapas lo, wapas lo’ (withdraw the wrong UPSC decision).

    Gopinath Munde (BJP) the move was an “injustice” to Indian languages and the backward classes.

    V Arunkumar (Cong) made it clear that the changes brought about were not in the interests of anyone. “It is wrong to show that only English-speaking people are better,” he said citing the example of K Kamraj who was consulted by Pandit Nehru whenever a crisis arose, despite the fact that the Congress veteran only spoke Tamil.

    Dharmendra Yadav (SP) termed the move as “anti-national” and said the decision would have grave implications for a majority of candidates in the civil services exams as the essay paper of 200 marks had been added to the 100-mark compulsory English paper.

    Sharad Yadav (JD-U) alleged that since a new head took over the UPSC, he has been continuously making attempts to “marginalise” the Indian languages and promote English. “If he fails to take back this step, he should be sacked and impeached,” he said.

    TKS Elangovan (DMK) asked “who authorised the UPSC to take such a step in the midst of the civil services exams. Who gave it the right to do so?”

    Basudeb Acharia (CPI-M) said the hard-earned constitutional rights favouring Indian languages were being snatched away by this order

  2. This country is going to become a pigsty if it is not so already. When UGC turned its NET exam into “objective mode”, making it possible for those who can’t write a single sentence of their own, forget about delivering a lecture, to become eligible for teaching at undergraduate level, no politician said a word. Then they were not concerned about the fate of those who will be taught by these dumb fellows. But now when after years of deliberations and more than one committee report and seeing the downward spiral in the quality of civil services recruits, especially in the last two decades UPSC decided to better its archaic system then from north to south, from left to right, these blood sucking politicians have risen in opposition and a normally defiant government has kneeled before this opposition because there was no loot or corruption involved in this. People from humanities background have been learning statistics and data interpretation and numeracy and arithmetic while those from engineering and medical backgrounds have been championing history and culture and opting for sociology as an optional then why can’t people from non-English medium learn to write a paper of 100 marks in an exam totalling 1800 and that too of class X level English when they’re supposed to be at least a graduate.

    1. Dude if you think of it, people who are good at English certainly will have an advantage. I really don’t have any strong opinions on inclusion/exclusion of compulsory English paper. However, I really hope they keep the condition which allows someone to take literature subject as optional. It is no secret that these subjects consistently get higher average marks for whatsoever reason and provide undue advantage.

    2. I think u have misunderstood the problem. Here the controversy is not about the 100 marks english paper. real problem is to write all papers other than regional language papers, if pass the barriers put by upsc, in english or hindi. This is not fair because it helps only the students of english medium.

      1. Controversy is about everything, brother. Some were bitching about compulsory English paper, others about no regional language.Anyways, if God wants you to become an officer, no mortal, not with any amount of ugly politics and cheap bickering can change it.

    3. I have come across many brilliant students hailing from rural background who cleared this exam.but i strongly feel the new changes will definitely harm some sections of rural and vernacular medium student because civil service is such an exam where sometime even 1 mark make a big difference.English IS NOT THE MEASURE OF INTELLIGENCE BUT JUST A MEDIUM.

    4. Here the issue is not English only. In almost every other exam like SSC, Clerical, Bank PO NDA, IMA etc too English is compulsory. Therefore it may just be a political issue for our MPs as it affects their voters who can swing opinion. The issue for us should be why only English and why not any Indian language like Hindi or Punjabi or Tamil or Telugu or Bangla or any other. The point here is : English knowledge makes people wiser?
      Even if the answer may be assumed in YES (though it can not be), training in English can be imparted to probationers as IFS probationers are trained in a foreign language or probationers posted in the states the language of which is not known to them are imparted knowledge of that state. More important, there is a writ pending against UPSC in Delhi High Court against English Comprehension in Prelims. To introduce it in Mains is therefore unethical and unjustified act.

  3. mrunal sir

    as per one of your articles on how to read hindu online , i switched to google reader for the first time . but now google reader will be shut down on july 1st and other rss feed readers aren’t that robust and intuitive to use . other rss readers also dont show news and articles as old as 2-3 months back , which google reader does. i am really concerned about this fact .
    sir kindly suggest me some alternative way , as i used to access lots of information with interactive reading at the click of the mouse .

  4. Utterly disgusting. The new exam pattern was good, suitable according to international standards. It is right UPSC drains off a candidates’ mental peace.

