[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 GS: Geography: Physical, Indian, World Geography Questions solved with explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)

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Mrunal’s UPSC GSM3-2020 Model Answer lecture: Science Technology, Internal Security Border Management Questions from last Mains Exam Solved!
  1. Prologue
  2. Geography: Internal breakup
    1. World Geography
    2. Atlas Mountain Ranges
    3. Nomadic herders
  3. Indian geography (6Qs)
    1. Narmada
    2. Mica, Petrol and Gas
    3. Coal, Indian
    4. Agro related (2Q)
      1. Laterite Soil
      2. Crop seasons
    5. Tribals of India
  4. PHYSICAL Geography (5Qs)
    1. Knight and Day
    2. Fresh Water
    3. Thunderstorm
    4. Temperature: Coastal vs Interior
    5. Earth dynamic changes?

Prologue

  • 14 out of 100 MCQs in CSAT 2013 were from Geography. Last year it was 11.
  • Majority of the question can be solved directly from standard reference books/sources for Geography viz.
    • NCERT
    • NIOS
    • General studies Manual
    • Indian Geography by Majid Hussein
  • Within Indian geography, agro related Qs. receive attention, just like last year.
  • Within Physical geography, ocean, temperature related Qs, just like last year.
  • World Geography continues to receive low-priority (Although world geography should not be completely ignored in preparation because Mains 2013 does contain topics from World Geography.)
  • Nothing from current affairs.

Geography: Internal breakup

Chart CSAT 2013 Geography

World 2
Indian* 6
Physical 6
Total 14

*Qs related to National parks, wildlife etc. classified under EnB (environment and biodiversity).

World Geography (2Qs)

Atlas Mountain Ranges

1.  Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?

  1. Abyssinian Plateau : Arabia
  2. Atlas Mountains : North-Western Africa
  3. Guiana Highlands : South-Western Africa
  4. Okavango Basin : Patagonia

In the school atlas, check the physical map of Africa. You’ll see Atlas mountain range in the Top-left corner (=north Western) => Answer B is correct.

Regarding other choices:

  1. Abyssinian plateau is in Ethiopia (in Africa)
  2. Guiana Highland= In South America
  3. Okavango basin/swamp= In Southern part of in Africa.

Hence final answer (B) Atlas Mountains : North-Western Africa.

Nomadic herders

2. “Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty and the people used to be nomadic herders.” The above statement best describes which of the following regions?

  1. African Savannah
  2. Central Asian Steppe
  3. North American Prairie
  4. Siberian Tundra

let’s consider the options

African Savannah

Doesn’t fit the description of “Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty”

Siberian Tundra?

  • as per NIOS Geography material, chapter.16 Life In The High Latitudes
  • Extreme climate= yes
  • Low precipitation =yes.
  • Nomadic life = yes
  • but they’re not nomadic “herders”. Their primary occupation is hunting and fishing.

Central Asian Steppe

  • as per NIOS Geography material, chapter.15 Life In The Mid Latitudes
  • extreme climate= yes
  • low precipitation =yes.
  • Nomadic life= yes. The mid-latitude (Central Asian) grassland were once home to pastoral nomads like Kirgiz, Kazakh and Kalmuks.

North American Prairie?

  • as per NIOS Geography material, chapter.15 Life In The Mid Latitudes
  • extreme climate= yes
  • low precipitation =yes.
  • nomadic life? = No. The farmers here use mechanized equipment and do wheat cultivation on large scale.

Hence answer B) Central Asian Steppe

Indian geography (6Qs)

Physical Geography of India (Narmada) 1
Minerals and Energy related 2
Agro related 2
Human Geography (Tribals) 1
Total 6

Narmada

Q. The Narmada river flows to the west, while most other large peninsular rivers flow to the east. Why?

  1. It occupies a linear rift valley.
  2. It flows between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.
  3. The land slopes to the west from Central India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. None
  • Refer to NCERT 11th standard, Geography, 3rd chapter, page number 27. It says Narmada and Tapi flow through rift valleys caused due to the upheaval of Himalayas.
  • Also it is given in the last line of the page as it flows through the rift valley with the Satpura in south and Vindhyas in the north. But there is no option for 1 & 2. We can consider maybe that flowing between the ranges may not cause the river to flow west and it is only a fact.
  • Refer to NCERT Class 9 Contemporary India textbook, chapter 2, page number 10. It gives the contours of the Indian physical systems. We can see that Narmada is flowing through the area where the land is not sloping towards the west from central India, but it is flowing west because of the rift valleys only.

Map Narmada elevation
Hence answer (A) Only 1

Mica, Petrol and Gas

1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.
  2. Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma.
  3. Dharwars are famous for petroleum.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. None

Refer to level 2 Q6 in Pearson’s General Studies Manual (2011), all three statements are directly lifted.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=WuBFs6yFRwcC&pg=RA2-PA35&lpg=RA2-PA35
And as per Thorpe (author of the Manual) only Mica-Kordema Statement is correct.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=WuBFs6yFRwcC&pg=RA2-PA55&lpg=RA2-PA35&ots=r3dPt0txsL

Statement T/F? Why?
  1. Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.
False
  • Gondwana beds = coal deposits (and not natural gas.) (Majid)
  1. Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma.
True
  • TMH General Studies manual, Ch. Indian and World Geography, page 127
  • Kodarma mines in Jharkhand are one of the important mica producing areas
  • Another reference is Indian Geogrpahy, Majid Hussain Page 7.18 The main center of mica production in Jharkhand and Bihar are Kodarma, Dhorhakola.
  1. Dharwars are famous for petroleum.
False
  • Dharwar = district in Karnataka. Not related with petroleum.

Hence answer: (B) only 2.

Coal, Indian

Which of the following is / are the characteristic/ characteristics of Indian coal?

  1. High ash content
  2. Low sulphur content
  3. Low ash fusion temperature

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Standard reference books (NCERT, NIOS, TMH, Majid) are silent about low ash fusion temperature of Indian coal, hence time to dig internet.

As per an article published in Frontline (2008),

most significant characteristic of Indian coal is its high ash content 1st statement is correct
However, Indian coal’s sulphur content is low, about 0.5 per cent. 2nd statement is correct
high ash fusion temperature of about 1,500 C. 3rd statement is false

Final answer A: only 1 and 2 correct.

Agro related (2Q)

Laterite Soil

1. Which of the following statements regarding laterite soils of India are correct?

  1. They are generally red in colour.
  2. They are rich in nitrogen and potash.
  3. They are well-developed in Rajasthan and UP.
  4. Tapioca and cashew nuts grow well on these soils.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1 and 4
  4. 2 and 3 only

Indian Geography, Majid Hussain Chapter: Page 6.8

Laterite soils are rich in iron and aluminum but poor in nitrogen, potash, potassium, lime and organic matter. Hence Statement #2 is wrong.  Eliminate all answer choices containing statement #2.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1 and 4
  4. 2 and 3 only

Thus we are left with final answer C: only 1 and 4.

Another approach is via NIOS Geography Chapter 19, Page 401

Laterite soil commonly found in areas of high altitude and heavy rainfall in Karnataka, TN, MP, Bihar, Orissa, Assam and Meghalaya. Hence Rajasthan doesn’t fit the bill. So, Eliminate choice involving Statement#3 and you’re still left with answer C.

Crop seasons

2. Consider the following crops

  1. Cotton
  2. Groundnut
  3. Rice
  4. Wheat

Which of these are Kharif crops?

  1. 1 and 4
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 2, 3 and 4

Refer NCERT Class 12 Geography (India People and Economy), Chapter 5, Page no – 44

Kharif Rice, cotton, jute, juwar, bajra and tur
Rabi Wheat, gram, mustard

Hence answer must contain both Cotton (#1) and Rice (#3). And answer must not contain Wheat(#4).

Now start eliminating options

  1. 1 and 4 (because 3 is missing)
  2. 2 and 3 only (because 1 is missing)
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 2, 3 and 4 (because contains 4)

Thus we are left with final answer C: 1, 2 and 3.

Tribals of India

Consider the following pairs :

  1. Limboo (Limbu) : Sikkim
  2. Karbi : Himachal Pradesh
  3. Dongaria : Odisha
  4. Bonda : Tamil Nadu

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

As per the article that appeared in The Hindu in Feb 2012,

Bonda are the most primitive tribal groups in Odisha. According to Census 2011, the Bonda tribe has a population of less than 12,000. Therefore, statement #4 is wrong, because it links Bonda with Tamilnadu. Eliminate answer choices involving #4

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Thus, final answer (A): 1 and 3 only.

PHYSICAL Geography (5Qs)

Knight and Day

Variations in the length of daytime and night time from season to season are due to

  1. the earth’s rotation on its axis
  2. the earth’s revolution round the sun in an elliptical manner
  3. latitudinal position of the place
  4. revolution of the earth on a tilted axis

As per TMH General studies manual, Chapter Indian and World Geography, page 9

had the axis of earth been perfectly perpendicular to the plane of ecliptic, the sunrays would have been verticle over the equator all the year round and amount of energy received at any place would have remained constant throughout the year; hence no change of seasons. Also in that situation, the days and nights all over the earth would have been exactly equal throughout the year as it happens at the time of equinoxes.

Hence answer (D)

Fresh Water

On the planet earth, most of the freshwater exists as ice caps and glaciers. Out of the remaining freshwater, the largest proportion

  1. is found in atmosphere as moisture and clouds
  2. is found in freshwater lakes and rivers
  3. exists as groundwater
  4. exists as soil moisture

Refer to NCERT Class 11 Physical Geography, Ch.13, page 113

Reservoir Percentage of the Total
  1. Oceans
97.25
  1. Ice Caps and Glaciers
2.05
  1. Groundwater
0.68
  1. Lakes
0.01
  1. Soil Moisture
0.005
  1. Atmosphere
0.001
  1. Streams and Rivers
0.0001
  1. Biosphere
0.00004

Hence answer is (C) exists as groundwater.

Thunderstorm

During a thunderstorm, the thunder in the skies is produced by the

  1. meeting of cumulonimbus clouds in the sky
  2. lightning that separates the nimbus clouds
  3. violent upward movement of air and water particles

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. None of the above produces the thunder

The question is about cause of thunder during a thunderstorm (and not the cause of thunderstorm itself).

As per Britannica

  • Thunder is the sound caused by a lightning discharge.
  • Lightning heats the air in its path and causes a large over-pressure of the air within its channel.
  • The channel expands supersonically into the surrounding air as a shock wave and creates an acoustic signal that is heard as thunder.

So is the answer D=none of above.

by the way if we take #2 is correct (lightening that separates numbus clouds), there is no option saying “only 2”.=> hence D

Temperature: Coastal vs Interior

The annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high as compared to coastal areas. What is / are the reason / reasons?

  1. Thermal difference between land and water.
  2. Variation in altitude between continents and oceans.
  3. Presence of strong winds in the interior
  4. Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts.
  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Debatable. first let’s check the statements that can be validated or rejected with surety:

Statement #1= correct

As per NIOS Geography, Ch5, Page 99

Continentality or distance from sea

  • water is bad conductor of heat. Due to this moderating effect of the sea, places near coast have low range of temperature and high humidity.
  • The places in the interior of continent do not experience moderating effects of sea. These places have extreme temperature. => Statement #1 is correct.
  • This eliminates answer choice C, because it doesn’t contain #1.

Statement #4= wrong

  • Statement 4 claims that Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts (are responsible for why annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high)
  • But the interiors in Central Asia, receive very poor rainfall due to distance from sea. Annual precipitation is usually low in the interior areas. Hence #4 cannot be generalized.
  • This eliminates choice D, because it contains #4. Thus we are left with two choices A and B.
  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only

So final answer boils down to whether statement #2 is right or wrong?

Relook at the question: it asks about why “annual range of temperature” is high in interior areas.

ok then, first What is annual range of temperature (ART)?

Ans. It is the difference between mean temperature of the warmest and the coldest months.

  • We know that Shimla and Jalandhar are located @same latitude yet Shimla is cooler than Jalandhar because of difference in altitude. As we move up in the mountains, temperature goes down. but that is to justify difference in ART between two land-places.
  • otherwise, if we look @the map showing ART in Costal vs Interior areas (see the map)

Map India_average_annual_temperature

  • Observe that Western Ghats and Himalayas have lower ART compared to coastal areas in TN and Andhra, Goa and Kerala coast.
  • Therefore, Variation in altitude between continents and oceans= not the valid explanation for given question.

Hence #2 is wrong, answer= (A) only 1. (or debatable (B))
Update Jun-26-2014: UPSC uploaded official answerkey. Correct answer is: A.

Earth dynamic changes?

Consider the following:

  1. Electromagnetic radiation
  2. Geothermal energy
  3. Gravitational force
  4. Plate movements
  5. Rotation of the earth
  6. Revolution of the earth

Which of the above are responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth?

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  2. 1, 3, 5 and 6 only
  3. 2, 4, 5 and 6 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

lolz, Debatable on what exactly is meant by “dynamic” changes on earth surface and how far we drag the logic about factors responsible such dynamic change.

Viewpoint #1: A is correct

  • if you consider the tides that cause coastal erosion =dynamic change on earth’s surface. Then tides occur due to gravitational pull of the Moon=> #3 is right.
  • earthquake =brings dynamic change on earth surface=>#4 plate movements is right.
  • volcanos= brings dynamic change on earth surface=>#2 geothermal energy movements is right.
  • Electromagnetic radiation, rotation, revolution cause seasonal changes
  • Rotation =Responsible for day and night- cannot bring ‘dynamic changes’ to earth’s surface. So #5 is wrong (or implausible).
  • Answer should contain 2,3,4 but not 5. only one such option=A: 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

Viewpoint #2: D is correct

  • revolution of earth = responsible for seasons. And Heavy monsoon => landslides and soil erosion= dynamic change to surface. hence #6 must be in the answer. Therefore viewpoint #1 is wrong when it says #5 is wrong.
  • final answer should be (D)= all six

Viewpoint #3: C is correct

  • Electromagnetic radiation from Sun=> causes rainfall and snow melting=soil erosion=dynamic change to earth’s surface but it is a farfetched argument in terms of cause and effect because you’ve to factor in greenhouse gases, deforestation etc. Same goes for gravitational force, hence 1 and 3 are false, final answer (C) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only.

anyways, final arbitrator is official answerkey of UPSC.
Update Jun-26-2014: UPSC uploaded official answerkey. Correct answer is: D all of them responsible.
Answerkeys for remaining topics, coming soon + thanks Mr. Manu Jha (मनु झा) and Mr.Shiva Ram for providing help.

Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

143 Comments on “[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 GS: Geography: Physical, Indian, World Geography Questions solved with explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)”

  1. Shale Gas reserves are found in the Gondwana Beds and Shale is also a natural gas- a non conventional natural gas

    1. Completely Agreed. And so also is Coal Bed Methane(CBM) which, along with Shale gas has been slated as the future fuel for energy hungry Indian economy.
      Further it has been recently that RNRL(Reliance Natural Resources ltd., Chota Ambani’s share of papa Ambani’s big pie) had struck CBM in its exploration in Shahdol in MP(I hail from MP, & this was the same question asked in local PSC exam as well, so I know it for sure).

      Besides that, I will also consider KG-basin as forming part of the Ancient Gondwanaland, though this argument is debatable.

      I believe this is the trick UPSC has played in this question, by bringing in the current relevant knowledge in combination to conventional Physical Geog fact(i.e. MICA statement combined with current updated fact of CBM & Shale gas discoveries).

      1. conventionally it was temporal classification of Gondwana rock beds bearing 98 percent of India’s coal reserves.If asked in 90s ,definitely ans would be b)2 only

        Off lately, CMRI Dhanbad’s R & D proved or conformed for CBM,a natural gas occurs in entire Gondwana coalfields and also GOI invited bids for further R&D from private players alongwith ONGC.Hence in the present scenario it may not be a false statement to say ” Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.” as it has been proved, though lately.also,shale gas is a natural gas.
        hence option. A)1 and 2 exists as well as B)2 only.
        Whether they have framed this question keeping in mind the current perspective along with conventional theory can be known only when upsc comes out with answer keys after 1 year.
        based on several findings evidently,ans should be A)1 and 2 IMCO

  2. @Varoon i have same query..
    first line of wiki says that shale gas is a natural gas…..
    so it might be right….

    1. yes even Coal Bed Methane or CBM reserves have been discovered in Gondwana basin, a Canadian consultancy company which is involved in oil and natural gas exploration all over the world is of the view that the Gondwana Basin may perhaps have larger CBM reserves as compared to Shale Gas reserves- however Shale is a natural gas and the question in the UPSC prelims exam has not stated the specific type of natural gas which may occur in the Gondwana basin

  3. See gravitational force is responsible for continuously putting stresses in the rock material. It is one the factors for denudation. Electromagnetic radiation is debatable.However 1,2,3,4,5,6 is the only option we are left with.

  4. hi mrunal..
    Its offbeat topic but I want your opinion.
    Please give unbiased opinion..
    I am clearing prelims 2013 (all thanks to u :) )
    Now, I have to decide between psychology, sociology and anthropology for optionals…….
    Psychology:
    I read few topics.. my mind understands this very quickly
    Sociology:
    I can read this (not like psychology though) but its essay application and well structured syllabus attracts me
    Anthropology:
    I can read this (not like psychology though) but its limited portion attracts me…

    Please help me in guiding as to how should I decide between these 3.
    Also, heard many people saying that psychology is not popular as marking is tough etc. is this true? Please help…
    Your friend..
    Sandeep

    1. What changes are you going to classify as Dynamic sir?
      Every angle and approach is debatable in this question as in a no. of questions this year.

  5. @suresh. bhai abhi tak kisi hindi medium wale ne top nahi kiya hai.highest rank with hindi medium is-kiran kaushal(AIR-03),2008 batch.

  6. Sir the way I tackled Laterite question was that I knew they are not well developed in Rajasthan and UP, so option 3 is incorrect, hence only option left was 1 & 4 :D

  7. mrunal ji
    wil there b a seperate cut off for ifs ?
    plz giv ur opinion
    im geting 185+
    i wana knw if i hav any chance to write ifs mains so that i can start my prep

    1. Do not wait for the results my Friend..go ahead with your preparation. If not this time, next time…don’t worry.

  8. Rotation of the earth does cause dynamic changes. Rotation causes wind direction (planetary winds), which in turn influence ocean currents and hence surface of the earth. Plus it causes day and night, hence different heating and cooling of earth’s surface, a cause for weathering. Gravitation caused by sun and moon leads to tides. Gravitation is the reason why there is atmosphere on earth and which influences surface. And E-mag-radiation, well sunlight is one such, and we can’t ignore it.

  9. narmada flow question– option c. 1 and 3 may be correct, because land slopes from central india towards west.
    source– oxford india physical map. moreover any water body needs a slope to flow another wise it will form lake instead of river. source – basic concept of fluid mechanics(physics).

    mica petrol and gas question option a. 1 and 2 may be correct. natural gas is found in coal beds i.e. in india gondwana beds. gondwana beds are source of coal in india, coal beds contain methane therefore ‘Davy safety lamps’ was invented for workers to mine.

    But actually this question was based on current affairs, reliance industries is carrying out exploration work for natural gas in K-G basin D6 block. KG basin is above gondwana beds and thus source of natural gas.
    KG basin is repeatedly appearing in news since past 3-4 years.

  10. Sir,
    In the question Day and “knight”, it is given that (d) “Revolution” of the earth on a tilted axis.
    it is revolition or rotation, think it should be rotation.

  11. hello mrunal sir, i am truly indebted to you for your philanthropic work.
    You are a true guide, every one can trust you blindly. Your site has attacked the backbones of coaching classes or their ‘Pedagogy’,(what they actually claim, in ignorance of real meaning of this term).

    its my bad luck that i discovered you lately wasting my 1 year in search of approach (i always disliked delhi so never ever thought of heading towards there).
    other forums and blogs sometimes feels to be fake just because you have to separate out fact from fantasy.

    I like this site so much that sometimes its frightening for me that one day you may stop free service or may change profession.

    If you have little more time then i would like to suggest you to publish a
    monthly post of gist of yojana,kurukshetra, and science reporter.

    1. Haan Mrunal ji, mujhe bhi countour Bunding me doubt hai. I opted for none of these but several keys are showing other options!

  12. In Question of narmada answere should b none coz 1 and 2 are right option and in ans dat option does not follow. So frm my point of view none should b the ans rather then 1.

    1. What makes you say that?
      Narmada does not flow in the east to west because it is positioned between two mountain ranges.

      1. but it even do not flow becouse of rift valley as damodar also flow in a rift valley but it flows towards east so answer can be none of these.

    2. chalo kisi ne to meri tarah socha…i also opted option D(none of these)…
      same for bizli wala question…i m pretty sure none of these is actual answer

      1. ideally the answer should have been only 2 i.e lightening that seperates the cloud but it is not given.
        “When a lightning bolt travels from the cloud to the ground it actually opens up a little hole in the air, called a channel. Once then light is gone the air collapses back in and creates a sound wave that we hear as thunder”

        1. the thunder is caused by explosive sudden expansion of air and hence shock waves due to sudden rise in temperature in the path of the discharge in the lightening . It is like a bomb exploding. (teperature gets from normal to 10000-30000 degree C in fraction of seconds).

  13. “people used to be nomadic herders” please consider this particular pharae finding the answer

  14. About the nomadic life in thundra region ,there exists a nomadic way of life depending on reindeer herding so please u may want to cross check and correct the answer

  15. and about EM rays ,for all that happens on earth ,the prime causating factor is sun and its radiation ,and yes ofcourse there are many other factors but EM rays influence the life on earth and induce the dynamism

  16. sir i m getting 130 in gs n 160 in csat…..i m giving total credit to u for my gs marks……i love ur site…..sir plz guide me in anthropology with ur lucid n comprehensible materials…plz…..sir only 6 mnth is left….i hv to do lot….sir i m going to appear for IFoS also with forestry n vet science….if possible help in forestry also sir….plz help sir……

  17. The Nenets people have herded reindeer in Siberia for 1000 years, … started moving in the 15,000 nomadic reindeer herders who live in … for the Siberian tundra with chest-high pillow-soft tyres.In fact, it has been steadily growing and today this area boasts the world’s biggest herds, with roughly 600,000 reindeer managed by 15,000 nomads.
    Debatable

        1. Yes, so more appropriately Siberia also appears as an option.
          I also still find Savanna as a possible option. Yes its climate is not as extereme, but the continentality effect(if that is to be understood of the word “extreme” has its strong impact in Savanna too) besides having various nomadic herding tribes of Central & East Africa.

          I’m not contending any option, I’m just saying that atleast three of the four options are probable.

    1. But you see it is also mentioned “Extreme Climate” which not the case whole year in Central Asian Steppe

      1. all option other than siberia have climate of extremes(cold and hot..so there must be trasistional moderate climate as though for few days)…whereas extreme climate should be like desert or polar..ie either cold or hot

      2. What is meant by extreme climate? It means that climate varies between two extremes. It is very hot for some part of the year and very cold for other times. Siberia has very cold climate throughout the year. Africa does have extreme climate as it in the continental type. But still not so extreme as central asia. another pt. is that “used to be nomadic herders”. central asia is the point of dispersion of human civilization cz of nomadic natured people. Almost all races originated from there. Central Asia is not buffered by a large body of water, temperature fluctuations are more severe.
        So, in all probability siberia is not the answer bcz its not extreme in geographical terms. If africa is not the answer then its central asia.

          1. Why do u go by the english meaning of extreme? Whatt may be extreme for one country may be normal for another country. Like winters in India are severe for us, but if an English comes here in winter, he will see it as normal. Ours is exreme climate(delhi), severe winter and severe summer. Geographical meaning of the term extreme climate is ‘Variation b/w extremes’ and not in absolute terms. There is nothing absolute. Its all relative.

    2. AMBIGUITY in gs paper is just killing me…..i am heavily depending on accuracy of mrunal bhai’s answers…or i will be a goner

  18. sir
    plz guide us for mains preparation strategy and books to be used as reference. thanking you in advance.

  19. Dear Sir,
    Tilted axis is the reason behind variation in day-night span, but the word REVOLUTION in the option D made me doubtful, as earth does not revolve around the axis.

    1. yes. i too have the same doubt. i had taken longer to answer this question.
      earth rotates on its axis( which appears tilted wrt plane) and it causes variation in day-night length.
      this made me tick the awkward option- earth’s rotation on its axis…

    2. the option says revolution of earth with its axis tilted (it is the tilt with respect to the plane of revolution ) but yes if you thought this hard on every question you will get confused ;) (ill effects of too much lateral thinking : happens in exam )

  20. is 230 enough to clr prelims 2013..? i hve met people wid more then 250..!! hardly i met someone in 220-230 range..!!

    1. @shobhit,manish
      same here yaar..getting 232 as avg score with 3 diff keys..was feeling just too shy to share my score as most candidates seem to be scoring above 250..i think we are literally on the edge of cutoff..we can be either in or out by 3-5 marks..this is really frustrating yaar as in 2012 i got 202 with cut off at 209 (7 marks short)..but no point wasting 2 months till results are out..we should start with mains prep..all da best to u frnds:)

      1. as far as i know, if i am scoring say b/w 248-254, i will try to peeve the hell out of the other peers by saying that my score is about 260. It’s in human nature. I am not saying that everyone does it, but most do. Even i might do the same, who knows.. ;-)

    2. cut off will not be decided by these 250+toppers….its prelims not mains…masses will decide it..so be optimistic you all have scored high enough

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