  5. What does all these mean???
    The official site of UPSC gives the earlier info and news papers say decision put on hold and the earlier pattern will prevail..
    so confused

  6. यूपीएससी के नए परीक्षा नियमों पर फिलहाल रोक

    नई दिल्ली (एसएनबी)। सिविल सेवा परीक्षाओं में अंग्रेजी भाषा को अधिक महत्व देने संबंधी संघ लोक सेवा आयोग (यूपीएससी) के नए नियमों की अधिसूचना पर लोकसभा में लगभग सभी दलों द्वारा घोर विरोध किए जाने पर सरकार ने मुद्दे का कोई समाधान निकाले जाने तक अधिसूचना पर रोक लगा दी। शुक्रवार को सदन की बैठक शुरू होते ही इस मुद्दे को लेकर विपक्ष और सत्ता पक्ष दोनों ओर के सदस्यों ने अधिसूचना को तत्काल वापस लिए जाने की मांग की। इस मुद्दे पर हुए हंगामे के कारण कार्यवाही को तीन बार स्थगित भी करना पड़ी। तीन बार के स्थगन के बाद पीठासीन सभापति पीसी चाको ने सदस्यों को इस मुद्दे पर अपनी बात रखने का अवसर दिया। इसके बाद कार्मिक राज्यमंत्री वी नारायणसामी ने सदस्यों को आश्वासन दिया कि सरकार संघ लोक सेवा आयोग के अधिकारियों की बैठक बुलाकर मुद्दे का समाधान निकालने का प्रयास करेगी। इसके साथ ही उन्होंने कहा कि समाधान निकाले जाने तक अधिसूचना पर रोक रहेगी। यह अधिसूचना पांच मार्च को जारी की गई थी। गौरतलब है कि सिविल सेवा परीक्षाओं के लिए संघ लोक सेवा आयोग के इस वर्ष से प्रभावी होने वाले नियमों के तहत अंग्रेजी का महत्व बढ़ाकर अंग्रेजी परीक्षा के 100 अंक निर्धारित कर दिए गए हैं। पहले अंग्रेजी की परीक्षा को केवल पास करना होता था और इसके अंक नहीं जुड़ते थे। इससे पहले आज सुबह सदन की कार्यवाही शुरू होने पर सरकार के प्रमुख घटक दल द्रमुक, सरकार को बाहर से समर्थन दे रहे सपा और राजद तथा विपक्षी अन्नाद्रमुक सदस्य आसन के समक्ष आकर नारेबाजी करने लगे। ये सदस्य ‘अंग्रेजी में काम न होगा, फिर से देश गुलाम न होगा’ के नारे लगा रहे थे। हंगामे के कारण बैठक शुरू होने के कुछ ही मिनट बाद पहले दोपहर साढ़े 11 बजे और फिर दोपहर 12 बजे और उसके बाद साढ़े 12 बजे तक के लिए स्थगित कर दी गई। इस मुद्दे पर कार्यस्थगन प्रस्ताव का नोटिस देने वाले राजद के लालू प्रसाद ने कहा कि यूपीएससी की सिविल सेवा परीक्षा में अंग्रेजी को अनिवार्य बनाकर गरीब और ग्रामीण तबके से ताल्लुक रखने वाले छात्रों को प्रशासनिक सेवाओं से बाहर करने की साजिश रची गई है। उन्होंने इस अधिसूचना को तत्काल वापस लेने तथा यूपीएससी के दोषी अधिकारियों के खिलाफ कार्रवाई किए जाने की मांग की। उन्होंने सरकार से यह भी सुनिश्चित किए जाने की मांग की कि भविष्य में इस प्रकार का कोई कदम नहीं उठाया जाए। भाजपा के गोपीनाथ मुंडे ने इसे भारतीय भाषाओं पर अत्याचार करार देते हुए कहा कि यूपीएससी एक संवैधानिक संस्था है, लेकिन सरकार से बिना सलाह मशविरा किए इस प्रकार का कदम कैसे उठाया गया, इसकी जांच की जानी चाहिए। उन्होंने अधिसूचना को तुरंत वापस लिए जाने तथा पुरानी पद्धति को बनाए रखने की मांग की। जदयू के शरद यादव ने यूपीएसपी के इस कदम को भारतीय भाषाओं के प्रति अन्याय करार देते हुए यूपीएससी के अध्यक्ष को हटाने तक की मांग की।

    नारायणसामी ने कहा, सरकार यूपीएससी की बैठक बुलाकर मुद्दे का समाधान निकालने का प्रयास करेगी

  7. Kya muze koi is ka matlab bata sakta he
    10. The closing date fixed for the receipt of the application will be treated as the date for determining the OBC status (including that of creamy layer) of the candidate
    Page no 9 of civil services pre notification

    1. In order to claim OBC reservation, a person has to satisfy two conditions 1. He should belong to a OBC caste( list of castes is given in social development ministry)2. His annual gross income should below 4.5 lakhs.If a candidate satisfies only condition (1) then he is just eligible to get a caste certificate but is not eligible for claiming any reservation- He invariably comes under creamy layer.If candidate satisfies (1) and (2) then he gets a caste cum reservation certificate, with this he can claim any reservation .
      Sometimes the annual income of the person may change YOY basis, supposing, a person belongs to OBC caste and his income is below 4. 5 lakhs .He is eligible for reservation and applies for the exam under OBC category. But at the time of interview if the annual income is above 4.5 lakhs(due to increase in salary) then his candidature can be cancelled,as the candidate does not belong to the reserved category any more. Candidate will loose his place for no mistake. To avoid this, body conducting the exam specifies the date(in this case it is closing date). On this date, if the candidate falls under OBC then he/ she can claim this category even if they dont fall under OBC (due to increase in income)at the time of interview.

  8. the only independence granted to the constitutional bodies is that their salaries are drawn from consolidated fund of india. that’s it?? is that independent status???
    when they cant even change or reform the recruitement process on their own without causing “uproar” in the parliament.

  9. Looks like UPSC pre-meditatedly planted few bugs only to retract in case of opposition(to get what it really wants). I think GS is going to stay(this is the major change).

    English test with weitage puts Hindi medium students at a mojor psychological disadvantage(with already low final share)…it should be done away.

  10. Mrunal sir thanks for the series of lovable articles…kripya Creamy layer ke pe likh skte ha kya kyuki their provisions are very interesting and complicated,….

    “Angrezi me kaam na hoga, Phir se desh ghulaam na hoga”

  11. Hello everyone ,

    Can anyone plz tell me dat whether the controversy regarding upsc cse is regarding ” writing mode in english vs other language ” or anything else also ?? N is there any chances of changes in broader pattern also i.e 4 gs paper, one optional ??

  12. In order to claim OBC reservation, a person has to satisfy two conditions 1. He should belong to a OBC caste( list of castes is given in social development ministry)2. His annual gross income should below 4.5 lakhs.If a candidate satisfies only condition (1) then he is just eligible to get a caste certificate but is not eligible for claiming any reservation- He invariably comes under creamy layer.If candidate satisfies (1) and (2) then he gets a caste cum reservation certificate, with this he can claim any reservation .
    Sometimes the annual income of the person may change YOY basis, supposing, a person belongs to OBC caste and his income is below 4. 5 lakhs .He is eligible for reservation and applies for the exam under OBC category. But at the time of interview if the annual income is above 4.5 lakhs(due to increase in salary) then his candidature can be cancelled,as the candidate does not belong to the reserved category any more. Candidate will loose his place for no mistake. To avoid this, body conducting the exam specifies the date(in this case it is closing date). On this date, if the candidate falls under OBC then he/ she can claim this category even if they dont fall under OBC (due to increase in income)at the time of interview.

  13. Mrunal Bhai…………Bahu Try Kare Italy Walo Case SamjVane……….Pan Exactly Kashu Tappo Nahi Padto
    Waiting For Ur Article of it :):)

      1. Copy pasting from Hindu… hope u would get some idea. The European Union has said it hoped for a “common solution” to the dispute between India and Italy over Rome’s decision not to return the marines who are facing trial in New Delhi for killing two Indian fishermen.

        “The EU is taking note of the disputes between India and Italy and continues to hope that a common solution can be reached through negotiation,” Catherine Ashton, a spokesperson for EU foreign affairs representative, was quoted as saying by Italian newspaper Gazzetta del Sud on Friday.

        India and Italy are in the midst of a diplomatic row after Rome reneged on its commitment to send back its two marines, who were allowed by the Supreme Court on February 22 to go to Italy for four weeks for voting in election.

        India is in the process of downgrading its diplomatic ties and decided not to post the Ambassador-designate to Rome who was to assume the charge by next week.

        The Indian government had this week announced decision to initiate review of entire gamut of relations with Italy which includes diplomatic, trade and defence ties apart from reaching out to the European Union, which was briefed on India’s views and position in the matter.

        The marines face trial in a special Indian court for shooting and killing two Indian fisherman — Jelestine Valentine and Ajesh Binki — while guarding an Italian oil tanker off the coast of Kerala last February.

        The Italian government claims India does not have jurisdiction in the case as the incident took place in international waters.

  14. Hello mrunal Bhai
    Past 3 days no article kuch na kuch plz update karo na…….ur blog is like a drug to me and many aspirants
    Thank you for ur support,
    Waiting for new article

  15. hi mrunal sir..
    Since there is much importance to MDG goals..i would request to take up an article of MDG goals

  16. • Hey friends i had talked 2 1 of my friends 2day in Delhi……people of general category want attempts 2 b renewed as the new pattern is a major overhaul made by upsc…it was done in 1979…attempts were renewed when new pattern was introduced….in 1 or 2 days they r goin 2 meet Mr Narayanswami and persuade him and upsc 2 renew all 4 attempts again…so we need a strong support….hope all will support this v good cause….u cn login 2 orkut community 4 this….http://www.orkut.com/Main#Community?cmm=23492063

    this is what i got 2 know 4m him…..so i hope all candidates will support this cause

  17. Dear Mrunal Sir, Can you write an article about Tamil Nadu – Sri Lanka Relationship. We See them most often in news now-a-days.

  18. change is inevitable. i hope some change is necessary but not affecting these tribe. we are all human being having the same which is essential for being a men. we should not treat them inhumanly. we should act as torce bearer for them in bringing out them to the outside world so that they can aware of what has happened to the world in large

  19. Hello sir,Please provide answers for the MCQ’s you are giving at the end of almost every article,because we have to check them,i hope it won’t be a hectic task for you.
    Thanks &Regards

  20. Hi Mrunal,

    Does the recommendations of the temporary Commission appointed under Art 339 apply to the Tribal Areas in the 4 states (6th Sc.) as well?


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *